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THE 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



FIRST edit 


on, published in three volumes, 


1768— 1771. 


SECOND , 


,, ten 


»> 


1777— 1784. 


THIRD , 


,, eighteen 


» 


1788 — 1797. 


FOURTH , 


,, twenty 


» 


1801 — 1810. 


FIFTH , 


„ twenty 


>» 


1815— 1817. 


SIXTH , 


„ twenty 


» 


1823 — 1824. 


SEVENTH , 


„ twenty-one 


» 


1830 — 1842. 


EIGHTH , 


„ twenty-two 


»* 


1853— 1860. 


NINTH , 


„ twenty-five 


>> 


1875— 1889. 


TENTH , 


ninth edition and eleven 








supplementary volumes, 




1902 — 1903. 


ELEVENTH , 


published in twenty-nine volumes, 


1910 — 1911. 



COPYRIGHT 

in all countries subscribing to the 

Bern Convention 

by 

THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS 

of the 
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE 



All rights reserved 



THE 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 



DICTIONARY 

OF 

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL 

INFORMATION 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



VOLUME VIM 

DEMIJOHN to EDWARD 



New York 

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 

342 Madison Avenue 



Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910 

by 

The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company. 



INITIALS USED IN VOLUME VIII. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL 

CONTRIBUTORS, 1 WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE 

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED, 



A. Ca. 
A. E. G.* 

A. E. S. 



■I Determinant. 



Devil. 



Desmoscolecida; 
Echiuroidea. 



A. 


Fi 






A. 


F. 


P. 




A. 


G. 






A. 


G. 


D. 




A. 


H. 


J. 


G 



A. H. S. 
A. J. L. 

A. J. P. 
A. L. G. 

A. Mw. 

A. M. C. 
A.N, 



Arthur Cayley, LL.D.; F.R.S. 

See the biographical article : CAyleY, Arthur. 

Rev. Alfred Ernest Garvie, M.A., D.D. 

Principal of. New College, Hampstead. Member of the Board of Theology and 
Board of Philosophy, London University. Formerly Professor of Philosophy, 

■;> ■ . Theism, Comparative Religion, and Christian Ethicsih Hackney and New Colleges, 
London. Author of Studies in the Inner Life of Jesus; The Christian Certainly; &c. 

■Arthur Everett Shipley, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.Z.S,. F.L.S. 

Fellow, Tutor and Lecturer of Christ's College, Cambridge. University Reader 
in Zoology. President of the Association of Economic Biologists. Formerly 
University Lecturer on the Advanced Morphology of the Invertebrata. Author of 
Zoology of the Invertebrata. Editor of the Pitt Press Natural Science Manuals; &c. 

Pierre Marie Auguste Filon. 

See the biographical article: Filon, P. M. A. 

Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hist.Soc. f 

Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, ' Professor of English History in the University J g j war fl yi. 
of London. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893-1901. | 
Author of England under the Protector Somerset; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c. I 

Major Arthur George Frederick Griffiths (d. 1908). f 

H.M. Inspector of Prisons,' 1 878-1 896. Author of The Chronicles of Newgate ; -j Deportation. 
Secrets of the Prison House ; &c. I 

Arthur George Doughty, C.M.G., M.A., Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S. f 

Dominion Archivist of Canada. Member of the Geographical Board of Canada. . 
Author of The Cradle of New France; &c. Joint Editor of Documents relating to 
the Constitutional History of Canada. 

Abel Hendy Jones Greenidge, M.A., D.Litt. (d. 1905). 

Formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Hertford College, Oxford, and of St John's 
College, Oxford. Author of Infamia in Roman Law; Handbook of Greek Con- 
stitutional History; Roman Public Life; History of Rome. Joint Editor of Sources 
of Roman History, 133-70 B.C. 

Rev. Archibald Henry Sayce, D.Litt., L.L.D., D.D. 

See the biographical article: Sayce, A. H; 

Andrew Jackson Lamoureux. 

Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University. 
News, Rio de Janeiro. 

Alexander J. Philip. 

Borough Librarian of Gravesend. 

Andrew Lockhart Gillespie, M.D., F.R.S. (Edin.) (d. 1904). 

Formerly Lecturer on Modern Gastric Methods, Edinburgh Post-Graduate School. 
Author of Manual of Modern Gastric Methods ; &c. 

Allen Mawer, M.A. 

Professor of English^ Language and Literature, Armstrong College, Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Formerly Lecturer in 
English at the University of Sheffield. 

Agnes Mary Clerke. 

See the biographical article: Clerke, A. M. 

Alfred Newton, F.R.S. 

See the biographical article: Newton, Alfred. 

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final vol 

v 



Drama: French {in pari). 



Dorion. 



Dictator. 



Formerly Editor of the Rio 



J Ecbatana. 
Ecuador (in part). 



{ 



Dene-holes. 



J Digestive Organs: Pathology 

I [in part). 

Denmark: Ancient History; 
Edgar, King; 

Edmund , King of East Anglia; 
Edmund I.; Edred; 
Edward (the Elder); 
Edward (the Martyr). 



{ 



Dick, Thomas; Donati. 



f Diver; Dodo (in part) ; 
\ Dove; Duck; Eagle. 



VI 

A. R. & 

A. S. Wo. 

A. Wa. 

A. W. H * 
A, W. R. 

A. W. W. 

C. A. G. 

C. Ch. 



c, 


c. 


H. 


c. 


E. 


* 


c. 


F. 


A. 


c. 


H. 


Rd. 


c. 


H. 


T.* 


c. 


L. 


K. 



C. PL 
C. R. B. 

C. S. P.* 

C. W. W. 

D. B. Ma. 

D. C. T. 
D. G. H. 

D.Ho 
D. Mn. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

,1: 



of 

Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900. 
Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws 



De Tabley. 



J Derby, Earls of (in part). 

} Easement. 

I 

J Drama. 

J Denmark: Geography and 
'\ Statistics (in part) 

Earth Currents. 

-y Dynamo. 

■I Density; Distillation. 

'{ 



Dutch Wars: Military. 



Alexander Ross Clarke, C.B., F.R.S. . . 

Colonel, R.E. Royal Medal of Royal Society, 1887. In charge of Trigonometrical 1 Earth, Figure 01 the (m part)- 
Operations of the Ordnance Survey, 1 854-1 881. L 

Arthur Smith Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S. I 

Keeper of Geology, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. Secretary of the ~) DiplOdOCUS. 
Geological Society, London. ^ 

Arthur Waugh, M.A. f 

New College, Oxford. Newdigate Prize, 1888. Managing Director of Chapman & . 
Hall, Ltd. Author of Gordon in Africa; Alfred, Lord Tennyson. Editor 
Johnson's Lives of the Poets; editions of Dickens, Tennyson, Arnold, Lamb; &c. 

Arthur William Holland. 

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. 

Alexander Wood Renton, M.A., LL.B. 

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. 

of England. 

Adolphus William Ward, LL.D., D.Litt. 
See the biographical article: Ward, A. W. 

Christian Carl August Gosch, M.Sc. 

Commander of the Danebrog. Knight of St Anna. Formerly Attache 1 to the - 
Danish Legation, London. Author of Denmark and Germany since 1815. 

Charles Chree, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Superintendent, Kew Observatory. Formerly Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. . 
President of Physical Society of London. Watt Medallist, Institute of Civil 
Engineers', 1905. 

Charles Caesar Hawkins, M.A., M.I.E.E. 

Author of The Dynamo. 

Charles Everitt, M.A., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S. 
Sometime Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford. 

Charles Francis Atkinson. 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal - 
Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour. 

Charles Hercules Read, LL.D. 

Keeper of British and Medieval Antiquities, British Museum. President of the" 
Society of Antiquaries of London. Author of Antiquities from Benin ; &c. 

Crawford Howell Toy, A.M., LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Toy, Crawford Howell. 

Charles Lethbridge Kingsford, M.A., F.R.Hist.S., F.S.A. 

Assistant Secretary, Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. 
Chronicles of London and Stow's Survey of London. 

Christian Pfister, D. es L. 

Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of 
Titude sur le regne de Robert le Pieux; Le duche merovingien aV Alsace et la legende de 
Sainte-Odile. 

Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S. r 

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow Diaz de Novaes; 
of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. < Djcuj]. 
Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of 

Henry the Navigator ; The Dawn of Modern Geography ; &c. I 

Rev. Charles Stanley Phillips. S Edmund Ironside; 

King's College, Cambridge. Gladstone Memorial Prize, 1904. I Edward the Confessor. 

Sir Charles William Wilson, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836-1907). c 

Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary 
Commission, 1858-1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Com- 
mission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1 836-1 894. Director-General 
of Military Education, 1895-1898. Author of From Korti to Khartoum; Life of 
Lord Clive; &c. 

Duncan Black Macdonald, M.A., D.D. r 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, U.S.A. Author J Dervish; 

of Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory; 1 Divan. 
Selection from Ibn Khaldum; Religious Attitude and Life in Islam; &c. I 

David Croal Thomson. 

Formerly Editor of the Art Journal. Author of The Brothers Maris; The Barbizon- 
School of Painters ; Life of " Phiz " ; Life of Bewick ; &c. 

David George Hogarth, M.A. 

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. 
Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naukratis, 1899 - 
and 1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, I 906-1907. Director, British School at 
Athens, 1897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. 

David Hannay. 

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. 
Navy, 1217-1688 ; Life of Emilio Castelar ; &c. 



Editor of 



; A Drinking Vessels. 

4 Ecclesiastes. 

J Derby, 1st Earl of; 
\ Edward IV. 



J Ebroin. 



Diarbekr (in part). 



Author of Short History of Royal ■ 



Diaz, N. V. 



Derna; 
Didymi; 
Druses (in part). 

Dudley, Sir Robert; 
Dutch Wars: Naval. 



Rev. Dugald Macfadyen, M.A. r 

Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. Director of the London J. Duff, Alexander. 
Missionary Society. |_ 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



m 



E. 


A.T- 


E. 


Br. 


E. 


C. B. 


E. 


C. B.* 



{ 



Formerly -4 



E. C. K. 

E. C. Q. 

E. Es. 
E. E. A. 



E.6. 



E. 


Gr. 


E. 


I. C. 


E. 


J. D 


E. 


K. 



Ed. M. 

E. Ma. 
E. M. T. 



E. O'M. 

E. Pr. 

P. A. B. 

F. E. B. 

F. 6. M. B. 



Mrs (Ethel) Alec Tweedie. 

Author of Porfirio Diaz ; Mexico as I saw it ; &;c. 

Ernest Barker, M.A. 

Fellow of, and Lecturer in Modern History at, St John's College, Oxford. 
Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar, 1895. 

Right Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., D.Litt. (Dublin). f 

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. \ 

Edward Cresswell Baber, M.A. (d. 1910). f 

Formerly Senior Surgeon, Brighton and Sussex Throat and Ear Hospital. Prize- J 
man and William Brown Scholar, St George's Hospital, London. Author of] 
numerous papers on Diseases of the Ear, Nose and Throat. L 

Edward Cameron Kirk, D.Sc. f 

Dean of the Dental Faculty and Professor of Dental Pathology, Therapeutics and J 
Materia Medica, University of Pennsylvania. Editor of The American Text-Book 1 
of Operative Dentistry. I 

Edmund Crosby Quiggin, M.A. f 

Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge ; Lecturer in Modern Languages i 
and Monro Lecturer in Celtic. 

Edmond Esmonin. 

Ernest E. Austen. .- 

Assistant in Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, South Kensington, -i 



{ 



Edmund Gosse, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Gosse, Edmund. 



{ 



Diaz, Porfirio. 
Diet. 

Dominic, Saint; 
Dominicans. 

Ear: Diseases. 

Dentistry. 

Druidism. 

Desmarets. 

Diptera. 

Denmark: Literature; 
Descriptive Poetry; 
Dialogue; Diary; 
Didactic Poetry; 
Dithyrambic Poetry; Donne; 
Drachmann; 
Drayton, Michael; 
Dutch Literature; Edda. 



Dodona. 



Ernest A. Gardner, M.A. 

See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy. 

Edward Irving Carlyle, MA., F.R.Hist.S. ( 

Fellow, Lecturer in Modern History, and Tutor of Lincoln College, Oxford. J ]) os t Mahommed Khan 

Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National 1 



Formerly Fellow of Merton College. 
Biography, 1 895-1 901. 

Edward Joseph Dent, M.A., Mus.Bac. 

Formerly Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. 
and Works. 






Author of A. Scarlatti: his Lifei Durante, Francesco 



Edmund Knecht, Ph.D., M.Sc.Tech. (Manchester), F.I.C. 

Professor of Technological Chemistry, Manchester University. Head of Chemical 
Department, Municipal School of Technology, Manchester. Examiner in Dyeing, -\ Dyeing. 
City and Guilds of London Institute. Author of A Manual of Dyeing; &c. Editor 
of Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists. 

Eduard Meyer, D.Litt. (Oxon.), LL.D., Ph.D. r 

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte J Diodotus 
des Alterthums; Forschungen zur alten Geschichte; Geschichte des alien Agyptens;} 
Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarslamme ; &c. ' [_ 

Edward Manson. r 

Barrister at-Law. Joint Editor of Journal of Comparative Legislation ; Author cf "I Directors. 
Law of Trading Companies ; Practical Guide to Company Law ; &c. l_ 

Sir Edward Maunde Thompson, G.C.B., I.S.O., D.C.L., Litt.D., LL.D. 

Director and Principal Librarian, British Museum, 1898-1909. Sandars Reader 
in Bibliography, Cambridge, 1895-1896. Hon. Fellow of University College, 
Oxford. Correspondent of the Institute of France and of the Royal Prussian , 
Academy of Sciences. Author of Handbook of Greek and Latin Palaeography. 
Editor of Chronicon Angliae. Joint Editor of publications of the Palaeographicai 
Society, the New Palaeographicai Society, and of the Facsimile of the Laurentian 
Sophocles. 

Rev. Eugene Henry O'Meara, M.A 
Vicar of Tallaght, County Dublin. 

Edgar Prestage. 

Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Com- J Eca da Oueiroz 
mendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal 1 **uoiiu*. 

Academy of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society, &c. I 

Francis Arthur Bather, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.R.G.S. r 

Assistant Keeper of Geology, British Museum. Rolleston Prizeman, Oxford, 1892. J Echinoderma 
Echinoderma " in A Treatise on Zoology; Triassic Echinoderms of\ 



Diplomatic. 



1 Diatomaceae (in part). 






Author of 
Bakony; &c. 



Frank Evers Beddard, M.A., F.R.S. r 

Prosector of the Zoological Society, London. Formerly Lecturer in Biology at J Earth-worm 
Guy's Hospital. Naturalist to " Challenger " Expedition Commission, 1882-1884. 1 
Author of Text-Book of Zoogeography; Animal Colouration; &c. I 

Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A. 

Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge. 



\ East Anglia. 



• p • 

Vlll 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARflClLES 1 



F. G. P. 

F. G. P.* 
F. J. H. 

F. LI. G. 



F 


R 


H. 


F. 


R. 


M. 


F. 


S. 




F. 


T. 


M. 


F. 


V. 


T. 


F. 


W 


.R.* 


F. 


W 


. W. 


G. 


A. 


B. 


G. 


Be 




G. 


B. 


M. C 


G. 


C. 


W. 


G. 


F. 


B. 


G. 


G. 


S. 


G. 


H. 


Br. 


G. 


H. 


C. 


G. 


S. 


W.* 


H. 


A. 


Mi. 



H. B. Wo. 



H. Ch. 



Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.Anthrop.Inst. <' 

Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on 
Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women. 
Formerly Examiner in the • Universities of Cambridge, Aberdeen, London and 
Birmingham ; and Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. 

Frank George Pope. 

Lecturer. on Chemistry, East London College (University of London). 

Francis John Haverfield, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A. 

Camden Professor qt Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of 
Brasenose College. Fellow of the - British Academy. Author of Monographs on 
Roman History, especially Roman Britain, &c. 

Francis Llewelyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A. 

Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, . 
Oxford; Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Archaeological Reports of the 
Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial Germaii Archaeological .Institute. 

Frederick Robert Helmert, Ph.D., D.Ing. 

Professor of Geodesy, University of Berlin. . 

Francis Richard Maunsell, C.M.G. 

Lieutenant-Colonel. Military Vice-Consul, Sivas, Trebizond, Van (Kurdistan), 

1897-1898. Military Attache, British Embassy, Constantinople, 1901-1905. 

Author of Central Kurdistan ; &c. 
Francis Storr, M.A. . ■. . ■<.- 

Editor of the Journal of Education, London. Officier d'Academie, Paris 

Sir Frank Thomas Marzials, K.C.B. 

Formerly Accountant General of the Army. 

Frederick Vincent Theobald, M.A. 

Vice-Principal and Zoologist, S.E. Agricultural College, Wye, Kent (University of . 
London). Grand Medallist of the Societe Nationale dAcclimatation de France. 
Author of The Insect and other Allied Pests of Orchard, Bush and Hothouse Fruits ; &c. 

Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S. 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. " 
President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-18,89. 



Diaphragm; 
Ductless Glands 
Ear. 

Diazo Compounds 
EburSeum. 



Deridera; 
Edfu. 



\ Earth, Figure of the (in part) 



Diarbekr (in part). 



Duel. 



Editor of the " Great Writers " Series. \ Dumas: fi ls - 



Economic Entomology. 



Earthquake (in part). 



Translator of Filon!s English Stage; Schil-i Du Maurier, G. 



Dory. 



-J Druses (in part). 



\ Education: 



National System*' 



Frederic W. Whyte. 

Author of Actors of the Century; &c. 
ling's With Flashlight and Rifle; &c. 

George A. Boulenger, F.R.S., D.Sc, Ph.D. 

In charge of the collections of Reptiles and Fishes, Department of Zoology, British 
Museum. Vice-President of the Zoological Society of London. 

Gertrude Margaret Lothian Bell. 
Author of The Desert and the Sown ; &c. 

George Barnard Milbank Coore. 

Assistant Secretary, Board of Education, London. 

George Charles Williamson, Litt.D. 

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures ; Life of Richard^ 
Cosway, R.A.; George Engleheart; Portrait Drawings', &c. Editor of new edition 
of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers. ''-■.■■ 

G. F. Barwick. 

Assistant Keeper of Printed Books and Superintendent of Reading Room, British - 
Museum. '' ■■■■■'.■■'.•' 

George Gregory Smith, M.A. 

Professor of English Literature, Queen's University of Belfast. Author of The - 
Days of James IV.; The Transition Period; Specimens of 'Middle Sc0ts; &c. 

George Hartley Bryan, M. A., D.Sc, F.R.S. . 

Professor of Pure and Applied Mathematics, University College of North Wales. „ 
Formerly Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge. President of Mathematical Association, 

1907- . L' 

George Herbert Carpenter, B.Sc. f 

Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. Author of Insects:!. Dragon-fly (in part). 

their Structure and Life. [ 

George Stephen West, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S. ? 

Professor of Botany, University of Birmingham. Associate of Royal Callege of J DiatomaceaG (in part). 
Science, London. Author of Treatise on British Fresh-water Algae; &c. |_ 

Henry Alexander Miers, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. r 

Principal of the University of London. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. 
Formerly Waynflete Professor of Mineralogy, Oxford. President of Mineralogical - 
Society since 1904. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine, 1891-1900. Author of 

Mineralogy; &c. 

Horace Bolingbroke Woodward, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Formerly Assistant Director of the Geological Survey of England and Wales. - 
President, Geologists' Association, 1893-1:894. Wollaston Medallist, 1908. 

Hugh Chisholm, M.A. r 

Formerly Scholarof Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the nth edition -< 
of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Co-editor of the 10th edition. 



Downman; 
Dumont, Francois. 



Dhuleep Singh. 



Douglas, Gavin; 
Dunbar, William. 



Diffusion. 



Diamond. 



Desmarest, N. 



Devonshire, Earls and )u5-*»s 

of; 
Dufferin and Ava, 1st 

Marquess; Edward VII. 



H. 


De. 


H 


F. 


8a 


H. 


F. 


G. 


H. 


G. 




H. 


H. 


T. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES ix 

Rev. Hippolyte Delehaye, S.J. f . . 

Bollandist. Joint Author of the Acta Sanctorum. \ Denis, Saint. 

Henry Frederick Baker, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. C 

Fellow and Lecturer of St John's College, Cambridge. Cayley Lecturer in Mathe- -i Differential Equation. 
matics in the University. Author of Abel's Theory and the Allied Theory; &c. [_ 

Hans Friedrich Gadow, M.A., F.R.S. , Ph.D. f 

Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. ■< Dodo [in part). 
Author of Amphibia and Reptiles (Cambridge Natural History). I. 

Hugh Godfray, M.A. f 

Sometime Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. Author of an Elementary < Dial and Dialling. 

Treatise on the Lunar Theory; A Treatise on Astronomy. L 

Herbert Hall Turner, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Savilian Professor of Astronomy, Oxford University. Fellow of New College. 
Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Chief Assistant at the Royal 
Observatory, Greenwich. Correspondent, Institut de France. President, Royal 
Astronomical Society, .1903-1904. Author of Modern Astronomy; Astronomical 
Discovery. 



Eclipse [in part). 



H. Lb. Horace Lamb, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. r 

Professor of Mathematics, University of Manchester. Formerly Fellow and I 
Assistant Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge. Member of Council of Royal "j Dynamics. 
Society, 1894-1896. Royal Medallist, 1902. President of London Mathematical 
Society, 1902-1904. Author of Hydrodynamics ; &c. ^ 

H. N. D. Henry Newton Dickson, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. (Edin.), F.R.G.S. f 

Professor of Geography at University College, Reading. Formerly Vice-President, J 
Royal Meteorological Society. Lecturer in Physical Geography, Oxford. Author | 
of Meteorology ; Elements of Weather and Climate ; &c. I 



Desert. 



H. 0. T. 



Henry Osborn Taylor, LL.B. (Columbia). f „. . ... 

Author of The Classical Heritage of the Middle Ages; A ncient Ideals ; &c. \ Dionysius AreopagltlCUS. 

H. St. Henry Sturt, M.A. f nflh , 

Author of Idola Theatri; The Idea of a Free Church; and Personal Idealism. \ uuann S- 

H. S. S. Harold Spencer Scott, M.A. f 

New College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. "^ Dower. 

H. Ti. Henry Tiedemann. ( 

London Editor of the Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant. Ex-President of the Foreign J Dozy. 
Press Association. [ 

H. W. C. D. Henry William Carless Davis, M.A. f riormni iWaniw.,rro„„i, . 

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, 4 ^ermoi macmurrougn , 
1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne. L Edmund, Saint. 



H. W. H. Hope W. Hogg, M.A. 

Professor of Semitic Languages and Literatures in the University of Manchester. 



Edessa. 



I. A. Israel Abrahams, M.A. r Dukes Leopold • 

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature, University of Cambridge. President, J rj.-iiach • ' 

Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Litera- 1 ~ unasn « 
ture; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages. I Duran. 

J. A.* John Aitken, LL.D., F.R.S. r 

Investigator of Atmospheric Dust. Inventor of instruments for counting the dust 
particles in the atmosphere. Author of papers on Dust Fogs and Clouds ; Hazing -s Dust. 
Effects of Atmospheric Dust; Cyclones and Anticyclones; &c, in publications of 
Royal Society. >- 

J. A. H. John Allen Howe, B.Sc f Devonian System ; 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. \ Drift. 

J. A. P.* Rev. J.,mes Alexander Paterson, M.A., D.D. r 

Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Exegesis, New College, Edinburgh. Author 
of The Period of the Judges; Book of Leviticus, in" Temple" Bible; Book ofi Deuteronomy. 
Numbers, in "Polychrome" Bible; &c. Translator of Schultz's Old Testament 
Theology. L 

I. C. M. James Clerk Maxwell, D.C.L., F.R.S. J _. 

See the biographical article: Maxwell, James Clerk. \ Diagram. 

J. F.-K. James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S. r 

Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. DeUS, Joao de ; 
Norman McColl, Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy, i Don Juan; 
Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of Frhpparav v Ei7aimirr« 
Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; &c. L *-i<" c S<»<W y BnaguiiiB. 

Joseph G. Horner, A.MJ.Mech.E. .,,,,„, . „ ( Drawing: Drawing-Office Work. 

Author of Plating and Boiler Making ; Practical Metal Turning ; &c. I. 

Johann Hendrik Gallee, Ph.D. f 

Professor of Comparative Philology and Teutonic Languages, University of Utrecht. J Dutch Language. 
President of the Philological Society, Utrecht. Author of Altsachsische Sprach- 
d&tikfyiHiGT ^- 

John Horace Round, M.A., LL.D. (Edin.). J J? om ? sda y Book ; 

Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage and] ' 

Pedigree ; &c. L Earl Marshal. 

Jules Isaac. fD« Bellay, Guillaume and 

Professor of History at the Lycee of Lyons. \ Jean. 



J. G. 


H. 


J. H. 


G. 


J. H. 


R. 


J.I. 





X 

J. J. H. 

J. J. L* 
J. L. M. 

J. Mi. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



J. 


Mo. 




J. 


M. 


M. 




J. 


M. 


M. 


D 


J. 


0. 


B. 




J. 


P.- 


■B. 




J. 


R. 


C. 





J. R. P. 

J. R. Fo. 
J. S. F. 



J. T. Be. 

Jno. W. 

J. Wn. 
J. W. He. 

K. S. 

L. F. V.-H. 

L. J. S. 

L. V.* 

M. A. C. 



J. Hummel, F.I.C. (d. 1902). 
Formerly Professor of Dyeing, University 01 Leeds. 

Textile Fabrics. 



Author of The Dyeing of-] Dyeing (in part) 



{' 



Rev. John James Lias, M.A. 

Chancellor of Llandaff Cathedral. Formerly Hulsean Lecturer in Divinity and"| Ddllinger. 
Lady Margaret Preacher, University of Cambridge. 

John Linton Myres, M.A., F.S.A., F.R.G.S. f 

Wykeham Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Formerly J Dorians. 
Gladstone Professor of Greek and Lecturer in Anoient Geography, University of 1 
Liverpool. Lecturer in Classical Archaeology in University of Oxford. ^ 

John Milne, F.G.S., F.R.S., D.Sc. 

Formerly Professor of Mining and Geology, Imperial University of Tokio. Founder 
of the Seismic Survey of Japan. Designer of seismographs and instruments to ' 
record vibrations on railways, &c. Author of Earthquakes; Seismology; Crystal- 
lography; &c. 

Viscount Morley of Blackburn. 

See the biographical article: Morley, Viscount, of Blackburn. 

John Malcolm Mitchell. f Draco* 

Sometime Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London -s r; ee i es jo 
College (University of London). Joint Editor of Grote's History of Greece. I 



{ 



Earthquake (in part). 



Diderot. 



J. M. M. Dallas. 

Formerly Secretary of the Edinburgh Draughts Club. 



i Draughts (in part). 






Editor of 2nd 4 Dispersion 



John Oliver Borley, M.A. 

Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. 

James George Joseph Penderel-Brodhurst. 
Editor of the Guardian, London. 

Joseph Rogerson Cotter, M.A. 

Assistant to the Professor of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin, 
edition of Preston's Theory of Heat. 

John Ritchie Findlay. 

See the biographical article: Findlay, J. R. 

John R. Fothergill. 
Editor of The Slade. 

John Smith Flett, D.Sc, F.G.S. 

Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in. 
Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby 
Medallist of the Geological_Society of London. 



j Dredge and Dredging: 

I Desk. 



Marine. 



John T. Bealby. 

Joint-author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical 
Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c. 



-I De Quineey. 

-j Drawing. 

Diabase; Diorite; 
Dolerite; Dolomite; 
Eclogite. 

Dnieper (in part); 

Dniester (in part); 

Don (in part); 

Don Cossacks, Territory ol the 

(in part); 
Dvina (in part); 
Echmiadzin (in pari). 



John Westlake, K.C, LL.D., D.C.L. 

Professor of International Law, Cambridge, 1888-1908. One of the Members for 
United Kingdom of International Court of Arbitration under the Hague Conven- 
tion, 1900-1906. Author of A Treatise on Private International Law; International 
Law: I. Peace; II. War; &c. 

James Welton, M.A. 

Professor of Education in the University of Leeds. Author of Logical Bases of 
Education ; Principles and Methods of Moral Training ; &c. 

James Wycliffe Headlam, M.A. 

Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education. Formerly 
Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Professor of Greek and Ancient History at 
Queen's College, London. Author of Bismarck and the Foundation of the German 
Empire; &c. 

Kathleen Schlesinger. 

Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra ; &c. 

Leveson Francis Vernon-Harcourt, M.A., M.Inst.C.E. (1839-1907). 

Formerly Professor of Civil Engineering at University College, London. Author of 
Rivers and Canals; Harbours and Docks; Civil Engineering as applied in Con- 
struction; &c. (_ 

Leonard James Spencer, M.A., F.G.S. f tv 11 tv 

Assistant, Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of Sidney J D j a " a S e > Uiaspore; 
Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical j Diopside; Dioptase. 

Magazine. I 

Luigi Villari. 

Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Department). Formerly Newspaper Corre- 
spondent in East of Europe. Italian Vice-Consul in New Orleans, 1906; Phil- 
adelphia, 1907; and Boston, U.S.A., 1907-1910. Author of Italian Life in Town 
and Country ; Fire and Sword in the Caucasus ; &c. 

Maurice Arthur Canney, M.A. 

Assistant Lecturer in Semitic Languages in the University of Manchester. 



Domicile. 



Education: Theory. 



Droysen, J. 6. 



f Double-Bass; Drone; 
I Drum; Dulcimer. 

\ Dock. 



Diavolo, Fra; 
Doria. 



Dorner. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



XI 



M.Br. 
M.P. 

M, G. D. 



M. Ha. 


M. Ja. 


M. 0. B. C 


N.M. 


N. M. B. 


N. W. T. 


0. J. R. H. 



P.A.K. 
P. CM. 

P. C. Y. 
P. Gi. 

P. G. K. 



R. 






R. 


A 


S. M. 


R. 


C. 


J. 


R. 


D. 


H. 


R. 


H 


D.* 


R. 


I. 


P. 


R. 


J. 




R. 


J. 


M. 



Miss Margaret Bryant. 

Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., D C.L., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 

See the biographical article: Foster, Sir M. 

Rt. Hon. Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone Grant-Duff, G.C.S.I., F.R.S 
(1820-1906). 
M.P. for the Elgin Burghs, 1857-1881. Under-Secretary of State for India, 1868- 
1874. Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, 1880-1881. Governor of Madras, 
1881-1886. President of the Royal Geographical Society, 1889-1893. President 
of the Royal Historical Society, 1892-1899. Author of Studies in European Politics; 
Notes from a Diary ; &c. 

Marcus Hartog, M.A., D.Sc, F.L S. 

Professor of Zoology, University College, Cork. Author of Protozoa (in Cambridge 
Natural History) ; and papers for various scientific journals. 

Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D. 

Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Author of 
Religion of the Babylonians and Assyrians; &c. 

Maximilian Otto Bismarck Caspari, M.A. 

Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birming- 
ham University, 1905-1908. 

Norman McLean, M.A. 

Fellow, Lecturer and Librarian of Christ's College, Cambridge. University Lecturer 
in Aramaic. Examiner for the Oriental Languages Tripos, and the Theological 
Tripos, at Cambridge. 

Nicholas Murray Butler. 

See the biographical article: Butler, N. M. 

Northcote Whitbridge Thomas, M.A. 

Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the 
Societe d'Anthropologie de Paris. Author of Thought Transference; Kinship and 
Marriage in Australia; &c. 

Osbert John Radcliffe Howarth, M.A. 

Christ Church, Oxford. Geographical Scholar, 1901. 
British Association. 



Dryden {in part); Dumas. 
Du Bois-Reymond. 

Derby, 14th Earl of. 



Dinoflagellata. 

fEa; 
[ Eabani. 

Doris. 



\ Dionysius Telmaharensis. 



J Education: United States. 



Assistant Secretary of the ■ 



Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin. 

See the biographical article : Kropotkin, Prince P. A. 



Peter Chalmers Mitchell, F.R.S., M.A., D.Sc, LL.D. 

Secretary to the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in 
Comparative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888-1891.. 
Lecturer on Biology at Charing Cross Hospital, 1892-1894; at London Hospital, 
1894. Examiner in Biology to the Royal College of Physicians, 1892-1896, 1901- 
1903. Examiner in Zoology to the University of London, 1903. 

Philip Chesney Yorke, M.A. 
Magdalen College, Oxford. 

Peter Giles, M.A., LL.D., Litt. D. 

Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University 
Reader in Comparative Philology. Late Secretary of the Cambridge Philological " 
Society. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology ; &c. I 

Paul George Konody. f 

Art Critic of the Observer and the Daily Mail. Formerly Editor of The Artist. \ Donatello. 
Author of The Art of Walter Crane; Velasquez, Life and Work; &c. I 

Lord Rayleigh. 

See the biographical article: Rayleigh, 3RD Baron. 

Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A. 

St John's College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Explora- 
tion Fund. 

Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb., Litt.D., D.C.L. 
See the biographical article: Jebb, Sir Richard C. 



f Demonology; 
\ Divination; 
[ Doll; Dreams. 

Denmark: Geography and 
Statistics {in part). 

Dnieper (in part); Dniester 
(in part); Don (in part); 

Don Cossacks, Territory of the 
(in part); Dvina (in part); 

Echmiadzin (in part). 



Dog (in part). 



Derby, 7th Earl of; 
Digby, Sir Everard; 
Digby, Sir Kenelm. 

E. 



-j Diffraction of Light. 



Diptych. 



j Dietetics (in part). 



■I Demosthenes. 

R. D. Milner. 

Formerly Assistant, U.S. Department of Agriculture. 

Robert Henry Davis. f 

Managing Director, Siebe, Gorman & Co., Ltd., Submarine Engineers, London. -{ Divers and Diving Apparatus 

Author of A Diving Manual ; &c. [_ ' 

Reginald Innes Pocock, F.Z.S. 

Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London. 

Richard Jordan. 

Draughts Champion of Scotland, 1896, and of the world, 1896 seq. 

Ronald John McNeill, M.A. f n r j vinl ,. 

Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of the St James' s\ zi , s ' . , _ . . 
Gazette, London. 1 Durham, 1st Earl of. 



\ Earwig. 

-j Draughts (in part). 



Xll 
R. L.* 

R. Ma. 

R. M'L. 
R. N. B. 

R. P. S. 

S. A. C. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



stc. 

StH. 

S. C. 

S. D. H. 
S. K. 

S.N. 
T. As. 



T. 


A. 


I. 


T. 


F. 


T. 


T. 


K 


C. 


T. 


L. 


H. 



T. M. F. 



T. Se. 



T. W. R. D. 



Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. 

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. .Author of. 
Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum; The Deer of 
all Lands ; &c. 



Dingo; Dolphin; 
Dormouse; Dugong; 
Duiker; Edentata. 



Rev. Robert Mackintosh, D.D. f 

Professor of Christian Ethics and Apologetics, Lancashire Independent College. J Dogma 
Lecturer on the Philosophy of Religion, University of Manchester. Author of | " S ma " 
Christ and the Jewish Law ; &c. *- 



Robert M'Lachlan, F.R.S. 

Editor of the Entomologists' Monthly Magazine. 

Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909). 

Assistant Librarian, British Museum 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia: the 
Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 15 13-1900; The First Romanovs , ■ 
1613 to i?2$ ; Slavonic Europe : the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1460 
to 1796 ; &c. 

R. Phene Spiers, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. 

Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past- 
President of Architectural Association. Associate and. Fellow of King's College,' 
London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson's 
History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c. 

Stanley Arthur Cook. 

Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and 
formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Examiner in Hebrew and 
Aramaic, London University, 1904--1908. Council of Royal Asiatic Society, 1904- 
1905. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions; The Laws of Moses and Code 
of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient 
Palestine; &c. 

Viscount St Cyres. 

See the biographical article: Iddesleigh, ist Earl of. 



Dragon-fly {in part). 

Denmark: Medieval and 

Modern History; 
Dessewffy; Dlugosz; 
Dolgoruki; Dozsa. 

Dome; Door; 

Doorway; 

Early English Period. 



Edom. 



{ 



Du Vergier de Hauranne. 



Lord St Helier (Sir Francis Henry Jeune), P.C, K.C.B., G.CB. (1843-1905). f 

President of the Probate, Divorce and Admiralty Division of the High Court of A Divorce. 
Justice, 1 892-1905. Honorary Fellow of Hertford College, Oxford. [_ 



Sidney Colvin, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Colvin, S. 

S. D. Hopkinson. 



i Diirer. 
1 
f 
IDividend. 

Sten Konow, Ph.D. r 

Professor of Indian Philology in the University of Christiania. Officier de l'Academie 
Franchise. Author of Stamavidhdna brahmana; The Karpuramanjari; volumes^ Dravidian. 
on Tibeto-Burman languages; Munda and Dravidian; " Marathi Bhil " in The 
Linguistic Survey of India. I 



Simon Newcomb, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Newcomb, Simon. 



f Eclipse (in part); 
\ Ecliptic. 



Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt., F.S.A. 

Director of the British School of Archaeology at Rome. Corresponding Member 
of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Formerly Scholar of Christ - 
Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, Oxford, 1897. Author of The Classical Tcpo 
graphy of the Roman Campagna ; &c. 



Eboli. 



Thomas Allan Ingram, M.A., LL.D. 
Trinity College, Dublin. 

Thomas Frederick Tout, M.A. 

Professor of Medieval and Modern History in the University of Manchester. 
Formerly Fellow of Pembroke College, Oxford. Author of Edward I. ; The Empire * 
and Papacy; &c. 

Rev. Thomas Kelly Cheyne, M.A., D.D. 
See the biographical article: Cheyne, T. K. 

Sir Thomas Little Heath, K.C.B., D.Sc. 

Assistant Secretary to the Treasury. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cam- _. 
bridge. Author of Diophantos of Alexandria; Editor of The- Thirteen Books of* 
Euclid's Elements; &c. 

Thomas McCall Fallow, M.A., F.S.A. _ 1 

Formerly Editor of the Antiquary. Author of Memorials of Old Yorkshire;* 
Cathedral Churches of Ireland ; &c. 

Thomas Seccombe, M.A. 

Balliol College, Oxford. Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges 
(University of London). Stanhope Prizeman, Oxford, 1887. Assistant Editor of.- 
Dictionary of National Biography, 1891-1901. Author of The Age of Johnson; 
Joint Author of The Bookman History of English Literature ; &c. 

T. W. Rhys Davids, LL.D., Ph.D. 

Professor of Comparative Religion, Manchester. Professor of Pali and Buddhist 
Literature, University College, London, 1 882-1904. President of the Pali Text 
Society. Fellowof the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of Royal Asiatic 
Society, 1885-1902. Author of Buddhism; Sacred Books of the Buddhists; Early 
Buddhism; Buddhist India; Dialogues of the Buddha; &c. 



< Desertion. 



Edward I., II., III.; 
Edward, The Black Prince. 

Eden. 



Diophantos. 



Easter. 



Dickens; 
Dostoievsky. 



Devadatta; 
Dhammapala. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



XI tl 



V.T. 

W. A. 

TV. A. B. C. 



W. A. P. 
W. A. S. H. 

W. B. 
W. E. B. 



Vladimir Tchertkoff. 

Editor of The Free Age Press. Literary Representative of Leo Tolstoy. Author of 

Christian Martyrdom in Russia; &c. 
William Archer. 

See the biographical article Archer, William. 

Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S., Ph.D. (Bern). 
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's 
College, Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphine; The Range of 
the Todi; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in 
History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880-1889; &c. 

Walter Alison Phillips, M.A. 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John s College, - 
Oxford. Author of M odern Europe; &c. 

William Albert Samuel Hewins, M.A. 

Secretary of the Tariff Commission. Formerly Director of the London School 
of Economics. Teacher of Modern Economic History in the University of 
London, 1 902-1903. Tooke Professor of Economic Science and Statistics at King's " 
College, London, 1897-1903. Author of Imperialism and its Probable Effect on the 
Commercial Policy of the United Kingdom ; &c. 



Doukhobors. 

Drama {Recent English). 

' Digne; 

Dolomites, The; 
Dornbirn; 
Durance; 
Ebel, J. G. 

Diplomacy; Dispensation; 
Donation of Constantine; 
Dragon; Duke; 
Eastern Question, The. 



Economics. 



W. E. D. 

W. P. Sh. 
W. F. W. 

W. G. P. P. 
W. Hy. 
IV. H.* 

W. H. Ma. 

W. L. G. 

W. M. 
W. M. R. 
W. N. S. 



Walter Baxendale. 

Kennel Editor of the Field. 

Rev. William Emery Barnes, M.A., D.D. 

Hulsean Professor of Divinity, Cambridge. Fellow and Hon. Chaplain of Peter- 
house, Cambridge. Examining Chaplain to the Bishop of London. Joint Editor 
of Journal of Theological Studies, 1899-1901. Formerly Lecturer in Hebrew, 
Clare College, and Lecturer in Hebrew and Divinity, Peterhouse. Author of The 
Canonical and Uncanonical Gospels; The Peshitta Text of Chronicles; Tlte Psalms 
in the Peshitta Version; Genuineness of Isaiah; &c. 

William Ernest Dalby, M.A., M.Inst.C.E., M.I.M.E., A.M.Inst.N.A. 

Professor of Civil and Mechanical Engineering at the City and Guilds of London 
Institute Central Technical College, South Kensington. Formerly University 
Demonstrator in the Engineering Department, Cambridge. Author of The Balanc- 
ing of Engines ; Valves and Valve Gear Mechanism ; &c. 

William Fleetwood Sheppard, M.A. 

Senior Examiner to the Board of Education. 
Cambridge. Senior Wrangler, 1884. 

Walter Francis Willcox, LL.B., Ph.D. 

Chief Statistician, United States Census Bureau. Professor of Social Science and 
Statistics, Cornell University. Member of the American Social Science Association ■ 
end Secretary of the American Economical Association. [Author of The Divorce 
Problem : A Study in Statistics ; Social Statistics of the United States ; &c. 

Sir Walter George Frank Phillimore, Bart., D.C.L., LL.D. 

Judge of the King's Bench Division. President of International Law Association, 
1905. Author of Book of Church Law. Editor of 2nd edition of Phillimore' 1 s ' 
Ecclesiastical Law ; 3rd edition of vol. iv. of Phillimore' s International Law ; &c. 



J Dog {in part). 



Ecclesiasticus. 



Dynamometer. 



Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, -I Differences, Calculus of. 



Divorce: United Slatei. 



Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction. 



William Henry. 

Founder and Chief Secretary to the Royal Life Saving Society. Associate of the 
Order of St John of Jerusalem. Joint Author of Swimming, (Badminton Library) ; ' 
&c. 

Walter Hunter, M.I.C.E., M.I.M.E., F.G.S. 

Consulting Engineer for Waterworks to Crown Agents for the Colonies. Member 
of Council of Institute of Civil Engineers. Silver Medallist, Royal Society of Arts. - 
Originator of Staines Scheme of Storage Reservoirs. Has reported on Waterworks 
at Accra, Secconder and Lagos; also on Rand Water Supply. 

William Henry Maxwell, A.M.I. C.E. 

Borough and Waterworks Engineer, Tunbridge Wells. Formerly President of 
Institute of Sanitary Engineers, London. Author of Refuse Destructors; &c. ' 
Joint Editor of Encyclopaedia of Municipal and Sanitary Engineering. [_ 

William Lawson Grant, M.A. _ [ 

Professor at Queen's University, Kingston, Canada. Formerly Beit Lecturer in J Dorchester 1st Baron. 
Colonial History at Oxford University. Editor of Acts of the Privy Council, Colonial 1 ' 

series; Canadian Constitutional Development (in collaboration). L 

William Minto, M.A. 

See the biographical article: Minto, William. 



Drowning and Life Saving. 



Dredge and Dredging: 

Hydraulic Engineering. 



Destructors. 



William Michael Rossetti. 

See the biographical article: Rossetti, Dante Gabriel. 



J Dryden {in part). 

JDolci; Domenichino; 
\ Dyce, William; Eastlake. 



William Napier Shaw, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

Director of the Meteorological Office. Reader in Meteorology in the University of 
London. President of Permanent International Meteorological Committee. 
Member of Meteorological Council, 1897-1905. Hon. Fellow of Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge. Senior Tutor, 1890-1899. Joint Author of Text Book of Practical 
Physics; &c. 



Dew. 



XIV 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



W. 0. A. 
W. R. E. H. 

W. R. L. 

W. S. J. 
W. W. 
W. W. R.* 



Dietetics (in part). 



Dynamite. 



Wilbur Olin Atwater, Ph.D. (1844-1907). 

Formerly Professor of Chemistry, Wesleyan University, U.S.A. Special Agent of " 
the United States Department of Agriculture in charge of Nutrition Investigations. 

William Richard Eaton Hodgkinson, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Professor of Chemistry and Physics, Ordnance College, Woolwich. Formerly . 
Professor of Chemistry and Physics, R.M.A., Woolwich. Part author of Valentin- 
Hodgkinson's Practical Chemistry; &c. L 

W. R. Lethaby, F.S.A. f 

Principal of the Central School of Arts and Crafts under the London County Council, "j Design. 
Author of Architecture, Mysticism and Myth; &c. I 

William Stanley Jevons, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Jevons, William Stanley. 

William Wallace. 

See the biographical article: Wallace, William (1 844-1 897). 

William Walker Rockwell, Lic.Theol. _ _ f D . a vno a f 

Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Thedlogical Seminary, New York. \ oynou 01. 



■j De Morgan. 
-j Descartes. 



PRINCIPAL UNSIGNED ARTICLES 



Democratic Party. 

Democritus. • 

Derbyshire. 

Desmoulins. 

Detroit. 

Devonshire. 

De Witt, John. 

Diabetes. 

Diamond Necklace. 

Dice. 

Dictionary. 

Didache. 

Dietary. 

Dietrich of Bern. 

Digitalis. 

Dijon. 



Dionysius. 

Diphtheria. 

Distress. 

Dittersdorf, Karl D. von. 

Divining-rod. 

Dockyards. 

Doge. 

Dominoes. 

Donatists. 

Donegal. 

Dorset, Earls, Marquesses 

and Dukes of. 
Dorsetshire. 
Douglas: Family. 
Dover. 
Down. 



Dragoman. 

Drainage of Land. 

Drake, Sir Francis. 

Dresden. 

Dropsy. 

Drummond of Hawthornden. 

Drunkenness. 

Dualism. 

Dublin. 

Dunbar. 

Dundee, Viscount. 

Dundee: City. 

Dundonald. 

Duns Scotus. 

Durban. 

Durham. 



Dutch East India Company. 

Dutch West India Company. 

Dwarf. 

Dyaks. 

Dysentery. 

Dyspepsia. 

Earth. 

Eastern Bengal and Assam. 

East India Company. 

Ebionites. 

Ecarte. 

Ecclesiastical Law. 

Eclecticism. 

Edgeworth. 

Edinburgh. 

Edinburghshire. 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



VOLUME VIII 



DEMIJOHN, a glass bottle or jar with a large round body and 
narrow neck, encased in wicker-work and provided with handles. 
The word is also used of an earthenware jar, similarly covered 
with wicker. The capacity of a demijohn varies from two to 
twelve gallons, but the common size contains five gallons. 
According to the New English Dictionary the word is an adapta- 
tion of a French Dame Jeanne, or Dame Jane, an application 
of a personal name to an object which is not uncommon; cf. the 
use of " Toby " for a particular form of jug and the many uses 
of the name " Jack." 

DEMISE, an Anglo-French legal term (from the Fr. dimettre, 
Lat. dimittere, to send away) for a transfer of an estate, especially 
by lease. The word has an operative effect in a lease implying a 
covenant for " quiet enjoyment " (see Landlord and Tenant). 
The phrase " demise of the crown " is used in English law to 
signify the immediate transfer of the sovereignty, with all its 
attributes and prerogatives, to the successor without any inter- 
regnum in accordance with the maxim " the king never dies." 
At common law the death of the sovereign eo facto dissolved 
parliament, but this was abolished by the Representation of the 
People Act 1867, §51. Similarly the common law doctrine that 
all offices held under the crown determined at its demise has 
been negatived by the Demise of the Crown Act 1901. " Demise " 
is thus often used loosely for death or decease. 

DEMIURGE (Gr. Syniovpyos, from Srinios, of or for the people, 
and epyov, work) , a handicraftsman or artisan. In Homer the 
word has a wide application, including not only hand-workers 
but even heralds and physicians. In Attica the demiurgi formed 
one of the three classes (with the Eupatridae and the geomori, 
georgi or agroeci) into which the early population was divided 
(cf. Arist. Ath. Pol. xiii. 2). They represented either a class of the 
whole population, or, according to Busolt, a commercial nobility 
(see Eupatridae). In the sense of " worker for the people " 
the word was used throughout the Peloponnese, with the excep- 
tion of Sparta, and in many parts of Greece, for a higher 
magistrate. The demiurgi among other officials represent Elis 
and Mantineia at the treaty of peace between Athens, Argos, Elis 
andMantineiain420B.c. (Thuc. v. 47). In the Achaean League 
(q.v.) the name is given to ten elective officers who presided 
over the assembly, and Corinth sent " Epidemiurgi " every year 
to Potidaea, officials who apparently answered to the Spartan 
harmosts. In Plato drjiuovpyos is the name given to the " creator 
of the world " (Timaeus, 40) and the word was so adopted by 
the Gnostics (see Gnosticism). 

DEMMIN, a town of Germany, kingdom of Prussia, on the 
navigable river Peene (which in the immediate neighbourhood 
receives the Trebel and the Tollense), 72 m. W.N.W. of Stettin, 
on the Berlin-Stralsund railway. Pop. (1905) 12,541. It has 
manufactures of textiles, besides breweries, distilleries and 
tanneries, and an active trade in corn and timber. 
vm — 1 



The town is of Slavonian origin and of considerable antiquity, 
and was a place of importance in the time of Charlemagne. It 
was besieged by a German army in 1 148, and captured by Henry 
the Lion in 1164. In the Thirty Years' War Demmin was the 
object of frequent conflicts, and even after the peace of West- 
phalia was taken and retaken in the contest between the electoral 
prince and the Swedes. It passed to Prussia in 1720, and its 
fortifications were dismantled in 1759. In 1807 several engage- 
ments took place in the vicinity between the French and Russians. 

DEMOCHARES (c. 355-275 B.C.), nephew of Demosthenes, 
Athenian orator and stateman, was one of the few distinguished 
Athenians in the period of decline. He is first heard of in 322, 
when he spoke in vain against the surrender of Demosthenes 
and the other anti-Macedonian orators demanded by Antipater. 
During the next fifteen years he probably lived in exile. On the 
restoration of the democracy by Demetrius Poliorcetes in 307 
he occupied a prominent position, but was banished in 303 
for having ridiculed the decree of Stratocles, which contained 
a fulsome eulogy of Demetrius. He was recalled in 298, and 
during the next four years * fortified and equipped the city with 
provisions and ammunition. In 296 (or 295) he was again 
banished for having concluded an alliance with the Boeotians, 
and did not return until 287 (or 286). In 280 he induced the 
Athenians to erect a public monument in honour of his uncle with 
a suitable inscription. After his death (some five years later) 
the son of Demochares proposed and obtained a decree (Plutarch, 
Vitae decern oratorum,p. 851) that a statue should be erected in 
his honour, containing a record of his public services, which seem 
to have consisted in a reduction of public expenses, a more 
prudent management of the state finances (after his return in 
287) and successful begging missions to the rulers of Egypt and 
Macedonia. Although a friend of the Stoic Zeno, Demochares 
regarded all other philosophers as the enemies of freedom, and 
in 306 supported the proposal of one Sophocles, advocating their 
expulsion from Attica. According to Cicero (Brutus, 83) Demo- 
chares was the author of a history of his own times, written in 
an oratorical rather than a historical style. As a speaker 
he was noted for his freedom of language (Parrhesiastes, Seneca, 
De ira, iii. 23). He was violently attacked by Timaeus, but found 
a strenuous defender in Polybius (xii. 13). 

See also Plutarch, Demosthenes, 30, Demetrius, 24, Vitae decern 
oratorum, p. 847; J. G. Droysen's essay on Demochares in Zeit- 
schriftfiir die Altertumswissenschaft (1836), Nos. 20, 21. 

DEMOCRACY (Gr. S^juoKpcma, from Sij^os, the people, i.e. 
the commons, and updros, rule), in political science, that form 
of government in which the people rules itself, either directly, 
as in the small city-states of Greece, or through representatives. 
According to Aristotle, democracy is the perverted form of the 

1 For the " four years' war " and the chronological questions in- 
volved, see C. W. Muller, Frag. Hist. Craec. ii. 445. 

11 



DEMOCRATIC PARTY 



third form of government, which he called irohreia., " polity " 
or " constitutional government," the rule of the majority of the 
free and equal citizens, as opposed to monarchy and aristocracy, 
the rule respectively of an individual and of a minority consist- 
ing of the best citizens (see Government and Aristocracy). 
Aristotle's restriction of " democracy " to bad popular govern- 
ment, i.e. mob-rule, or, as it has sometimes been called, 
" ochlocracy " (oxXos, mob), was due to, the fact that the 
Athenian democracy had in his day degenerated far, below the 
ideals of the 5th century, when it reached its zenith under Pericles. 
Since Aristotle's day the word has resumed its natural meaning, 
but democracy in modern times is a very different thing from 
what it was in its best days in Greece and Rome. The Greek 
states were what are known as " city-states," the characteristic 
of which was that all the citizens could assemble together in the 
city at regular intervals for legislative and other purposes. This 
sovereign assembly of the people was known at Athens as the 
Ecclesia (?.».), at Sparta as the Apella (q.v.), at Rome variously 
as the Comitia Centuriata or the Concilium Plebis (see Comitia). 
Of representative government in the modern sense there is 
practically no trace in Athenian history, though certain of the 
magistrates (see Strategus) had a quasi-representative char- 
acter. Direct democracy is impossible except in small states. 
In the second place the qualification for citizenship was rigorous; 
thus Pericles restricted citizenship to those who were the sons of 
an Athenian father, himself a citizen, and an Athenian mother 
(e£ an4>6iv Lardiv) . This system excluded not only all the slaves, 
who were more numerous than the free population, but also 
resident aliens, subject allies, and those Athenians whose descent 
did not satisfy this criterion (t<j> ykva. ixij icaJBapol). The Athenian 
democracy, which was typical in ancient Greece, was a highly 
exclusive form of government. 

With the growth of empire and nation states this narrow 
parochial type of democracy became impossible. The population 
became too large and the distance too great for regular assemblies 
of qualified citizens. The rigid distinction of citizens and non- 
citizens was progressively more difficult to maintain, and new 
criteria of citizenship came into force. The first difficulty has 
been met by various forms of representative government. The 
second problem has been solved in various ways in different 
countries; moderate democracies have adopted a low property 
qualification, while extreme democracy is based on the exten- 
sion of citizenship to all adult persons with or without dis- 
tinction of sex. The essence of modern representative govern- 
ment is that the people does not govern itself, but periodically 
elects those who shall govern on its behalf (see Government; 
Representation). 

DEMOCRATIC PARTY, originally Democratic-Republican 
Party, the oldest of existing political parties in the United States. 
Its origin lay in the principles of local self-government and 
repugnance to social and political aristocracy established as 
cardinal tenets of American colonial democracy, which by the 
War of Independence, which was essentially a democratic move- 
ment, became the basis of the political institutions of the nation. 
The evils of lax government, both central and state, under the 
Confederation caused, however, a marked anti-democratic 
reaction, and this united with the temperamental conservatism 
of the framers of the constitution of 1787 in the shaping of that 
conservative instrument. The influences and interests for and 
against its adoption took form in the groupings of Federalists 
and Anti-Federalists, and these, after the creation of the new 
government, became respectively, in underlying principles, and, 
to a large extent, in personnel, the Federalist party (q.v.) and 
the Democratic-Republican party. 1 The latter, organized by 
Thomas Jefferson in opposition to the Federalists dominated by 
Alexander Hamilton, was a real party by 1792. The great service 
of attaching to the constitution a democratic bill of rights be- 
longs to the Anti-Federalists or Democratic-Republican party, 
although this was then amorphous. The Democratic-Republican 
party gained full control of the government, save the judiciary, 

1 The Drefix " Democratic " was not used by Jefferson; it became 
established, however, and official. 



in 1801, and controlled it continuously thereafter until 1825. 
No political " platforms " were then known, but the writings 
of Jefferson, who dominated his party throughout this period, 
take the place of such. His inaugural address of 180 1 is a famous 
statement of democratic principles, which to-day are taken for 
granted only because, through the party organized by him to 
secure their success, they became universally accepted as the 
ideal of American institutions. In all the colonies, says John 
Adams, " a court and a country party had always contended "; 
Jefferson's followers believed sincerely that the Federalists were 
a new court party, and monarchist. Hence they called themselves 
" Republicans " as against monarchists, — standing also, incident- 
ally, for States' rights against the centralization that monarchy 
(or any approach to it) implied; and " Democrats " as against 
aristocrats, — standing for the " common rights of Englishmen," 
the " rights of man," the levelling of social ranks and the widen- 
ing bf political privileges. In the early years of its history — and 
during the period of the French Revolution and afterwards — 
the Republicans sympathized with the French as against the 
British, the Federalists with the British as against the French. 

Devotion to abstract principles of democracy and liberty, and 
in practical politics a strict construction of the constitution, 
in order to prevent an aggrandizement of national power at the 
expense of the states (which were nearer popular control) or the 
citizens, have been permanent characteristics of the Democratic 
party as contrasted with its principal opponents; but neither 
these nor any other distinctions have been continuously or 
consistently true throughout its long course. 2 After 1801 the 
commercial and manufacturing nationalistic 3 elements of the 
Federalist party, being now dependent on Jefferson for protection, 
gradually went over to the Republicans, especially after the War 
of 18.12; moreover, administration of government naturally 
developed in Republican ranks a group of broad-constructionists. 
These groups fused, and became an independent party. 4 They 
called themselves National Republicans, while the Jacksonian 
Republicans soon came to be known simply as Democrats. 6 
Immediately afterward followed the tremendous victory of the 
Jacksonians in 1828, — a great advance in radical democracy 
over the victory of 1800. In the interval the Federalist party 
had disappeared, and practically the entire country, embracing 
Jeffersonian democracy, had passed through the school of the 
Republican party. It had established the power of the "people " 
in the sense of that word in present-day American politics. Bills 
of rights in every state constitution protected the citizen; some 
state judges were already elective; very soon the people came 
to nominate their presidential candidates in national conven- 
tions, and draft their party platforms through their conven- 
tion representatives. 6 After the National Republican scission 
the Democratic party, weakened thereby in its nationalistic 
tendencies, and deprived of the leadership of Jackson, fell 
quickly under the control of its Southern adherents and became 
virtually sectional in its objects. Its states' rights doctrine was 
turned to the defence of slavery. In thus opposing anti-slavery 
sentiment — inconsistently, alike as regarded the " rights of man " 
and constitutional construction, with its original and permanent 

2 Under the rubric of " strict construction " fall the greatest 
struggles in the party's history: those over the United States Bank, 
over tariffs — for protection or for " revenue " only — over " internal 
improvements," over issues of administrative economy in pro- 
viding for the " general welfare," &c. The course of the party 
has frequently been inconsistent, and its doctrines have shown, 
absolutely considered, progressive latitudinarianism. 

* " Nationalistic " is used here and below, not in the sense of a 
general nationalistic spirit, such as that of Jackson, but to indicate 
the centralizing tendency of a broad construction of constitutional 
powers in behalf of commerce and manufactures. 

4 Standing for protective tariffs, internal improvements, &c. 

6 It should be borne in mind, however, that the Democratic party 
of Jackson was not Strictly identical with the Democratic-Republican 
party of Jefferson, — and some writers date back the origin of the 
present Democratic party only to 1828— 1829. 

* The Democratic national convention of 1832 was preceded by an 
Anti-Masonic convention of 1830 and by the National-Republican 
convention of 1831; but the Democratic platform of 1840 was the 
first of its kind. 



DEMOCRrruS 



principles— it lost morale and power. As a result of the contest 
over Kansas it became fatally divided, and in i860 put forward 
two presidential tickets: one representing the doctrine of 
Jefferson Davis that the constitution recognized slave-property, 
and therefore the national government must protect slavery in 
the territories; the other representing Douglas's doctrine that 
the inhabitants of a territory might virtually exclude slavery by 
" unfriendly legislation." The combined popular votes for the 
two tickets exceeded that cast by the new, anti-slavery Republican 
party (the second of the name) for Lincoln; but the election was 
lost. During the ensuing Civil War such members of the party 
as did not become War Democrats antagonized the Lincoln 
administration, and in 1864 made the great blunder of pronounc- 
ing the war " a failure." Owing to Republican errors in recon- 
struction and the scandals of President Grant's administration, 
the party gradually regained its strength and morale, until, 
having largely subordinated Southern questions to economic 
issues, it cast for Tilden for president in 1876 a popular vote 
greater than that obtained by the Republican candidate, Hayes, 
and gained control of the House of Representatives. The 
Electoral Commission, however, made Hayes president, and the 
quiet acceptance of this decision by the Democratic party did 
it considerable credit. 

Since 1877 the Southern states have been almost solidly 
Democratic; but, except on the negro question, such unanimity 
among Southern whites has been, naturally, factitious; and by 
no means an unmixed good for the party. Apart from the 
"Solid South," the period after 1875 is characterized by two 
other party difficulties. The first was the attempt from 1878 to 
1896 to "straddle" the silver issue; 1 the second, an attempt 
after 1896 to harmonize general elements of conservatism and 
radicalism within the party. In 1896 the South and West gained 
control of the organization, and the national campaigns of 
1896 and 1900 were fought and lost mainly on the issue of 
" free silver," which, however, was abandoned before 1904. 
After 1898 " imperialism," to which the Democrats were hostile, 
became another issue. Finally, after 1896, there became very 
apparent in the party a tendency to attract the radical elements 
of society in the general re-alignment of parties taking place 
on industrial-social issues; the Democratic party apparently 
attracting, in this readjustment, the " radicals " and the 
" masses " as in the time of Jefferson and Jackson. In this 
process , in the years 1 896- 1 900, it took over many of the principles 
and absorbed, in large part, the members of the radical third- 
party of the " Populists," only to be confronted thereupon by the 
growing strength of Socialism, challenging it to a farther radical 
widening of its programme. From i860 to 1908 it elected but a 
single president (Grover Cleveland, 1885-1889 and 1893-1897). 2 
All American parties accepted long ago in theory " Jeffersonian 
democracy "; but the Democratic party has been " the political 
champion of those elements of the [American] democracy which 
are most democratic. It stands nearest the people." 3 It may 
be noted that the Jeffersonian Republicans did not attempt to 
democratize the constitution itself. The choice of a president 
was soon popularized, however, in effect; and the popular 
election of United States senators is to-day a definite Demo- 
cratic tenet. 4 

Bibliography. — For an exposition of the party's principles see 
Thomas Jefferson, Writings, ed. by P. L. Ford (10 vols., New York, 
1892-1899); J. P. Foley (ed.), The Jeffersonian Cyclopaedia (New 
York, 1900) ; and especially the Campaign Text-Books of more recent 

'The attitude of the Republican party was no less inconsistent 
and evasive. 

2 It controlled the House of Representatives from 1874 to 1894 
except in 1880-1882 and 1888-1890; but except for a time in 
Cleveland's second term, there were never simultaneously a 
Democratic president and a Democratic majority in Congress. 

8 Professor A. D. Morse in International Monthly, October 1900. 
He adds, " It has done more to Americanize the foreigner than all 
other parties." (It is predominant in the great cities of the country.) 

4 In connexion with the prevalent popular tendency to regard the 
president as a people's tribune, it may be noted that a strong pre- 
sidential veto is, historically, peculiarly a Democratic contribution, 
owing to the history of Jackson's (compare Cleveland's) adminis- 
tration. 



times, usually' issued by the national Democratic committee in 
alternate years, and M. Carey, The Democratic Speaker's Hand- 
book (Cincinnati, 1868). For a hostile criticism of the party, see 
W.D.Jones, Mirror of Modern Democracy; History of the Democratic 
Party from 182s to 1861 (New York, 1864)'; Jonathan Norcross,.fl r i.ytory 
of Democracy Considered as a Party-Name and a Political Organiza- 
tion (New York, 1883) ; J. H. Patton, The Democratic Party: Its 
Political History and Influence (New York, 1884). Favourable 
treatises are R. H. Gillet, Democracy in the United States (New York, 
1868); and George Fitch, Political Facts: an Historical Text-Book 
of the Democratic and Other Parties (Baltimore, 1884). See also, 
for general political history, Thomas H. Benton, Thirty Years' View 
(2 vols., New York, 1854-1856, and later editions) ; James G. Blaine, 
Twenty Years of Congress (2 vols., Norwich, Conn., 1884- 1893); 
S. S. Cox, Three Decades of Federal Legislation (Providence, 1885); 
S. P. Orth, Five American Politicians: a Study in the Evolution of 
American Politics (Cleveland, 1906), containing sketches of four 
Democratic leaders — Burr, DeWitt Clinton, Van Burenand Douglas; 

}. Macy, Party Organization and Machinery (New York, 1904); 
. H. Hopkins, History of Political Parties in the United States 
(New York, 1900) ; E. S. Stanwood, History of the Presidency 
(last ed., Boston, 1904) ; J. P. Gordy, History of Political Parties, 1. 
(New York, 1900) ; H. J. Ford, Rise and Growth of American Politics 
(New York, 1898) ; Alexander Johnston, History of American Politics 
(New York, 1900, and later editions); C. E. Merriam, A History 
of American Political Theories (New York, 1903), containing 
chapters on the Jeffersonian and the Jacksonian Democracy; 
and James A. Woodburn, Political Parties and Party Problems in 
the United States (New Yprk, 1903). 

DEMOCRITUS, probably the greatest of the Greek physical 
philosophers, was a native of Abdera in Thrace, or as some say 
— probably wrongly — of Miletus (Diog. Laert. ix. 34). Our 
knowledge of his life is based almost entirely on tradition of an 
untrustworthy kind. He seems to have been born about 470 or 
460 B.C., and was, therefore, an older contemporary of Socrates. 
He inherited a considerable property, which enabled him to 
travel widely in the East in search of information. In Egypt 
he settled for seven years, during which he studied the mathe- 
matical and physical systems of the ancient schools. The 
extent to which he was influenced by the Magi and the Eastern 
astrologists is a matter of pure conjecture. He returned from 
his travels impoverished; one tradition says that he received 
500 talents from his fellow-citizens, and that a public funeral was 
decreed him. Another tradition states that he was regarded as 
insane by the Abderitans, and that Hippocrates was summoned 
to cure him. Diodorus Siculus tells us that he died at the age 
of ninety; others make him as much as twenty years older. 
His works, according to Diogenes Laertius, numbered seventy- 
two, and were characterized by a purity of style which com- 
pares favourably with that of Plato. The absurd epithet, the 
" laughing philosopher," applied to him by some unknown and 
very superficial thinker, may possibly have contributed in 
some measure to the fact that his importance was for centuries 
overlooked. It is interesting, however, to notice that Bacon 
(De Principiis) assigns to him his true place in the history of 
thought, and points out that both in his own day and later 
" in the times of Roman learning " he was spoken of in terms 
of the highest praise. In the variety of his knowledge, and in 
the importance of his influence on both Greek and modern 
speculation he was the Aristotle of the 5th century, while the 
sanity of his metaphysical theory has led many to regard him 
as the equal, if not the superior, of Plato. 
His views may be treated under the following heads: — 
1. The Atoms and Cosmology (adopted in part at least from 
the doctrines of Leucippus, though the relations between the 
two are hopelessly obscure). While agreeing with the Eleatics 
as to the eternal sameness of Being (nothing can arise out of 
nothing; nothing can be reduced to nothing), Democritus 
followed the physicists in denying its oneness and immobility. 
Movement and plurality being necessary to explain the pheno- 
mena of the universe and impossible without space (not-Being), 
he asserted that the latter had an equal right with Being 
to be considered existent. Being is the Full (irXrjpes, plenum); 
not-Being is the Void (nev6v, vacuum), the infinite space in which 
moved the infinite number of atoms into which the single Being 
of the Eleatics was broken up. These atoms are eternal and 
invisible; absolutely small, so small that their size cannot be 



DEMOGEOT— DEMOGRAPHY 



diminished (hence the name i-roftos, " indivisible ") ; absolutely 
full and incompressible, they are without pores and entirely fill 
the space they occupy; homogeneous, differing only in figure 
(as A from N), arrangement (as AN from NA), position (as N is 
Z on its side), magnitude (and consequently in weight, although 
some authorities dispute this). But while the atoms thus differ 
in quantity, their differences of quality are only apparent, due 
to the impressions caused on our senses by different configurations 
and combinations of atoms. A thing is only hot or cold, sweet 
or bitter, hard or soft by convention (vonq); the only things 
that exist in reality (erej?) are the atoms and the void. Locke's 
distinction between primary and secondary qualities is here 
anticipated. Thus, the atoms of water and iron are the same, 
but those of the former, being smooth and round, and therefore 
unable to hook on to one another, roll over and over like small 
globes, whereas the atoms of iron, being rough, jagged and 
uneven, cling together and form a solid body. Since all 
phenomena are composed of the same eternal atoms (just as a 
tragedy and a comedy contain the same letters) it may be said 
that nothing comes into being or perishes in the absolute sense 
of the words (cf. the modern "indestructibility of matter " and 
" conservation of energy ") , although the compounds of the atoms 
are liable to increase and decrease, appearance and disappearance 
— in other words, to birth and death. As the atoms are eternal 
and uncaused, so is motion; it has its origin in a preceding 
motion, and so on ad infinitum. For the Love and Hate of 
Empedocles and the Nous (Intelligence) of Anaxagoras, Demo- 
critus substituted fixed and necessary laws (not chance; that is 
a misrepresentation due chiefly to Cicero). Everything can be 
explained by a purely mechanical (but not fortuitous) system, 
in which there is no room for the idea of a providence or an 
intelligent cause working with a view to an end. The origin of 
the universe was explained as follows. An infinite number of 
atoms was carried downwards through infinite space. The 
larger (and heavier), falling with greater velocity, overtook and 
collided with the smaller (and lighter), which were thereby forced 
upwards. This caused various lateral and contrary movements, 
resulting in a whirling movement (Slvrj) resembling the rotation 
of Anaxagoras, whereby similar atoms were brought together 
(as in the winnowing of grain) and united to form larger bodies 
and worlds. Atoms and void being infinite in number and 
extent, and motion having always existed, there must always 
have been an infinite number of worlds, all consisting of similar 
atoms, in various stages of growth and decay. 

2. The Soul. — Democritus devoted considerable attention to 
the structure of the human body, the noblest portion of which 
he considered to be the soul, which everywhere pervades it, a 
psychic atom being intercalated between two corporeal atoms. 
Although, in accordance with his principles, Democritus was 
bound to regard the soul as material (composed of round, 
smooth, specially mobile atoms, identified with the fire-atoms 
floating in the air), he admitted a distinction between it and the 
body, and is even said to have looked upon it as something 
divine. These all-pervading soul atoms exercise different functions 
in different organs; the head is the seat of reason, the heart of 
anger, the liver of desire. Life is maintained by the inhalation 
of fresh atoms to replace those lost by exhalation, and when 
respiration, and consequently the supply of atoms, ceases, the 
result is death. It follows that the soul perishes with, and in the 
same sense as, the body. 

3. Perception. — Sensations are the changes produced in the 
soul by external impressions, and are the result of contact, since 
every action of one body (and all representations are corporeal 
phenomena) upon another is of the nature of a shock. Certain 
emanations (ixop/Socu, £7r6ppoicH) or images (eWwXa), consisting of 
subtle atoms, thrown off from the surface of an object, penetrate 
the body through the pores. On the principle that like acts upon 
like, the particular senses are only affected by that which 
resembles them. We see by means of the eye alone, and hear by 
means of the ear alone, these organs being best adapted to receive 
the images or sound currents. The organs are thus merely 
conduits or passages through which the atoms pour into the soul. 



The eye, for example, is damp and porous, and the act of seeing 
consists in the reflection of the image (Seke\ov) mirrored on the 
smooth moist surface of the pupil. To the interposition of air 
is due the fact that all visual images are to some extent blurred. 
At the same time Democritus distinguished between obscure 
(0*07x17) cognition, resting on sensation alone, and genuine 
(yvqab)), which is the result of inquiry by reason, and is con- 
cerned with atoms and void, the only real existences. This 
knowledge, however, he confessed was exceedingly difficult to 
attain. 

It is in Democritus first that we find a real attempt to explain 
colour. He regards black, red, white and green as primary. 
White is characteristically smooth, i.e. casting no shadow, even, 
flat; black is uneven, rough, shadowy and so on. The other 
colours result from various mixtures of these four, and are 
infinite in number. Colour itself is not objective; it is found not 
in the ultimate plenum and vacuum, but only in derived objects 
according to their physical qualities and relations. 

4. Theology. — The system of Democritus was altogether anti- 
theistic. But, although he rejected the notion of a deity taking 
part in the creation or government of the universe, he yielded 
to popular prejudice so far as to admit the existence of a class 
of beings, of the same form as men, grander, composed of very 
subtle atoms, less liable to dissolution, but still mortal, dwelling 
in the upper regions of air. These beings also manifested them- 
selves to man by means of images in dreams, communicated with 
him, and sometimes gave him an insight into the future. Some 
of them were benevolent, others malignant. According to 
Plutarch, Democritus recognized one god under the form of a 
fiery sphere, the soul of the world, but this idea is probably 
of later origin. The popular belief in gods was attributed by 
Democritus to the desire to explain extraordinary phenomena 
(thunder, lightning, earthquakes) by reference to superhuman 
agency. 

5. Ethics. — Democritus 's moral system — the first collection of 
ethical precepts which deserves the name — strongly resembles 
the negative side of the system of Epicurus. The summum 
bonum is the maximum of pleasure with the minimum of pain. 
But true pleasure is not sensual enjoyment; it has its principle 
in the soul. It consists not in the possession of wealth or flocks 
and herds, but in good humour, in the just disposition and con- 
stant tranquillity of the soul. Hence the necessity of avoiding 
extremes; too much and too little are alike evils. True happi- 
ness consists in taking advantage of what one has and being 
content with it (see Ethics). 

Bibliography. — Fragments edited by F. Mullach (1843) with 
commentary and in his Fragmenta philosophorum Graecorum, 1.(1860). 
See also H. Ritter and L. Preller, Historia philosophiae (chap. i. ad 
fin.); P. Lafaist (Lafaye), Dissertation sur la philosophic ato- 
mistique (1833); L. Liard, De Democrito philosopho (Paris, 1873); 
H. C. Liepmann, Die Leucipp-Democritischen Atome (Leipzig, 1886) ; 
F.A.Lange, Geschichte des Materialismus (Eng.trans. by E. C. Thomas, 
1877); G. Hart, Zur Seelen- und Erkenntnislehre des Democritus 
(Leipzig, 1886) ; P. Natorp, Die Elhika des Demokritos (Marburg, 
1893); A. Dyroff, Demokntstudien (Leipzig, 1899); among general 
works C. A. Brandis, Gesch. d. Entwickelungen d. griech. Philosophie 
(Bonn, 1 862-1 864); Ed. Zeller, Pre-Socratic Philosophy (Eng.trans., 
London, 1881); for his theory of sense-perception see especially 
J. I. Beare, Greek Theories of Elementary Cognition (Oxford, 1906). 

DEMOGEOT, JACQUES CLAUDE (1808-1894), French man 
of letters, was born in Paris on the 5th of July 1808. He was 
professor of rhetoric at the lycee Saint Louis, and subsequently 
assistant professor at the Sorbonne. He wrifte many detached 
papers on various literary subjects, and two reports on 
secondary education in England and Scotland in collaboration 
with H. Montucci. His reputation rests on his excellent Histoire 
de la littirature jrancaise depuis ses origines jusqu'A nos jours 
(1851), which has passed through many subsequent editions. 
He was also the author of a Tableau de la littirature jrancaise au 
XVIP sihcle (1859), and of a work (3 vols., 1880-1883) on the 
influence of foreign literatures on the development of French 
literature. He died in Paris in 1894. 

DEMOGRAPHY (from Gr. or}/«>s, people, and ypa<j>tu>, to 
write), the science which deals with the statistics of health and 



DEMOIVRE— DEMONOLOGY 



disease, of the physical, intellectual, physiological and economical 
aspects of births, marriages and mortality. The first to employ 
the word was Achille Guillard in his Elements de statistique 
humaine ou dSmographie comparee (1855), but the meaning which 
he attached to it was merely that of the science which treats 
of the condition, general movement and progress of population 
in civilized countries, i.e. little more than what is comprised in 
the ordinary vital statistics, gleaned from census and registra- 
tion reports. The word has come to have a much wider meaning 
and may now be defined as that branch of statistics which deals 
with the life-conditions of peoples. 

DEMOIVRE, ABRAHAM (1667-1754), English mathematician 
of French extraction, was born at Vitry, in Champagne, on the 
26th of May 1667. He belonged to a French Protestant family, 
and was compelled to take refuge in England at the revocation of 
the edict of Nantes, in 1685. Having laid the foundation of his 
mathematical studies in France, he prosecuted them further in 
London, where he read public lectures on natural philosophy for 
his support. The Principia mathematica of Sir Isaac Newton, 
which chance threw in his way, caused him to prosecute his 
studies with vigour, and he soon became distinguished among 
first-rate mathematicians. He was among the intimate personal 
friends of Newton, and his eminence and abilities secured his 
admission into the Royal Society of London in 1697, and after- 
wards into the Academies of Berlin and Paris. His merit was 
so well known and acknowledged by the Royal Society that they 
judged him a fit person to decide the famous contest between 
Newton and G. W. Leibnitz (see Infinitesimal Calculus). 
The life of Demoivre was quiet and uneventful. His old age was 
spent in obscure poverty, his friends and associates having 
nearly all passed away before him. He died at London, on the 
27th 01 November 1754. 

The Philosophical Transactions contain several of his papers. He 
also published some excellent works, such as Miscellanea analytica 
de seriebus et quadraturis (1730), in 4to. This contained some elegant 
and valuable improvements on then existing methods, which nave 
themselves, however, long been superseded. But he has been more 
generally known by his Doctrine of Chances, or Method of Calculating 
the Probabilities of Events at Play. This work was first printed in 
1618, in 4to, and dedicated to Sir Isaac Newton. It was reprinted in 
1738, with great alterations and improvements; and a third edition 
was afterwards published with additions in 1756. He also published 
a Treatise on Annuities (1725), which has passed through several 
revised and corrected editions. 

See C. Hutton, Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary (1815). 
For Demoivre' s Theorem see Trigonometry: Analytical. 

DEMONETIZATION, a term employed in monetary science in 
two different senses, (a) The depriving or divesting of a metal 
of its standard monetary value. From 1663 to 171 7 silver was 
the standard of value in England and gold coins passed at their 
market value. The debasement and underrating of the silver 
coinage insensibly brought about the demonetization of silver 
in England as a standard of value and the substitution of gold. 
During the latter half of the 19th century, the tremendous 
depreciation of silver, owing to its continually increasing pro- 
duction, and consequently the impossibility of preserving any 
ratio of stability between it and gold, led to the abandonment or 
demonetization of the metal as a standard and to its use merely 
as token money, (b) The withdrawal of coin from circulation, as, 
for example, in England that of all pre- Victorian gold coins under 
the provisions of the Coinage Act 1889, and the royal proclama- 
tion of the 22nd of November 1890. 

DEMONOLOGY (Aai/icov, demon, genius, spirit), the branch 
of the science of religions which relates to superhuman beings 
which are not gods. It deals both with benevolent beings which 
have no circle of worshippers or so limited a circle as to be below 
the rank of gods, and with malevolent beings of all kinds. It may 
be noted that the original sense of " demon " was a benevolent 
being; but in English the name now connotes malevolence; in 
German it has a neutral sense, e.g. Korndamonen. Demons, 
when they are regarded as spirits, may belong to either of the 
classes of spirits recognized by primitive animism (q.v.) ; that is 
to say, they may be human, or non-human, separable souls, or 
discarnate spirits which have never inhabited a body; a sharp 



distinction is often drawn between these two classes, notably 
by the Melanesians, the West Africans and others; the Arab 
jinn, for example, are not reducible to modified human souls; 
at the same time these classes are frequently conceived as pro- 
ducing identical results, e.g. diseases. 

Under the head of demons are classified only such spirits as 
are believed to enter into relations with the human race; the 
term therefore includes (1) human souls regarded as genii or 
familiars, (2) such as receive a cult (for which see Ancestor 
Worship), and (3) ghosts or other malevolent revenants; 
excluded are souls conceived as inhabiting another world. But 
just as gods are not necessarily spiritual, demons may also be 
regarded as corporeal; vampires for example are sometimes 
described as human heads with appended entrails, which issue 
from the tomb to attack the living during the night watches*. 
The so-called Spectre Huntsman of the Malay Peninsula is said 
to be a man who scours the firmament with his dogs, vainly- 
seeking for what he could not find on earth — a buck mouse-deer 
pregnant with male offspring; but he seems to be a living man; 
there is no statement that he ever died, nor yet that he is a 
spirit. The incubus and succubus of the middle ages are some- 
times regarded as spiritual beings; but they were held to give 
very real proof of their bodily existence. It should, however, 
be remembered that primitive peoples do not distinguish clearly 
between material and immaterial beings. 

Prevalence of Demons. — According to a conception of the 
world frequently found among peoples of the lower cultures, 
all the affairs of life are supposed to be under the control of 
spirits, each ruling a certain element or even object, and them- 
selves in subjection to a greater spirit. Thus, the Eskimo are 
said to believe in spirits of the sea, earth and sk./, the winds, 
the clouds and everything in nature. Every cove of the seashore, 
every point, every island and prominent rock has its guardian 
spirit. All are of the malignant type, to be propitiated only by 
acceptable offerings from persons who desire to visit the locality 
where it is supposed to reside. A rise in culture often results in 
an increase in the number of spiritual beings with whom man 
surrounds himself. Thus, the Koreans go far beyond the 
Eskimo and number their demons by thousands of billions; 
they fill the chimney, the shed, the living-room, the kitchen, 
they are on every shelf and jar; in thousands they waylay 
the traveller as he leaves his home, beside him, behind him, 
dancing in front of him, whirring over his head, crying out 
upon him from air, earth and water. 

Especially complicated was the ancient Babylonian demon- 
ology ; all the petty annoyances of life — a sudden fall, a headache, 
a quarrel — were set down to the agency of fiends; all the stronger 
emotions — love, hate, jealousy and so on — were regarded as the 
work of demons; in fact so numerous were they, that there were 
special fiends for various parts of the human body — one for the 
head, another for the neck, and so on. Similarly in Egypt at the 
present day the jinn are believed to swarm so thickly that it is 
necessary to ask their permission before pouring water on the 
ground, lest one should accidentally be soused and vent his 
anger on the offending human being. But these beliefs are far 
from being confined to the uncivilized; Greek philosophers like 
Porphyry, no less than the fathers of the Church, held that the 
world was pervaded with spirits; side by side with the belief in 
witchcraft, we can trace through the middle ages the survival of 
primitive animistic views; and in our own day even these beliefs 
subsist in unsuspected vigour among the peasantry of the more 
uneducated European countries. In fact the ready acceptance 
of spiritualism testifies to the force with which the primitive 
animistic way of looking at things appealed to the white races 
in the middle of the last century. 

Character of Spiritual World. — The ascription of malevolence 
to the world of spirits is by no means universal. In West Africa 
the Mpongwe believe in local spirits, just as do the Eskimo; but 
they are regarded as inoffensive in the main; true, the passer- 
by must make some trifling offering as he nears their place of 
abode; but it is only occasionally that mischievous acts, such as 
the throwing down of a tree on a passer-by, are, in the view of the 



DEMONOLOGY 



natives, perpetuated by the Ombuiri. So too, njany of the spirits 
especially concerned with the operations of nature are conceived 
as neutral or even benevolent; the European peasant fears the 
corn-spirit only when he irritates him by trenching on his domain 
and taking his property by cutting the corn; similarly, there is 
no reason why the more insignificant personages of the pantheon 
should be conceived as malevolent, and we find that the Petara 
of the Dyaks are far from indiscriminating and malignant, though 
disease and death are laid at their door. 

Classification. — Besides the distinctions of human and non- 
human, hostile and friendly, the demons in which the lower races 
believe are classified by them according to function, each class 
with a distinctive name, with extraordinary minuteness, the list 
in the case of the Malays running to several score. They have, 
for example, a demon of the waterfall, a demon of wild-beast 
tracks, a demon which interferes with snares for wild-fowl, a 
baboon demon, which takes possession of dancers and causes them 
to perform wonderful feats of climbing, &c. But it is impossible 
to do more than deal with a few types, which will illustrate the 
main features of the demonology of savage, barbarous and semi^ 
civilized peoples. 

(a) Natural causes, either of death or of disease, are hardly, 
if at all, recognized by the uncivilized; everything is attributed 
to spirits or magical influence of some sort. The spirits which 
cause disease may be human or non-human and their influence is 
shown in more than one way; they may enter the body of the 
victim (see Possession), and either dominate his mind as well 
as his body, inflict specific diseases, or cause pains of various 
sorts. Thus the Mintra of the Malay Peninsula have a demon 
corresponding to every kind of disease known to them; the 
Tasmanian ascribed a gnawing pain to the presence within him 
of the soul of a dead man, whom he had unwittingly summoned 
by mentioning his name and who was devouring his liver; the 
Samoan held that the violation of a food tabu would result in the 
animal being formed within the body of the offender and cause 
his death. The demon theory of disease is still attested by some 
of our medical terms; epilepsy (Gr. «rtXi7^w, seizure) points 
to the belief that the patient is possessed. As a logical conse- 
quence of this view of disease the mode of treatment among 
peoples in the lower stages of culture is mainly magical; they 
endeavour to propitiate the evil spirits by sacrifice, to expel them 
by spells, &c. (see Exorcism), to drive them away by blowing, &c. ; 
conversely we find the Khonds attempt to keep away smallpox 
; v placing thorns and brushwood in the paths leading to places 
decimated by that disease, in the hope of making the disease 
demon retrace his steps. This theory of disease disappeared 
sooner than did the belief in possession; the energumens 
(ivepyovpevot) of the early Christian church, who were under 
the care of a special clerical order of exorcists, testify to a belief 
in possession; but the demon theory of disease receives no recog- 
nition; the energumens find their analogues in the converts 
of missionaries in China, Africa and elsewhere. Another way in 
which a demon is held to cause disease is by introducing itself into 
the patient's body and sucking his blood; the Malays believe 
that a woman who dies in childbirth becomes a langsuir and 
sucks the blood of children; victims of the lycanthrope are 
sometimes said to be done to death in the same way; and it is 
commonly believed in Africa that the wizard has the power of 
killing people in this way, probably with the aid of a familiar. 

(b) One of the primary meanings of balnuv is that of genius 
or familiar, tutelary spirit; according to Hesiod the men of the 
golden race became after death guardians or watchers over 
mortals. The idea is found among the Romans also; they 
attributed to every man a genius who accompanied him through 
life. A Norse belief found in Iceland is that the fylgia, a genius 
in animal form, attends human beings; and these animal 
guardians may sometimes be seen fighting; in the same way the 
Siberian shamans send their animal familiars to do battle instead 
of deciding their quarrels in person. The animal guardian re- 
appears in the nagual of Central America (see article Totemism), 
the yunbeai of some Australian tribes, the manitou of the 
Red Indian and the bush soul of some West African tribes; 



among the latter the link between animal and human being 
is said to be established by the ceremony of the blood bond. 
Corresponding to the animal guardian of the ordinary man, we 
have the familiar of the witch or wizard. All the world over it is 
held that such people can assume the form of animals; some- 
times the power of the shaman is held to depend on his being 
able to summon his familiar; among the Ostiaks the shaman's 
coat was covered with representations of birds and beasts; two 
bear's claws were on his hands; his wand was covered with 
mouse-skin; when he wished to divine he beat his drum till a 
black bird appeared and perched on his hut; then the shaman 
swooned, the bird vanished, and the divination could begin. 
Similarly the Greenland angekok is said to summon his torngak 
(which may be an ancestral ghost or an animal) by drumming; 
he is heard by the bystanders to carry on a conversation and 
obtain advice as to how to treat diseases, the prospects of good 
weather and other matters of importance. The familiar, who is 
sometimes replaced by the devil, commonly figured in witchcraft 
trials; and a statute of James I. enacted that all persons invok- 
ing an evil spirit or consulting, covenanting with, entertaining, 
employing, feeding or rewarding any evil spirit should be guilty 
of felony and suffer death. In modern spiritualism the familiar 
is represented by the " guide," corresponding to which we have 
the theosophical " guru." 

(c) The familiar is sometimes an ancestral spirit, and here we 
touch the fringe of the cult of the dead (see also Ancestor 
Worship). Especially among the lower races the dead are 
regarded as hostile; the Australian avoids the grave even of a 
kinsman and elaborate ceremonies of mourning are found amongst 
most primitive peoples, whose object seems to be to rid the living 
of the danger they run by association with the ghost of the dead. 
Among the Zulu the spirits of the dead are held to be friendly or 
hostile, just as they were in life; on the Congo a man after death 
joins the good or bad spirits according as his life has been good 
ot bad. Especially feared among many peoples are the souls 
of those who have committed suicide or died a violent death; 
the woman who dies in childbed is held to become a demon of 
the most dangerous kind; even the unburied, as restless, dis- 
satisfied spirits, are more feared than ordinary ghosts. Naturally 
spirits of these latter kinds are more valuable as familiars than 
ordinary dead men's souls. We find many recipes for securing 
their aid. In the Malay Peninsula the blood of a murdered man 
must be put in a bottle and prayers said over; after seven days 
of this worship a sound is heard and the operator puts his finger 
into the bottle for the polong, as the demon is called, to suck; 
it will fly through the air in the shape of an exceedingly diminutive 
female figure, and is always preceded by its pet, the pelesit, in 
the shape of a grasshopper. In Europe a similar demon is said 
to be obtainable from a cock's egg. In South Africa and India, 
on the other hand, the magician digs up a dead body, especially 
of a child, to secure a familiar. The evocation of spirits, especially 
in the form of necromancy, is an important branch of the demon- 
ology of many peoples; and the peculiarities of trance medium- 
ship, which seem sufficiently established by modern research, 
go far to explain the vogue of this art. It seems to have been 
common among the Jews, and the case of the witch of Endor is 
narrated in a way to suggest something beyond fraud; in the 
book of magic which bears the name of Dr Faustus may be found 
many of the formulae for raising demons; in England may be 
mentioned especially Dr Dee as one of the most famous of those 
who claimed before the days of modern spiritualism (q.v.) to 
have intercourse with the unseen world and to summon demons 
at his will. Sometimes the spirits were summoned to appear 
as did the phantoms of the Greek heroes to Odysseus; some- 
times they were called to enter a crystal (see Crystai-Gazing) ; 
sometimes they are merely asked to declare the future or com- 
municate by moving external objects without taking a visible 
form; thus among the Karens at the close of the burial cere- 
monies the ghost of the dead man, which is said to hover round 
till the rites are completed, is believed to make a ring swing 
round and snap the string from which it hangs. 

(d) The vampire is a particular form of demon which calls for 



DEMONOLOGY 



■7 



some notice. In the Malay Peninsula, parts of Polynesia, &c., 
it is conceived as a head with attached enftails, which issues, it 
may be from the grave, to suck the blood of living human beings. 
According to the Malays a penanggalan (vampire) is a living 
witch, and can be killed if she can be caught; she is especially 
feared in houses where a birth has taken place and it is the 
custom to hang up a bunch of thistle in order to catch her; she 
is said to keep vinegar at home to aid her in re-entering her own 
body. In Europe the Slavonic area is the principal seat of 
vampire beliefs, and here too we find, as a natural development, 
that means of preventing the dead from injuring the living have 
been evolved by the popular mind. The corpse of the vampire, 
which may often be recognized by its unnaturally ruddy and 
fresh appearance, should be staked down in the grave or its head 
should be cut off; it is interesting to note that the cutting off of 
heads of the dead was a neolithic burial rite. 

(e) The vampire is frequently blended in popular idea with 
the Poltergeist (q.v.) or knocking spirit, and also with the werwolf 
(see Lycanthropy). 

(/) As might be expected, dream demons are very common; 
in fact the word " nightmare " (A.S. mcsr, spirit, elf) preserves 
for us a record of this form of belief, which is found right down 
to the lowest planes of culture. The Australian, when he suffers 
from an oppression in his sleep, says that Koin is trying to throttle 
him; the Caribs say that Maboya beats them in their sleep; 
and the belief persists to this day in some parts of Europe; 
horses too are said to be subject to the persecutions of demons, 
which ride them at night. Another class of nocturnal demons 
are the incubi and succubi, who are said to consort with human 
beings in their sleep; in the Antilles these were the ghosts of the 
dead; in New Zealand likewise ancestral deities formed liaisons 
with females; in the Samoan Islands the inferior gods were 
regarded as the fathers of children otherwise unaccounted for; 
the Hindus have rites prescribed by which a companion nymph 
may be secured. The question of the real existence of incubi and 
succubi, whom the Romans identified with the fauns, was gravely 
discussed by trie fathers of the church ; and in 1418 Innocent VIII. 
set forth the doctrine of lecherous demons as an indisputable 
fact; and in the history of the Inquisition and of trials for witch- 
craft may be found the confessions of many who bore witness 
to their reality. In the Anatomy of Melancholy Burton assures 
us that they were never more numerous than in a.d. 1600. 

(g) Corresponding to the personal tutelary spirit {supra, b) we 
have the genii of buildings and places. The Romans celebrated 
the birthday of a town and of its genius, just as they celebrated 
that of a man; and a snake was a frequent form for this kind of 
demon; when we compare with this the South African belief that 
the snakes which are in the neighbourhood of the kraal are the 
incarnations, of the ancestors of the residents, it seems probable 
that some similar idea lay at the bottom of the Roman belief; to 
this day in European folklore the house snake or toad, which lives 
in the cellar, is regarded as the " life index " or other self of the 
father of the house; the death of one involves the death of the 
other, according to popular belief. The assignment of genii to 
buildings and gates is connected with an important class of 
sacrifices; in order to provide a tutelary spirit, or to appease 
chthonic deities, it was often the custom to sacrifice a human 
being or an animal at the foundation of a building; sometimes we 
find a similar guardian provided for the frontier of a country or of 
a tribe. The house spirit is, however, not necessarily connected 
with this idea. In Russia the domovoi (house spirit) is an 
important personage in folk-belief; he may object to certain 
kinds of animals, or to certain colours in cattle; and must, 
generally speaking, be propitiated and cared for. Corresponding 
to him we have the drudging goblin of English folklore. 

(h) It has been shown above how the animistic creed postulates 
the existence of all kinds of local spirits, which are sometimes 
tied to their habitats, sometimes free to wander. Especially 
prominent in Europe, classical, medieval and modern, and in 
East Asia, is the spirit of the lake, river, spring, or well, often 
conceived as human, but also in the form of a bull or horse ; the 
term Old Nick may refer to the water-horse Nok. Less specialized 



in their functions are many of the figures of modern folklore, 
some of whom have perhaps replaced some ancient goddess, 
e.g. Frau Holda; others, like the Welsh Pwck, the Lancashire 
boggarts or the more widely found Jack-o'-Lantern (Will o' the 
Wisp), are sprites who do no more harm than leading the 
wanderer astray. The banshee is perhaps connected with 
ancestral or house spirits; the Wild Huntsman, the Gabriel 
hounds, the Seven Whistlers, &c, are traceable to some actual 
phenomenon; but the great mass of British goblindom cannot 
now be traced back to savage or barbarous analogues. Among 
other local sprites may be mentioned the kobolds or spirits of the 
mines. The fairies (see Fairy), located in the fairy knolls by the 
inhabitants of the Shetlands, may also be put under this head. 

(i) The subject of plant souls is referred to in connexion with 
animism (q.v.); but certain aspects of this phase of belief 
demand more detailed treatment. Outside the European area 
vegetation spirits of all kinds seem to be conceived, as a rule, as 
anthropomorphic; in classical Europe, and parts of the Slavonic 
area at the present day, the tree spirit was believed to have the 
form of a goat, or to have goats' feet. 

Of special importance in Europe is the conception of the 
so-called " corn spirit "; W. Mannhardt collected a mass of 
information proving that the life of the corn is supposed to exist 
apart from the corn itself and to take the form, sometimes of an 
animal, sometimes of a man or woman, sometimes of a child. 
There is, however, no proof that the belief is animistic in the 
proper sense. The animal which popular belief identified with 
the corn demon is sometimes killed in the spring in order to 
mingle its blood or bones with the seed; at harvest-time it is 
supposed to sit in the last corn and the animals driven out from it 
are sometimes killed; at others the reaper who cuts the last ear 
is said to have killed the " wolf " or the " dog," and sometimes 
receives the name of " wolf " or " dog " and retains it till the next 
harvest. The corn spirit is also said to be hiding in the barn till 
the corn is threshed, or it may be said to reappear at midwinter, 
when the farmer begins to think of his new year of labour and 
harvest. Side by side with the conception of the corn spirit as 
an animal is the anthropomorphic view of it; and this element 
must have predominated in the evolution of the cereal deities 
like Demeter; at the same time traces of the association of gods 
and goddesses of corn with animal embodiments of the corn spirit 
are found. 

(j) In many parts of the world, and especially in Africa, is 
found the conception termed the " otiose creator "; that is to 
say, the belief in a great deity, who is the author of all that exists 
but is too remote from the world and too high above terrestrial 
things to concern himself with the details of the universe. As 
a natural result of this belief we find the view that the operations 
of nature are conducted by a multitude of more or less obedient 
subordinate deities; thus, in Portuguese West Africa the 
Kimbunda believe in Suku-Vakange, but hold that he has com- 
mitted the government of the universe to innumerable kilulu 
good and bad; the latter kind are held to be far more numerous, 
but Suku-Vakange is said to keep them in order by occasionally 
smiting them with his thunderbolts; were it not for this, man's 
lot would be insupportable. 

Sometimes the gods of an older religion degenerate into the 
demons of the belief which supersedes it. A conspicuous example 
of this is found in the attitude of the Hebrew prophets to the gods 
of the nations, whose power they recognize without admitting 
their claim to reverence and sacrifice. The same tendency is seen 
in many early missionary works and is far from being without 
influence even at the present day. In the folklore of European 
countries goblindom is peopled by gods and nature-spirits of an 
earlier heathendom. We may also compare the Persian devs 
with the Indian devas. 

Expulsion of Demons. — In connexion with demonology mention 
must be made of the custom of expelling ghosts, spirits or evils 
generally. Primitive peoples from the Australians upwards 
celebrate, usually at fixed intervals, a driving out of hurtful 
influences. Sometimes, as among the Australians, it is merely 
the ghosts of those who have died in the year which are thus 



8 



DE MORGAN 



driven out; from this custom must be distinguished another, 
which consists in dismissing the souls of the dead at the close of 
the year and sending them on their journey to the other world; 
this latter custom seems to have an entirely different origin and 
to be due to love and not fear of the dead. In other cases it is 
believed that evil spirits generally or even non-personal evils 
such as sins are believed to be expelled. In these customs 
originated perhaps the scapegoat, some forms of sacrifice (q.v.) 
and other cathartic ceremonies. 

Bibliography. — Tylor, Primitive Culture; Frazer, Golden Bough; 
Skeat, Malay Magic; Bastian, Der Mensch in der Geschichte; 
Callaway, Religion of the Amazulu; Hild, Etude sur les demons; 
Welcker, Griechische Gotterlehre, i. 731 ; Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 
xxvi. 79; Calmet, Dissertation sur les esprits; Maury, La Magie; 
L. W. King, Babylonian Magie; Lenormant, La Magie chez les 
Chaldeens; R. C. Thompson, Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia; 
Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie; Roskoff , Geschichte des Teuf els ; Sibly, 
Illustration of the Occult Sciences; Scott, Demonology; Pitcairn, 
Scottish Criminal Trials ; Jewish Quarterly Rev. viii. 576, &c. ; 
Horst, Zauberbibliothek; Jewish Encyclopedia, s.v. " Demonology." 
See also bibliography to Possession, Animism and other articles. 

(N. W. T.) 

DE MORGAN, AUGUSTUS (1806-1871), English mathema- 
tician and logician, was born in June 1806, at Madura, in the 
Madras presidency. His father, Colonel John De Morgan, was 
employed in the East India Company's service, and his grand- 
father and great-grandfather had served under Warren Hastings. 
On the mother's side he was descended from JamesDodson,F.R.S., 
author of the Anti-logarithmic Canon and other mathematical 
works of merit, and a friend of Abraham Demoivre. Seven 
months after the birth of Augustus, Colonel De Morgan brought 
his wife, daughter and infant son to England, where he left 
them during a subsequent period of service in India, dying in 
181 6 on his way home. 

Augustus De Morgan received his early education in several 
private schools, and before the age of fourteen years had learned 
Latin, Greek and some Hebrew, in addition to acquiring much 
general knowledge. At the age of sixteen years and a half he 
entered Trinity College, Cambridge, and studied mathematics, 
partly under the tuition of Sir G. B. Airy. In 1825 he gained a 
Trinity scholarship. De Morgan's love of wide reading some- 
what interfered with his success in the mathematical tripos, in 
which he took the fourth place in 1827. He was prevented from 
taking his M.A. degree, or from obtaining a fellowship, by his 
conscientious objection to signing the theological tests then 
required from masters of arts and fellows at Cambridge. 

A career in his own university being closed against him, he 
entered Lincoln's Inn ; but had hardly done so when the establish- 
ment, in 1828, of the university of London, in Gower Street, 
afterwards known as University College, gave him an opportunity 
of continuing his mathematical pursuits. At the early age of 
twenty-two he gave his first lecture as professor of mathematics 
in the college which he served with the utmost zeal and success 
for a third of a century. His connexion with the college, indeed, 
was interrupted in 183 1, when a disagreement with the governing 
body caused De Morgan and some other professors to resign their 
chairs simultaneously. When, in 1836, his successor was acci- 
dentally drowned, De Morgan was requested to resume the 
professorship. 

In 1837 he married Sophia Elizabeth," daughter of William 
Frend, a Unitarian in faith, a mathematician and actuary in 
occupation, a notice of whose life, written by his son-in-law, 
will be found in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical 
Society (vol. v.). They settled in Chelsea (30 Cheyne Row), where 
in later years Mrs De Morgan had a large circle of intellectual 
and artistic friends. 

As a teacher of mathematics De Morgan was unrivalled. He 
gave instruction in the form of continuous lectures delivered 
extempore from brief notes. The most prolonged mathematical 
reasoning, and the most intricate formulae, were given with 
almost infallible accuracy from the resources of his extraordinary 
memory. De Morgan's writings, however excellent, give little 
idea of the perspicuity and elegance of his viva voce expositions, 
which never failed to fix the attention of all who were worthy 



of hearing him. Many of his pupils have distinguished them- 
selves, and, through%saac Todhunter and E. J. Routh, he had 
an important influence on the later Cambridge school. For 
thirty years he took an active part in the business of the Royal 
Astronomical Society, editing its publications, supplying obituary 
notices of members, and for eighteen years acting as one of the 
honorary secretaries. He was also frequently employed as con- 
sulting actuary, a business in which his mathematical powers, 
combined with sound judgment and business-like habits, fitted 
him to take the highest place. 

De Morgan's mathematical writings contributed powerfully 
towards the progress of the science. His memoirs on the 
" Foundation of Algebra," in the 7th and 8th volumes of the 
Cambridge Philosophical Transactions, contain some of the most 
important contributions which haye been made to the philosophy 
of mathematical method; and Sir W. Rowan Hamilton, in the 
preface to his Lectures on Quaternions, refers more than once to 
those papers as having led and encouraged him in the working 
out of the new system of quaternions. The work on Trigon- 
ometry and Double Algebra (1849) contains in the latter part a 
most luminous and philosophical view of existing and possible 
systems of symbolic calculus. But De Morgan's influence on 
mathematical science in England can only be estimated by a 
review of his long series of publications, which commence, in 
1828, with a translation of part of Bourdon's Elements of Algebra, 
prepared for his students. In 1830 appeared the first edition of 
his well-known Elements of Arithmetic, which did much to raise 
the character of elementary training. It is distinguished by a 
simple yet thoroughly philosophical treatment of the ideas of 
number and magnitude, as well as by the introduction of new 
abbreviated processes of computation, to which De Morgan 
always attributed much practical importance. Second and third 
editions were called for in 1832 and 1835; a sixth edition was 
issued in 1876. De Morgan's other principal mathematical 
works were The Elements of 'Algebra (1835), a valuable but some- 
what dry elementary treatise; the Essay on Probabilities (1838), 
forming the 107th volume of Lardner's Cyclopaedia, which forms 
a valuable introduction to the subject; and The Elements of 
Trigonometry and Trigonometrical Analysis, preliminary to the 
Differential Calculus (1837). Several of his mathematical works 
were published by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Know- 
ledge, of which De Morgan was at <5ne time an active member. 
Among these may be mentioned the Treatise on the Differential 
and Integral Calculus (1842); the Elementary Illustrations of the 
Differential and Integral Calculus, first published in 1832, but 
often bound up with the larger treatise; the essay, On the Study 
and Difficulties of Mathematics (183 1); and a brief treatise on 
Spherical Trigonometry (1834). By some accident the work on 
probability in the same series, written by Sir J. W. Lubbock and 
J. Drinkwater-Bethune, was attributed to De Morgan, an error 
which seriously annoyed his nice sense of bibliographical accuracy. 
For fifteen years he did all in his power to correct the mistake, 
and finally wrote to The Times to disclaim the authorship. (See 
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. xxvi. 
p. 118.) Two of his most elaborate treatises are to be found in the 
Encyclopaedia metropolitana, namely the articles on the Calculus 
of Functions, and the Theory of Probabilities. De Morgan's minor 
mathematical writings were scattered over various periodicals. 
A list of these and other papers will be found in the Royal 
Society's Catalogue, which contains forty-two entries under the 
name of De Morgan. 

In spite, however, of the excellence and extent of his mathe- 
matical writings, it is probably as a logical reformer that De 
Morgan will be best remembered. In this respect he stands 
alongside of his great contemporaries Sir W. R. Hamilton and 
George Boole, as one of several independent discoverers of the 
all-important principle of the quantification of the predicate. 
Unlike most mathematicians, De Morgan always laid much stress 
upon the importance of logical training. In his admirable papers 
upon the modes of teaching arithmetic and geometry, originally 
published in the Quarterly Journal of Education (reprinted in The 
Schoolmaster, vol ii.), he remonstrated against the neglect of 



DE MORGAN 



logical doctrine. In 1839 he produced a small work called First 
Notions of Logic, giving what he had found by experience to be 
much wanted by students commencing with Euclid. In October 
1846 he completed the first of his investigations, in the form of a 
paper printed in the Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical 
Society (vol. viii. No. 29). In this paper the principle of the 
quantified predicate was referred to, and there immediately 
ensued a memorable controversy with Sir W. R. Hamilton regard- 
ing the independence of De Morgan's discovery, some communi- 
cations having passed between them' in the autumn of 1 846. The 
details of this dispute will be found in the original pamphlets, 
in the Athenaeum and in the appendix to De Morgan's Formal 
Logic. Suffice it to say that the independence of De Morgan's 
discovery was subsequently recognized by Hamilton. The eight 
forms of proposition adopted by De Morgan as the basis of his 
system partially differ from those which Hamilton derived 
from the quantified predicate. The general character of De 
Morgan's development of logical forms was wholly peculiar and 
original on his part. 

Late in 1847 De Morgan published his principal logical treatise, 
called Formal Logic, or the Calculus of Inference, Necessary and 
Probable. This contains a reprint of the First Notions, an elabor- 
ate development of his doctrine of the syllogism, and of the 
numerical definite syllogism, together with chapters of great 
interest on probability, induction, old logical terms and fallacies. 
The severity of the treatise is relieved by characteristic touches 
of humour, and by quaint anecdotes and allusions furnished from 
his wide reading and perfect memory. There followed at 
intervals, in the years 1850, 1858, i860 and 1863, a series of four 
elaborate memoirs on the " Syllogism," printed in volumes ix. 
and x. of the Cambridge Philosophical Transactions. These 
papers taken together constitute a great treatise on logic, 
in which he substituted improved systems of notation, and 
developed a new logic of relations, and a new onymatic system 
of logical expression. In i860 De Morgan endeavoured to render 
their contents better known by publishing a Syllabus of a 
Proposed System of Logic, from which may be obtained a good 
idea of his symbolic system, but the more readable and interesting 
discussions contained in the memoirs are of necessity omitted. 
The article " Logic " in the English Cyclopaedia (i860) completes 
the list of his logical publications. 

Throughout his logical writings De Morgan was led by the idea 
that the followers of the two great branches of exact science, 
logic and mathematics, had made blunders, — the logicians in 
neglecting mathematics, and the mathematicians in neglecting 
logic. He endeavoured to reconcile them, and in the attempt 
showed how many errors an acute mathematician could detect 
in logical writings, and how large a field there was for discovery. 
But it may be doubted whether De Morgan's own system, 
" horrent with mysterious spiculae," as Hamilton aptly described 
it, is fitted to exhibit the real analogy between quantitative and 
qualitative reasoning, which is rather to be sought in the logical 
works of Boole. 

Perhaps the largest part, in volume, of De Morgan's writings re- 
mains still to be briefly mentioned ; it consists of detaphed articles 
contributed to various periodical or composite works. During the 
years 1 833-1 843 he contributed very largely to the first edition of 
the Penny Cyclopaedia, writing chiefly on mathematics, astronomy, 
phyacs and biography. His articles of various length cannot be 
less in number than 850, and they have been estimated to constitute 
a sixth part of the whole Cyclopaedia, of which they formed perhaps 
the most valuable portion. He also wrote biographies of Sir Isaac 
Newton and Edmund Halley for Knight's British Worthies, various 
notices of scientific men for the Gallery of Portraits, and for the un- 
completed Biographical Dictionary of the Useful Knowledge Society, 
and at least seven articles in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman 
Biography. Some of De Morgan's most interesting and useful minor 
writings are to be found in the Companions to the British Almanack, to 
which he contributed without fail one article each year from 1 83 1 up 
to 1857 inclusive. In these carefully written papers he treats a great 
variety of topics relating to astronomy, chronology, decimal coinage, 
life assurance, bibliography and the history of science. Most of 
them are as valuable now as when written. 

Among De Morgan's miscellaneous writings may be mentioned his 
Explanation of the Gnomonic Projection of the Sphere, 1836, including 
a description of the maps of the stars, published by the Useful Know- 



ledge Society; his Treatise on the Globes, Celestial and Terrestrial,l%^5, 
and his remarkable Book of Almanacks (2nd edition, 1871), which 
contains a series of thirty-five almanacs, so arranged with indices of 
reference, that the almanac for any year, whether in old style or new, 
from any epoch, ancient or modern, up to a. d. 2000, may be found 
without difficulty, means being added for verifying the almanac and 
also for discovering the days of new and full moon from 2000 b. c. up 
to A. d. 2000. De Morgan expressly draws attention to the fact that 
the plan of this book was that of L. B. Francoeur and J. Ferguson, 
but the plan was developed by one who was an unrivalled master of 
all the intricacies of chronology. The two best tables of logarithms, 
the small five-figure tables of the Useful Knowledge Society (1839 and 
1857), and Shroen's Seven Figure-Table (5th ed., 1865), were printed 
under De Morgan's superintendence. Several works edited by him 
will be found mentioned in the British Museum Catalogue. He made 
numerous anonymous contributions through a long series of years 
to the Athenaeum, and to Notes and Queries, and occasionally to 
The North British Review, Macmillan's Magazine, &c. 

Considerable labour was spent by De Morgan upon the subject 
of decimal coinage. He was a great advocate of the pound and mil 
scheme. His evidence on this subject was sought by the Royal 
Commission, and, besides constantly supporting the Decimal 
Association in periodical publications, he published several separate 
pamphlets on the subject. 

One marked characteristic of De Morgan was his intense and yet 
reasonable love of books. He was a true bibliophile and loved to 
surround himself, as far as his means allowed, with curious and rare 
books. He revelled in all the mysteries of watermarks, title-pages, 
colophons, catch-words and the like; yet he treated bibliography 
as an important science. As he himself wrote, " the most worthless 
book of a bygone day is a record worthy of preservation; like a 
telescopic star, its obscurity may render it unavailable for most 
purposes; but it serves, in hands which know how to use it, to de- 
termine the places of more important bodies." His evidence before 
the Royal Commission on the British Museum in 1850 (Questions 
5704*-58i5,* 6481-6513, and 8966-8967), should be studied by all 
who would comprehend the principles of bibliography or the art of 
constructing a catalogue, his views on the latter subject correspond- 
ing with those carried out by Panizzi in the British Museum Catalogue. 
A sample of De Morgan's bibliographical learning is to be found in 
his account of Arithmetical Books, from the Invention of Printing 
(1847), and finally in his Budget of Paradoxes. This latter work 
consists of articles most of which were originally published in the 
Athenaeum, describing the various attempts which have been made 
to invent a perpetual motion, to square the circle, or to trisect the 
angle ; but De Morgan took the opportunity to include many curious 
bits gathered from his extensive reading, so that the Budget, as re- 

Crinted by his widow (1872), with much additional matter prepared 
y himself, forms a remarkable collection of scientific ana. De 
Morgan's correspondence with contemporary scientific men was very 
extensive and full of interest. It remains unpublished, as does also 
a large mass of mathematical tracts which he prepared for the use 
of his students, treating all parts of mathematical science, and 
embodying some of the matter of his lectures. De Morgan's library 
was purchased by Lord Overstone, and presented to the university 
of London. 

In 1866 his life became clouded by the circumstances which led 
him to abandon the institution so long the scene of his labours. 
The refusal of the council to accept the recommendation of the 
senate, .that they should appoint an eminent Unitarian minister 
to the professorship of logic and mental philosophy, revived all 
De Morgan's sensitiveness on the subject of sectarian freedom; 
and, though his feelings were doubtless excessive, there is no 
doubt that gloom was thrown over his life, intensified in 1867 by 
the loss of his son George Campbell De Morgan, a young man of 
the highest scientific promise, whose name, as De Morgan 
expressly wished, will long be connected with the London 
Mathematical Society, of which he was one of the founders. 
From this time De Morgan rapidly fell into ill-health, previously 
almost unknown to him, dying on the 18th of March 1871. An 
interesting and truthful sketch of his life will be found in the 
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society for the 9th of 
February 1872, vol. xxii. p. 112, written by A. C. Ranyard, who 
says, " He was the kindliest, as well as the most learned of men — 
benignant to every one who approached him, never forgetting the 
claims which weakness has on strength." 

De Morgan left no published indications of his opinions on 
religious questions, in regard to which he was extremely reticent. 
He seldom or never entered a place of worship, and declared that 
he could not listen to a sermon, a circumstance perhaps due to 
the extremely strict religious discipline under which he was 
brought up. Nevertheless there is reason to believe that he 



IO 



DEMOSTHENES 



was of a deeply religious disposition. Like M. Faraday and 
Sir I. Newton he entertained a confident belief in Provi- 
dence, founded not on any tenuous inference, but on personal 
feeling. His hope of a future life also was vivid to the last. 

It is impossible to omit a reference to his witty sayings, some 
specimens of which are preserved in Dr Sadler's most interesting 
Diary of Henry Crabb Robinson (1869), which also contains a 
humorous account of H. C. R. by De Morgan. It may be 
added that De Morgan was a great reader and admirer of 
Dickens; he was also fond of music, and a fair performer on 
the flute. (W.S.J.) 

His son, William Frend De Morgan (b. 1839), first became 
known in artistic circles as a potter, the " De Morgan " tiles 
being remarkable for his rediscovery of the secret of some beauti- 
ful colours and glazes. But later in life he became even better 
known to the literary world by his novels, Joseph Vance (1906), 
Alice for Short (1907), Somehow Good (1908) and It Never Can 
Happen Again (1909), in which the influence of Dickens and of 
his own earlier family life were conspicuous. 

DEMOSTHENES, the great Attic orator and statesman, was 
born in 384 (or 383) B.C. His father, who bore the same name, 
was an Athenian citizen belonging to the deme of Paeania. His 
mother, Cleobule, was the daughter of Gylon, a citizen who had 
been active in procuring the protection of the kings of Bosporus 
for the Athenian colony of Nymphaeon in the Crimea, and whose 
wife was a native of that region. On these grounds the adversaries 
of Demosthenes, in after-days, used absurdly to taunt him with 
a traitorous or barbarian ancestry. The boy had a bitter fore- 
taste of life. He was seven years old when his father died, 
leaving property (in a manufactory of swords, and another of 
upholstery) worth about £3500, which, invested as it seems to 
have been (20% was not thought exorbitant), would have 
yielded rather more than £600 a year. £300 a year was a very 
comfortable income at Athens, and it was possible to live decently 
on a tenth of it. Nicias, a very rich man, had property equivalent, 
probably, to not more than £4000 a year. Demosthenes was born 
then, to a handsome, though not a great fortune. But his 
guardians — two nephews of his father, Aphobus and Demophon, 
and one Therippides — abused their trust, and handed over to 
Demosthenes, when he came of age, rather less than one-seventh 
of his patrimony, perhaps between £50 and £60 a year. 
Demosthenes, after studying with Isaeus (q.v.) — then the great 
master of forensic eloquence and of Attic law, especially in will 
cases '—brought an action against Aphobus, and gained a verdict 
for about £2400. But it does not appear that he got the money; 
and, after some more fruitless proceedings against Onetor, 
the brother-in-law of Aphobus, the matter was dropped,— not, 
however, before his relatives had managed to throw a public 
burden (the equipment of a ship of war) on their late ward, 
whereby his resources were yet further straitened. He now 
became a professional writer of speeches or pleas (Xoyoypa&s) 
for the law courts, sometimes speaking himself. Biographers 
have delighted to relate how painfully Demosthenes made him- 
self a tolerable speaker, — how, with pebbles in his mouth, he 
tried his lungs against the waves, how he declaimed as he ran up 
hill, how he shut himself up in a cell, having first guarded himself 
against a longing for the haunts of men by shaving one side of 
his head, how he wrote out Thucydides eight times, how he was 
derided by the Assembly and encouraged by a judicious actor who 
met him moping about the Peiraeus. He certainly seems to have 
been the rever.se of athletic (the stalwart Aeschines upbraids him 
with never having been a sportsman), and he probably had some 
sort of defect or impediment in his speech as a boy. Perhaps the 
most interesting fact about his work for the law courts is that 
he seems to have continued it, in some measure, through the most 
exciting parts of his great political career. The speech for 
Phormio belongs to the same year as the plea for Megalopolis. 
The speech against Boeotus " Concerning the Name " comes 
between the First Philippic and the First Olynthiac. The speech 
against Pantaenetus comes between-the speech " On the Peace " 
and the Second Philippic. 

1 See Jebb's Attic Orators from Antiphon to Isaeos, vol. ii. p. 267 f. 



The political career of Demosthenes, from his first direct 
contact with public affairs in 355 B.C. to his death in 322, has 
an essential unity. It is the assertion, in successive 
forms adapted to successive moments, of unchanging Po,u,cal 
principles. Externally, it is divided into the chap- cree a. 
ter which precedes and the chapter which follows 
Chaeronea. But its inner meaning, the secret of its indomitable 
vigour, the law which Harmonizes its apparent contrasts, cannot 
be understood unless it is regarded as a whole. Still less can it 
be appreciated in all its large wisdom and sustained self-mastery 
if it is viewed merely as a duel between the ablest champion and 
the craftiest enemy of Greek freedom. The time indeed came 
when Demosthenes and Philip stood face to face as representative 
antagonists in a mortal conflict. But, for Demosthenes, the 
special peril represented by Philip, the peril of subjugation to 
Macedon, was merely a disastrous accident. Philip happened 
to become the most prominent and most formidable type of a 
danger which was already threatening Greece before his baleful 
star arose. As Demosthenes said to the Athenians, if the 
Macedonian had not existed, they would have made another 
Philip tor themselves. Until Athens recovered something of its 
old spirit, there must ever be a great standing danger, not for 
Athens only, but for Greece, — the danger that sooner or later, in 
some' shape, from some quarter — no man could foretell the hour, 
the manner or the source — barbarian violence would break up 
the gracious and und'efiled tradition of separate Hellenic life. 

What was the true relation of Athens to Greece ? The answer 
which he gave to this question is the key to the life of 
Demosthenes. Athens, so Demosthenes held, was the natural 
head of Greece. Not, however, as an empress holding subject 
or subordinate cities in a dependence more or less compulsory. 
Rather as that city which most nobly expressed the noblest 
attributes of Greek political existence, and which, by her pre- 
eminent gifts both of intellect and of moral insight, was primarily 
responsible, everywhere and always, for the maintenance of those 
attributes in their integrity. Wherever the cry of the oppressed 
goes up from Greek against Greek, it was the voice of Athens 
which should first remind the oppressor that Hellene differed 
from barbarian in postponing the use of force to the persuasions 
of equal law. Wherever a barbarian hand offered wrong to any 
city of the Hellenic sisterhood, it was the arm of Athens which 
should first be stretched forth in the holy strength of Apollo the 
Averter. Wherever among her own children the ancient loyalty 
was yielding to love of pleasure or of base gain, there, above all, 
it was the duty of Athens to see that the central hearth of Hellas 
was kept pure. Athens must never again seek " empire " in the 
sense which became odious under the influence of Cleon and 
Hyperbolus— when, to use the image of Aristophanes, the allies 
were as Babylonian slaves grinding in the Athenian mill. Athens 
must never permit, if she could help it, the re-establishment of 
such a domination as Sparta exercised in Greece from the battle 
of Aegospotami to the battle of Leuctra. Athens must aim 
at leading a free confederacy, of which the members should be 
bound to her by their own truest interests. Athens must seek 
to deserve the confidence of all Greeks alike. 

Such, in the belief of Demosthenes, was the part which Athens 
must perform if Greece was to be safe. But reforms must be 
effected before Athens could be capable of such a part. The evils 
to be cured were different phases of one malady. Athens had 
long been suffering from the profound decay of public spirit. 
Since the early years of the Peloponnesian War, the separation 
of Athenian society from the state had been growing more and 
more marked. The old type of the eminent citizen, who was at 
once statesman and general, had become almost extinct. Politics 
were now managed by a small circle of politicians. Wars were 
conducted by professional soldiers whose troops were chiefly 
mercenaries, and who were usually regarded by the politicians 
either as instruments or as enemies. The mass of the 
citizens took no active interest in public affairs. But, fe * e ^ " 
though indifferent to principles, they had quickly sensi- 
tive partialities for men, and it was necessary to keep them in 
good humour. Pericles had introduced the practice of giving a 



DEMOSTHENES 



ii 



small bounty from the treasury to the poorer citizens, for the pur- 
pose of enabling them to attend the theatre at the great festivals, 
—in other words, for the purpose of bringing them under the 
concentrated influence of the best Attic culture. A provision 
eminently wise for the age of Pericles easily became a mischief 
when the once honourable name of " demagogue " began to 
mean a flatterer of the mob. Before the end of the Pelopon- 
nesian War the festival-money (theoricon) was abolished. A few 
years after the restoration of the democracy it was again intro- 
duced. But until 354 B.C. it had never been more than a gratuity, 
of which the payment depended on the treasury having a surplus. 
In 354 B.C. Eubulus became steward of the treasury. He was 
an able man, with a special talent for finance, free from all taint 
of personal corruption, and sincerely solicitous for the honour 
of Athens, but enslaved to popularity, and without principles 
of policy. His first measure was to make the festival-money a 
permanent item in the budget. Thenceforth this bounty was in 
reality very much what Demades afterwards called it, — the 
cement (raXXa) of the democracy. 

Years before the danger from Macedon was urgent, Demos- 
thenes had begun the work of his life, — the effort to lift the spirit 
Forensic °f Athens, to revive the old civic loyalty, to rouse the 
speeches city into taking that place and performing that part 
in Publle w hich her own welfare as well as the safety of Greece 
causes. prescribed. His formally political speeches must never 
be considered apart from his forensic speeches in public causes. 
The Athenian procedure against the proposer of an unconstitu- 
tional law- — i.e. of a law incompatible with existing laws — had a 
direct tendency to make the law court, in such cases, a political 
arena. The same tendency was indirectly exerted by the 
tolerance of Athenian juries (in the absence of a presiding expert 
like a judge) for irrelevant matter, since it was usually easy for a 
speaker to make capital out of the adversary's political ante- 
cedents. But the forensic speeches of Demosthenes for public 
causes are not only political in this general sense. They are 
documents, as indispensable as the Olynthiacs or Philippics, 
for his own political career. Only by taking them along with the 
formally political speeches, and regarding the whole as one 
unbroken series, can we see clearly the full scope of the task 
which he set before him, — a task in which his long resistance to 
Philip was only the most dramatic incident, and in which his 
real achievement is not' to be measured by the event of 
Chaeronea. 

A forensic speech, composed for a public cause, opens the 
political career of Demosthenes with a protest against a signal 
abuse. In 355 B.C., at the age of twenty-nine, he wrote the 
speech " Against Androtion." This combats on legal grounds a 
proposal that the out-going senate should receive the honour of a 
golden crown. In its larger aspect, it is a denunciation of the 
corrupt system which that senate represented, and especially of 
the manner in which the treasury had been administered by 
Aristophon. In 354 B.C. Demosthenes composed and spoke the 
oration " Against Leptines," who had effected a slender saving 
for the state by the expedient of revoking those hereditary 
exemptions from taxation which had at various times been 
conferred in recognition of distinguished merit. The descendants 
of Harmodius and Aristogeiton alone had been excepted from 
the operation of the law. This was the first time that the voice 
of Demosthenes himself had been heard on the public concerns 
of Athens, and the utterance was a worthy prelude to the career 
of a statesman. He answers the advocates of the retrenchment 
by pointing out that the public interest will not ultimately be 
served by a wholesale violation of the public faith. In the same 
year he delivered his first strictly political speech, " On the Navy 
Boards " (Symmories). The Athenians, irritated by the support 
which Artaxerxes had lately given to the revolt of their allies, 
and excited by rumours of his hostile preparations, were feverishly 
eager for a war with Persia. Demosthenes urges that such an 
enterprise would at present be useless; that it would fail to unite 
Greece; that the energies of the city .should be reserved for a real 
emergency; but that, before the city can successfully cope with 
any war, there must be a better organization of resources, and, 



first of all, a reform of the navy, which he outlines with character- 
istic lucidity and precision. 

Two years later (352 B.C.) he is found dealing with a more 
definite question of foreign policy. Sparta, favoured by the 
depression of Thebes in the Phocian War, was threatening 
Megalopolis. Both Sparta and Megalopolis sent embassies to 
Athens. Demosthenes supported Megalopolis. The ruin of 
Megalopolis would mean, he argued, the return of Spartan 
domination in the Peloponnesus. Athenians must not favour 
the tyranny of any one city. They must respect the rights of all 
the cities, and thus promote unity based on mutual confidence. 
In the same year Demosthenes wrote the speech " Against 
Timocrates." to be spoken by the same Diodorus who had before 
prosecuted Androtion, and who now combated an attempt to 
screen Androtion and others from the penalties of embezzlement. 
The speech " Against Aristocrates," also of 352 B.C., reproves that 
foreign policy of feeble makeshifts which was now popular at 
Athens. The Athenian tenure of the Thracian Chersonese partly 
depended for its security on the good- will of the Thracian prince 
Cersobleptes. Charidemus, a soldier of fortune who had already 
played Athens false, was now the brother-in-law and the favourite 
of Cersobleptes. Aristocrates proposed that the person of 
Charidemus should be invested with a special sanctity, by the 
enactment that whoever attempted his life should be an outlaw 
from all dominions of Athens. Demosthenes points out that 
such adulation is as futile as it is fulsome. Athens can secure 
the permanence of her foreign possessions only in one way — by 
being strong enough to hold them. 

Thus, between 355 and 352, Demosthenes had laid down 
the main lines of his policy. Domestic administration must be 
purified. Statesmen must be made to feel that they 
are responsible to the state. They must not be allowed JfooUcv S 
to anticipate judgment on their deserts by voting each 
other golden crowns. They must not think to screen mis- 
appropriation of public money by getting partisans to pass new 
laws about state-debtors. Foreign policy must be guided by a 
larger and more provident conception of Athenian interests. 
When public excitement demands a foreign war, Athens must not 
rush into it without asking whether it is necessary, whether it 
will have Greek support, and whether she herself is ready for it. 
When a strong Greek city threatens a weak one, and seeks to 
purchase Athenian connivance with the bribe of a border-town, 
Athens must remember that duty and prudence alike command 
her to respect the independence of all Greeks. When it Jg pro- 
posed, by way of insurance on Athenian possessions abroad, to 
flatter the favourite of a doubtful ally, Athens must remember 
that such devices will not avail a power which has no army 
except on paper, and no ships fit to leave their moorings. 

But the time had gone by when Athenians could have tranquil 
leisure for domestic reform. A danger, calling for prompt action, 
had at last come very near. For six years Athens had 
been at war with Philip on account of his seizure of gad 
Amphipolis. Meanwhile he had destroyed Potidaea Philip. 
and founded Philippi. On the Thracian coasts he had 
become master of Abdera and Maronea. On the Thessalian coast 
he had acquired Methone. In a second invasion of Thessaly, 
he had overthrown the Phocians under Onomarchus, and had 
advanced to Thermopylae, to find the gates of Greece closed 
against him by an Athenian force. He had then marched 
to Heraeon on the Propontis, and had dictated a peace to 
Cersobleptes. He had formed an alliance with Cardia, Perinthus 
and Byzantium. Lastly, he had begun to show designs on the 
great Confederacy of Olynthus, the more warlike Miletus of 
the North. The First Philippic of Demosthenes was spoken in 
351 B.C. The Third Philippic — the latest of the extant political 
speeches— was spoken in 341 B.C. Between these he delivered 
eight political orations, of which seven are directly concerned 
with Philip. The whole series falls into two great divisions. 
The first division comprises those speeches which were spoken 
against Philip while he was still a foreign power threatening 
Greece from without. Such are the First Philippic and the three 
orations for Olynthus. The second division comprises the speeches 



12 



DEMOSTHENES 



spoken against Philip when, by admission to the Amphictyonic 
Council, he had now won his way within the circle of the Greek 
states, and when the issue was no longer between Greece and 
Macedonia, but between the Greek and Macedonian parties in 
Greece. Such are the speech " On the Peace," the speech " On 
the Embassy," the speech " On the Chersonese," the Second and 
Third Philippics. 

The First Philippic, spoken early in 351 B.C., was no sudden 
note of alarm drawing attention to an unnoticed peril. On the 
contrary, the Assembly was weary of the subject. For 
Phui ic. six years the war with Philip had been a theme of barren 
PP °' talk. Demosthenes urges that it is time to do some- 
thing, and to do it with a plan. Athens fighting Philip has fared, 
he says, like an amateur boxer opposed to a skilled pugilist. 
The helpless hands have only followed blows which a trained eye 
should have taught them to parry. An Athenian force must be 
stationed in the north, at Lemnos or Thasos. Of 2000 infantry 
and 200 cavalry at least one quarter must be Athenian citizens 
capable of directing the mercenaries. 

Later in the same year Demosthenes did another service to the 
cause of national freedom. Rhodes, severed by its own act from 
the Athenian Confederacy, had since 355 been virtually subject 
to Mausolus, prince (SueaoTTjs) of Caria, himself a tributary of 
Persia. Mausolus died in 351, and was succeeded by his widow 
Artemisia. The democratic party in Rhodes now appealed to 
Athens for help in throwing off the Carian yoke. Demosthenes 
supported their application in his speech " For the Rhodians." 
No act of his life was a truer proof of statesmanship. He failed. 
But at least he had once more warned Athens that the cause of 
political freedom was everywhere her own, and that, wherever 
that cause was forsaken, there a new danger was created both for 
Athens and for Greece. 

Next year (350) an Athenian force under Phocion was sent to 
Euboea, in support of Plutarchus, tyrant of Eretria, against the 
faction of Cleitarchus. Demosthenes protested against 
War""" spending strength, needed for greater objects, on the 
local quarrels of a despot. Phocion won a victory at 
Tamynae. But the " inglorious and costly war " entailed an 
outlay of more than £12,000 on the ransom of captives alone, 
and ended in the total destruction of Athenian influence through- 
out Euboea. That island was now left an open field for the 
intrigues of Philip. Worst of all, the party of Eubulus not only 
defeated a proposal, arising from this campaign, for applying the 
festival-money to the war-fund, but actually carried a law making 
it high treason to renew the proposal. The degree to which 
political enmity was exasperated by the Euboean War may be 
judged from the incident of Midias, an adherent of Eubulus, 
and a type of opulent rowdyism. Demosthenes was choragus 
of his tribe, and was wearing the robe of that sacred office at 
the great festival in the theatre of Dionysus, when Midias struck 
him on the face. The affair was eventually compromised. The 
speech " Against Midias " written by Demosthenes for the trial 
(in 349) was neither spoken nor completed, and remains, as few 
will regret, a sketch. 

It was now three years since, in 352, the Olynthians had sent 
an embassy to Athens, and had made peace with their only sure 
ally. In 350 a second Olynthian embassy had sought 
and obtained Athenian help. The hour of Olynthus 
had indeed come. In 349 Philip opened war against 
the Chalcidic towns of the Olynthian League. The First and 
Second Olynthiacs of Demosthenes were spoken in that year in 
support of sending one force to defend Olynthus and another to 
attack Philip. " Better now than later," is the thought of the 
First Olynthiac. The Second argues that Philip's strength is 
overrated. The Third — spoken in 348 — carries us into the midst 
of action. 1 It deals with practical details. The festival-fund 
must be used for the war. The citizens must serve in person. 

1 It is generally agreed that the Third Olynthiac is the latest ; but 
the question of the order of the First and Second has been much 
discussed. See Grote (History of Greece, chap. 88, appendix), who 
prefers the arrangement ii. i. iii., and Blass, Die attische Beredsamkeit, 
lii. p. 319. 



Olyn- 
thiacs. 



A few months later, Olynthus and the thirty-two towns of the 
confederacy were swept from the earth. Men could walk over 
their sites, Demosthenes said seven years afterwards, without 
knowing that such cities had existed. It was now certain that 
Philip could not be stopped outside of Greece. The question 
was, What point within Greece shall he be allowed to reach? 

Eubulus and his party, with that versatility which is the 
privilege of political vagueness, now began to call for a congress 
of the allies to consider the common danger. They found a 
brilliant interpreter in Aeschines, who, after having been a tragic 
actor and a clerk to the assembly, had entered political life with 
the advantages of a splendid gift for eloquence, a fine presence, 
a happy address, a ready wit and a facile conscience. While 
his opponents had thus suddenly become warlike, Demosthenes 
had become pacific. He saw that Athens must have time to 
collect strength. Nothing could be gained, meanwhile, by going 
on with the war. Macedonian sympathizers at Athens, of whom 
Philocrates was the chief, also favoured peace. Eleven envoys, 
including Philocrates, Aeschines, and Demosthenes, were sent 
to Philip in February 346 B.C. After a debate at Athens, peace 
was concluded with Philip in April. Philip on the one p eace 
hand, Athens and her allies on the other, were to keep between 
what they respectively held at the time when the peace p f , . i ' lp and 
was ratified. But here the Athenians made a fatal 
error. Philip was bent on keeping the door of Greece open. 
Demosthenes was bent on shutting it against him. Philip was 
now at war with the people of Halus in Thessaly. Thebes had 
for ten years been at war with Phocis. Here were two distinct 
chances for Philip's armed intervention in Greece. But if the 
Halians and the Phocians were included in the peace, Philip 
could not bear arms against them without violating the peace. 
Accordingly Philip insisted that they should not be included. 
Demosthenes insisted they should be included. They were 
not included. The result followed speedily. The same envoys 
were sent a second time to Philip at the end of April 346 for 
the purpose of receiving his oaths in ratification of the peace. 
It was late in June before he returned from Thrace to Pella — thus 
gaining, under the terms, all the towns that he had taken mean- 
while. He next took the envoys with him through Thessaly to 
Thermopylae. There — at the invitation of Thessalians and 
Thebans — he intervened in the Phocian War. Phalaecus 
surrendered. Phocis was crushed. Philip took its 
place in the Amphictyonic Council, and was thus p£ / 
established as a Greek power in the very centre, at the y^ar. 
sacred hearth, of Greece. The right of precedence in 
consultation of the oracle (wpoixavTeia) was transferred from 
Athens to Philip. While indignant Athenians were clamouring for 
the revocation of the peace, Demosthenes upheld it in his speech 
" On the Peace " in Septernber. It ought never to have been 
made on such terms, he said. But, having been made, it had 
better be kept. " If we went to war now, where should we find 
allies? And after losing Oropus, Amphipolis, Cardia, Chios, Cos, 
Rhodes, Byzantium, shall we fight about the shadow of Delphi?" 

During the eight years between the peace of Philocrates and 
the battle of Chaeronea, the authority of Demosthenes steadily 
grew, until it became first predominant and then paramount. He 
had, indeed, a melancholy advantage. Each year his argument 
was more and more cogently enforced by the logic of facts. In 
344 he visited the Peloponnesus for the purpose of counteracting 
Macedonian intrigue. Mistrust, he told the Peloponnesian 
cities, is the safeguard of free communities against tyrants. 
Philip lodged a formal complaint at Athens. Here, as elsewhere, 
the future master of Greece reminds us of Napoleon on the eve of 
the first empire. He has the same imperturbable and persuasive 
effrontery in protesting that he is doing one thing at the moment 
when his energies are concentrated on doing the opposite. 
Demosthenes replied in the Second Philippic. " If," he 
said, " Philip is the friend of Greece, we are doing pj^fon/c 
wrong. If he is the enemy of Greece, we are doing 
right. Which is he? I hold him to be our enemy, because 
everything that he has hitherto done has benefited himself and 
hurt us." The prosecution of Aeschines for malversation on the 



DEMOSTHENES 



13 



Third 
Philippic 



embassy (commonly known as De falsa legatione), which was 
brought to an issue in the following year, marks the moral 
strength of the position now held by Demosthenes. When the 
gravity of the charge and the complexity of the evidence are 
considered, the acquittal of Aeschines by a narrow majority 
must be deemed his condemnation. The speech " On the 
Affairs of the Chersonese " and the Third Philippic were the 
crowning efforts of Demosthenes. Spoken in the same year, 
341 B.C., and within a short space of each other, they must be 
taken together. The speech " On the Affairs of the Chersonese " 
regards the situation chiefly from an Athenian point of view. 
" If the peace means," argues Demosthenes, " that Philip can 
seize with impunity one Athenian possession after another, but 
that Athenians shall not on their peril touch aught that belongs 
to Philip, where is the line to be drawn? We shall go to war, I 
am told, when it is necessary. If the necessity has not come 
yet, when will it come? " The Third Philippic surveys 
a wider horizon. It ascends from the Athenian to the 
Hellenic view. Philip has annihilated Olynthus and 
the Chalcidic towns. He has ruined Pbocis. He has frightened 
Thebes. He has divided Thessaly. Euboea and the Pelo- 
ponnesus are his. His power stretches from the Adriatic to 
the Hellespont. Where shall be the end? Athens is the last 
hope of Greece. And, in this final crisis, Demosthenes was the 
embodied energy of Athens. It was Demosthenes who went to 
Byzantium, brought the estranged city back to the Athenian 
alliance, and snatched it from the hands of Philip. It was 
Demosthenes who, when Philip had already seized Elatea, 
hurried to Thebes, who by his passionate appeal gained one last 
chance, the only possible chance, for Greek freedom, who broke 
down the barrier of an inveterate jealousy, who brought Thebans 
to fight beside Athenians, and who thus won at the eleventh 
hour a victory for the spirit of loyal union which took away 
at least one bitterness from the unspeakable calamity of 
Chaeronea. 

But the work of Demosthenes was not closed by the ruin of his 
cause. During the last sixteen years of his life (338-322) he 
rendered services to Athens not less important, and 
activity? perhaps more difficult, than those which he- had 
rendered before. He was now, as a matter of course, 
foremost in the public affairs of Athens. In January 337, at the 
annual winter Festival of the Dead in the Outer Ceramicus, he 
spoke the funeral oration over those who had fallen at Chaeronea. 
He was member of a commission for strengthening the fortifica- 
tions of the city (reixofoios) . He administered the festival-fund. 
During a dearth which visited Athens between 330 and 326 he 
was charged with the organization of public relief. In 324 he was 
chief (dpx^ewpos) of the sacred embassy to Olympia. Already, 
in 336, Ctesiphon had proposed that Demosthenes should receive 
a golden crown from the state, and that his extraordinary merits 
should be proclaimed in the theatre at the Great Dionysia. The 
proposal was adopted by the senate as a bill (irpofioiAevna) ; 
but it must be passed by the Assembly before it could become 
an act (\prj4ncrna). To prevent this, Aeschines gave notice, in 336, 
that he intended to proceed against Ctesiphon for having proposed 
an unconstitutional measure. For six years Aeschines avoided 
action on this notice. At last, in 330, the patriotic party felt 
strong enough to force him to an issue. Aeschines spoke the 
speech " Against Ctesiphon," an attack on the whole public life 
of Demosthenes. Demosthenes gained an overwhelming victory 
for himself and for the honour of Athens in the most finished, the 
most splendid and the most pathetic work of ancient eloquence 
— the immortal oration " On the Crown." 

In the winter of 325-324 Harpalus, the receiver-general of 
Alexander in Asia, fled to Greece, taking with him 8000 mercen- 
aries, and treasure equivalent to about a million and 
Harpalus. a quarter sterling. On the motion of Demosthenes 
he was warned from the harbours of Attica. Having 
left his troops and part of his treasure at Taenarum, he again 
presented himself at the Peiraeus, and was now admitted. He 
spoke fervently of the opportunity which offered itself to those 
who loved the freedom of Greece. All Asia would rise with Athens 



to throw off the hated yoke. Fiery patriots like Hypereides were 
in raptures. For zeal which could be bought Harpalus had other 
persuasions. But Demosthenes stood fira \. War with Alexander 
would, he saw, be madness. It could have but one result, — some 
indefinitely worse doom for Athens. Antipater and Olympias 
presently demanded the surrender of Harpalus. Demosthenes 
opposed this. But he reconciled the dignity with the loyalty of 
Athens by carrying a decree that Harpalus should be arrested, 
and that his treasure should be deposited in the Parthenon, to be 
held in trust for Alexander. Harpalus escaped from prison. The 
amount of the treasure, which Harpalus had stated as 700 talents, 
proved to be no more than 350. Demosthenes proposed that the 
Areopagus should inquire what had become of the other 350. 
Six months, spent in party intrigues, passed before the Areo- 
pagus gave in their report (air64>a<ns). The report inculpated 
nine persons. Demosthenes headed the list of the accused. 
Hypereides was among the ten public prosecutors. Demos- 
thenes was condemned, fined fifty talents, and, in default of 
payment, imprisoned. After a few days he escaped from prison 
to Aegina, and thence to Troezen. Two things in this obscure 
affair are beyond reasonable doubt. First, that Demosthenes 
was not bribed by Harpalus. The hatred of the Macedonian 
party towards Demosthenes, and the fury of those vehement 
patriots who cried out that he had betrayed their best oppor- 
tunity, combined to procure his condemnation, with the help, 
probably, of some appearances which were against him. 
Secondly, it can hardly be questioned that, by withstanding the 
hot-headed patriots at this juncture, Demosthenes did heroic 
service to Athens. 

Next year (323 B.C.) Alexander died. Then the voice of Demos- 
thenes, calling Greece to arms, rang out like a trumpet. Early 
in August 322 the battle of Crannon decided the 
Lamian War against Greece. Antipater demanded, as f ad ° f 
the condition on which he would refrain from besieging \y an 
Athens, the surrender of the leading patriots. De- 
mades moved the decree of the Assembly by which Demosthenes, 
Hypereides, and some others were condemned to death as 
traitors. On the 20th of Boedromion (September 16) Demos- 
322, a Macedonian garrison occupied Munychia. It thenea 
was a day of solemn and happy memories, a day 
devoted, in the celebration of the Great Mysteries, to 
sacred joy, — the day on which the glad procession of the Initiated 
returned from Eleusis to Athens. It happened, however, to have 
another association, more significant than any ironical contrast 
for the present purpose of Antipater. It was the day on which, 
thirteen years before, Alexander had punished the rebellion of 
Thebes with annihilation. 

The condemned men had fled to Aegina. Parting there from 
Hypereides and the rest, Demosthenes went on to Calauria, a 
small island off the coast of Argolis. In Calauria there 
was an ancient temple of Poseidon, once a centre of cafauria. 
Minyan and Ionian worship, and surrounded with a 
peculiar sanctity as having been, from time immemorial, an 
inviolable refuge for the pursued. Here Demosthenes sought 
asylum. Archias of Thurii, a man who, like Aeschines, had begun 
life as a tragic actor, and who was now in the pay of Antipater, 
soon traced the fugitive, landed in Calauria, and appeared before 
the temple of Poseidon with a body of Thracian spearmen. 
Plutarch's picturesque narrative bears the marks of artistic 
elaboration. Demosthenes had dreamed the night before that 
he and Archias were competing for a prize as tragic actors; the 
house applauded Demosthenes; but his chorus was shabbily 
equipped, and Archias gained the prize. Archias was not the 
man to stick at sacrilege. In Aegina, Hypereides and the others 
had been taken from the shrine of Aeacus. But he hesitated to 
violate an asylum so peculiarly sacred as the Calaurian temple. 
Standing before its open door, with his Thracian soldiers around 
him, he endeavoured to prevail on Demosthenes to quit the holy 
precinct. Antipater would be certain to pardon him. Demos- 
thenes sat silent, with his eyes fixed on the ground. At last, as 
the emissary persisted in his bland persuasions, he looked up and 
said, — " Archias, you never moved me by your acting, and you 



con- 
demned. 



H 



DEMOSTHENES 



Death. 



will not move me now by your promises." Archias lost his temper, 
and began to threaten. " Now," rejoined Demosthenes, " you 
speak like a real Macedonian oracle; before you were acting. 
Wait a moment, then, till 1 write to my friends." With these 
words, Demosthenes withdrew into the inner part of the temple, 
— still visible, however, from the entrance. He took out a roll of 
paper, as if he were going to write, put the pen to his mouth, and 
bit it, as was his habit in composing. Then he threw his head 
back, and drew his cloak over it. The Thracian spearmen, who 
were watching him from the door, began to gibe at his cowardice. 
Archias went in to him, encouraged him to rise, 
repeated his old arguments, talked to him of reconcilia- 
tion with Antipater. By this time Demosthenes felt that the 
poison which he had sucked from the pen was beginning to work. 
He drew the cloak from his face, and looked steadily at Archias. 
" Now you can play the part of Creon in the tragedy as soon as 
you like," he said, " and cast forth my body unburied. But I, 
O gracious Poseidon, quit thy temple while I yet live; Antipater 
and his Macedonians have done what they could to pollute it." 
He moved towards the door, calling to them to support his 
tottering steps. He had just passed the altar of the god, when he 
fell, and with a groan gave up the ghost (October 322 B.C.). 

As a statesman, Demosthenes needs no epitaph but his own 
words in the speech " On the Crown," — / say that, if the event had 
been manifest to the whole world beforehand, not even then 
character. ou &ht Athens to have forsaken this course, if Athens had 
any regard for her glory, or for her past, or for the ages to 
come. The Persian soldier in Herodotus, following Xerxes to 
foreseen ruin, confides to his fellow-guest at the banquet that the 
bitterest pain which man can know is 7roXXd fypovkovra. fj.r]8evds 
Kpareav, — complete, but helpless, prescience. In the grasp of a 
more inexorable necessity, the champion of Greek freedom was 
borne onward to a more tremendous catastrophe than that which 
strewed the waters of Salamis with Persian wrecks and the field of 
Plataea with Persian dead; but to him, at least, it was given to 
proclaim aloud the clear and sure foreboding that filled his soul, 
to do all that true heart and free hand could do for his cause, and, 
though not to save, yet to encourage, to console and to ennoble. 
As the inspiration of his life was larger and higher than the mere 
courage of resistance, so his merit must be regarded as standing 
altogether outside and above the struggle with Macedon. The 
great purpose which he set before him was to revive the public 
spirit, to restore the political vigour, and to re-establish the 
Panhellenic influence of Athens, — never for her own advantage 
merely, but always in the interest of Greece. His glory is, that 
while he lived he helped Athens to live a higher life. Wherever 
the noblest expressions of her mind are honoured, wherever the 
large conceptions of Pericles command the admiration of states- 
men, wherever the architect and the sculptor love to dwell on the 
masterpieces of Ictinus and Pheidias, wherever the spell of ideal 
beauty or of lofty contemplation is exercised by the creations of 
Sophocles or of Plato, there it will be remembered that the spirit 
which wrought in all these would have passed sooner from among 
men, if it had not been recalled from a trance, which others were 
content to mistake for the last sleep, by the passionate breath of 
Demosthenes. 

The orator in whom artistic genius was united, more perfectly 
than in any other man, with moral enthusiasm and with intel- 
lectual grasp, has held in the modern world the same 
rank which was accorded to him in the old; but he 
cannot enjoy the same appreciation. Macaulay's ridicule has 
rescued from oblivion the criticism which pronounced the 
eloquence of Chatham to be more ornate than that of Demos- 
thenes, and less diffuse than that of Cicero. Did the critic, asks 
Macaulay, ever hear any speaking that was less ornamented than 
that of Demosthenes, or more diffuse than that of Cicero? Yet 
the critic's remark was not so pointless as Macaulay thought 
it. Sincerity and intensity are, indeed, to the modern reader, 
the most obvious characteristics of Demosthenes. His style is, 
on the whole, singularly free from what we are accustomed to 
regard as rhetorical embellishment. Where the modern orator 
would employ a wealth of imagery, or elaborate a picture in 



Oratory. 



exquisite detail, Demosthenes is content with a phrase or a 
word. Burke uses, in reference to Hyder Ali, the same image 
which Demosthenes uses in reference to Philip. " Compounding 
all the materials of fury, havoc, desolation, into one black cloud, 
he hung for a while on the declivity of the mountains. Whilst 
the authors of all these evils were idly and stupidly gazing on this 
menacing meteor, which darkened all their horizon, it suddenly 
burst, and poured down the whole of its contents upon the plains 
of the Carnatic." Demosthenes forbears to amplify. " The 
people gave their voice, and the danger which hung upon our 
borders went by like a cloud." To our modern feeling, the 
eloquence of Demosthenes exhibits everywhere a general stamp 
of earnest and simple strength. But it is well to remember the 
charge made against the style of Demosthenes by a contempo- 
rary Greek orator, and the defence offered by the best Greek 
critic of oratory. Aeschines reproached the diction of Demos- 
thenes with excess of elaboration and adornment (Trepupyla). 
Dionysius, in reply, admits that Demosthenes does at times 
depart from simplicity, — that his style is sometimes elaborately 
ornate and remote from the ordinary usage. But, he adds, 
Demosthenes adopts this manner where it is justified by the 
elevation of his theme. The remark may serve to remind us of 
our modern disadvantage for a full appreciation of Demosthenes. 
The old world felt, as we do, his moral and mental greatness, his 
fire, his self-devotion, his insight. But it felt also, as we can 
never feel, the versatile perfection of his skill. This it was that 
made Demosthenes unique to the ancients. The ardent patriot, 
the far-seeing statesman, were united in his person with the con- 
summate and unapproachable artist. Dionysius devoted two 
special treatises to Demosthenes, — one on his language and style 
(KeKTUtds totos) , the other on his treatment of subject-matter 
(irpcry/xaracite roiros). The latter is lost. The former is one of 
the best essays in literary criticism which antiquity has 
bequeathed to us. The idea which it works out is that Demos- 
thenes has perfected Greek prose by fusing in a glorious harmony 
the elements which had hitherto belonged to separate types. 
The austere dignity of Antiphon, the plain elegance of Lysias, 
the smooth and balanced finish of that middle or normal char- 
acter which is represented by Isocrates, have come together in 
Demosthenes. Nor is this all. In each species he excels the 
specialists. He surpasses the school of Antiphon in perspicuity, 
the school of Lysias in verve, the school of Isocrates in variety, in 
felicity, in symmetry, in pathos, in power. Demosthenes has at 
command all the discursive brilliancy which fascinates a festal 
audience. He has that power of concise and lucid narration, of 
terse reasoning, of persuasive appeal, which is required by the 
forensic speaker. His political eloquence can worthily image 
the majesty of the state, and enforce weighty counsels with lofty 
and impassioned fervour. A true artist, he grudged no labour 
which could make the least part of his work more perfect. 
Isocrates spent ten years on the Panegyricus. After Plato's 
death, a manuscript was found among his papers with the first 
eight words of the Republic arranged in several different orders. 
What wonder, then, asks the Greek critic, if the diligence of 
Demosthenes was no less incessant and minute? "Tome," 
he says, " it seems far more natural that a man engaged in com- 
posing political discourses, imperishable memorials of his power, 
should neglect not even the smallest details, than that the 
veneration of painters and sculptors, who are darkly showing 
forth their manual tact and toil in a corruptible material, should 
exhaust the refinements of their art on the veins, on the feathers, 
on the down of the lip, and the like niceties." 

More than half of the sixty-one speeches extant under the name 
of Demosthenes are certainly or probably spurious. The results 
to which the preponderance of opinion leans are given 
in the following table. Those marked a were already 
rejected or doubted in antiquity; those marked m, first in 
modern times : x 



Works. 



1 The dates agree in the main with those given by A. D. Schafer 
m Demosthenes und seine Zeit (2nd ed., 1 885-1 887), and by F. Blass 
in Die attiscke Beredsamkeit (1887-1898), who regards thirty-three 
(or possibly thirty-five) of the speeches as genuine. 



DEMOSTHENES 



15 



I. DELIBERATIVE SPEECHES. 
Genuine. 
Or. 14. On the Navy Boards 
Or. 16. For the People of Megalopolis . 
Or. 4. First Philippic 
Or. 15. For the Rhodians 
Or. I. First Olynthiac 
Or. 2. Second Olynthiac 
Or. 3. Third Olynthiac 
Or. 5. On the Peace 
Or. 6. Second Philippic 
Or. 8. On the Affairs of the Chersonese 
Or. 9. Third Philippic 

Spurious. 



(a) Or. 7. On Halonnesus (by Hegesippus) 
Rhetorical Forgeries. 

17. On the Treaty with Alexander. 

10. Fourth Philippic. 

11. Answer to Philip's Letter. 1 

12. Philip's Letter. 



354 B.C. 

352 

35i 

35i 

349 

349 

348 

346 

344 

341 

341 



342 B.C. 



(a) Or. 
(a) Or. 
(w) Or. 
(m) Or. 
(m) Or. 



13. On the Assessment (aivT^is). 

II. FORENSIC SPEECHES. 
A. In Public Causes. 



Genuine. 

Or. 22. In (/card) Androtionem . 

Or. 20. Contra {trpbs) Leptinem 

Or. 24. In Timocratem 

Or. 23. In Aristocratera 

Or. 21. In Midiara . 

19. On the Embassy 



Or. 
Or. 



18. On the Crown 



355 
354 
352 
352 
349 
343 
330 



B.C. 



Spurious. 
Or. 58. In Theocrinem . . 

Or. 25, 26. In Aristogitona I. and II. (Rhetorical forgeries), 

B. In Private Causes. 
Genuine. 
Or. 27, 28. In Aphobum I. et II. 

(m) Or. 30, 31. Contra Onetora I. et II. 
Or. 41. Contra Spudiam . 
Or. 55. Contra Calliclem . 
Or. 54. In Cononem. 
Or. 36. Pro Phormione 
Or. 39. Contra Boeotum de Nomine 
Or. 37. Contra Pantaenetum 

(m) Or. 38. Contra Nausimachum et Diopithem 
Spurious. 

(The first eight of the following are given by Schafer to Apollodorus.) 

(m) Or. 52. Contra Callippum. .... 369-8 B.C. 

Or. 53. Contra Nicostratum . . . after 368 „ 

Or. 49. Contra Timotheum .... 362 „ 

Or. 50. Contra Polyclem 357 ,, 

Or. 47. In Evergum et Mnesibulum . . . 356 ,, 

Or. 45, 46. In Stephanum I. et II. . . . 351 „ 

Or. 59. In Neaeram ._ _349[343-o. Blass] 



(a) 
(a) 



(m) 



(m) 



339 



364 
362 

? 

? 
356 
352 
350 
346-5 

? 



(a) 
(a) 
(«) 
(a) 
(m) 
(a) 
(m) 



J 360-359 

? 



Or. 51. On the Trierarchic Crown (by Cephiso- 
dotus ?) . . . 
(m) Or. 43. Contra Macartatum 

(m) Or. 48. In Olympiodorum. . . . after 343 „ 

(m) Or. 44. Contra Leocharem. . . . . ? 

(a) Or. 35. Contra Lacritum ..... 341 ,, 
(a) Or. 42. Contra Phaenippum . . . . ? 

(m) Or. 32. Contra Zenothemin . . . . ? 

(m) Or. 34. Contra Phormionem . . . . ? 

(m) Or. 29. Contra Aphobum pro Phano 

(a) Or. 40. Contra Boeotum de Dote . . . 347 „ 

(m) Or. 57. Contra Eubulidem .... 346-5 ,, 

(m) Or. 33. Contra Apaturium . . . . ? 

(a) Or. 56. In Dionysodorum . . not before 322-1 „ 

Or. 60 (4xiT&0ios) and Or. 61 (Iputik6s) are works of rhetor- 
icians. The six epistles are also forgeries; they were used by the 
composer of the twelve epistles which bear the name of Aeschines. 
The 56 irpooiiua, exordia or sketches for political speeches, are by 
various hands and of various dates. 2 They are valuable as being 
compiled from Demosthenes himself, or from other classical models. 

The ancient fame of Demosthenes as an orator can be compared 
only with the fame of Homer as a poet. Cicero, with generous 
appreciation, recognizes Demosthenes as the standard of perfec- 
tion. Dionysius, the closest and most penetrating of his ancient 
critics, exhausts the language of admiration in showing how 

1 Or. 11 and 12 are probably both byAnaximenes of Lampsacus. 

2 According to Blass, the second and third epistles and the exordia 
are genuine. 



Demos- 
thenes. 



Demosthenes united and elevated whatever had been best in 
earlier masters of the Greek idiom. Hermogenes, in his works 
on rhetoric, refers to Demosthenes as 6 prjrwp, the Literary 
orator. The writer of the treatise On Sublimity knows history of 
no heights loftier than those to which Demosthenes 
has risen. From his own younger contemporaries, 
Aristotle and Theophrastus, who founded their theory of rhetoric 
in large part on his practice, down to the latest Byzantines, the 
consent of theorists, orators, antiquarians, anthologists, lexico- 
graphers, offered the same unvarying homage to Demosthenes. 
His work busied commentators such as Xenon, Minucian, 
Basilicus, Aelius, Theon, Zosimus of Gaza. Arguments to his 
speeches were drawn up by rhetoricians so distinguished as 
Numenius and Libanius. Accomplished men of letters, such as 
Julius Vestinus and Aelius Dionysius, selected from his writings 
choice passages for declamation or perusal, of which fragments 
are incorporated in the miscellany of Photius and the lexicons 
of Harpocration, Pollux and Suidas. It might have been 
anticipated that the purity of a text so widely read and so 
renowned would, from the earliest times, have been guarded with 
jealous care. The works of the three great dramatists had been 
thus protected, about 340 B.C., by a standard Attic recension. 
But no such good fortune befell the works of Demosthenes. 
Alexandrian criticism was chiefly occupied with poetry. The 
titular works of Demosthenes were, indeed, registered, with 
those of the other orators, in the catalogues (prjropiKol irivaKts) 
of Alexandria and Pergamum. But no thorough attempt was 
made to separate the authentic works from those spurious works 
which had even then become mingled with them. Philosophical 
schools which, like the Stoic, felt the ethical interest of Demos- 
thenes, cared little for his language. The rhetoricians who 
imitated or analysed his style cared little for the criticism of his 
text. Their treatment of it had, indeed, a direct tendency to 
falsify it. It was customary to indicate by marks those passages 
which were especially useful for study or imitation. It then 
became a rhetorical exercise to recast, adapt or interweave such 
passages. Sopater, the commentator on Hermogenes, wrote on 
/i€Ta/3oXcu Kai fj,eroiTOLria€t.s tu>v Ar/fjioadevovs x^piuv, " adap- 
tations or transcripts of passages in Demosthenes." Such 
manipulation could not but lead to interpolations or confusions 
in the original text. Great, too, as was the attention bestowed 
on the thought, sentiment and style of Demosthenes, compara- 
tively little care was bestowed on his subject-matter. He was 
studied more on the moral and the formal side than on the real 
side. An incorrect substitution of one name for another, a reading 
which gave an impossible date, insertions of spurious laws or 
decrees, were points which few readers would stop to notice. 
Hence it resulted that, while Plato, Thucydides and Demos- 
thenes, were the most universally popular of the classical prose- 
writers, the text of Demosthenes, the most widely used perhaps 
of all, was also the least pure. His more careful students at 
length made an effort to arrest the process of corruption. 
Editions of Demosthenes based on a critical recension, and called 
'ATTiKiava (&.VTlypa4>a), came to be distinguished from the 
vulgates, or S-qjxuSeLS e/c56<7eis. 

Among the extant manuscripts of Demosthenes — upwards of 
170 in number — one is far superior, as a whole, to the rest. This 
is Parisinus 2 2934, of the 10th century. A com- 
parison of this MS. with the extracts of Aelius, 
Aristeides and Harpocration from the Third Philippic 
favours the view that it is derived from an 'ArTiiaavov, whereas 
the Srifjuiideis eKdoaeis, used by Hermogenes and by the 
rhetoricians generally, have been the chief sources of our other 
manuscripts. The collation of this manuscript by Immanuel 
Bekker first placed the textual criticism of Demosthenes on a 
sound footing. Not only is this manuscript nearly free from 
interpolations, but it is the sole voucher for many excellent 
readings. Among the other MSS., some of the most important 
are — Marcianus 416 F, of the 10th (or nth) century, the basis 
of the Aldine edition; Augustanus I. (N 85), derived from the 
last, and containing scholia to the speeches on the Crown and the 
Embassy, by Ulpian, with some by a younger writer, who was 



Manu- 
scripts. 



i6 



DEMOTIC— DEMPSTER 



perhaps Moschopulus; Parisinus T ; Antverpiensis — the last 
two comparatively free from additions. The fullest authority 
on the MSS. is J. T. Vomel, Notitia codicum Demosth., and 
Prolegomena Critica to his edition published at Halle (1856-1857), 
pp. 175-178. 1 

The extant scholia on Demosthenes are for the most part poor. 
Their staple consists of Byzantine erudition; and their value 
Scholia. depends chiefly on what they have preserved of older 
criticism. They are better than usual for the Ilepi 
cretpavov, Kara. Tt/wKparous; best for the Ilepi ■Kapavpea- 
(3eias. The Greek commentaries ascribed to Ulpian are especially 
defective on the historical side, and give little essential aid. 
Editions: — C. W. Miiller, in Oral. All. ii. (1847-1858); Scholia 
Graeca in Demosth. ex cod. aucta et emendata (Oxon., 1851; in 
W. Dindorf's ed.). 

Bibliography. — Editio princeps (Aldus, Venice, 1504); J. J. 
Reiske (with notes of J. Wolf, J. Taylor, j. Markland, &c, 1770- 
1775); revised edition of Reiske by G. H. Schafer (1823-1826); 
I. Bekker, in Oratores Altici (1823-1824), the first edition based on 
codex 2 (see above); W. S. Dobson (1828); J. G. Baiter and 
H. Sauppe (1850) ; W. Dindorf (in Teubner series, 1867, 4th ed. by 
F. Blass, 1885-1889); H. Omont, facsimile edition of codex 2 
(1 892-1 893); S. H. Butcher in Oxford Scriplorum Classicorum 
Bibliotheca (1903 foil.); W. Dindorf (9 vols., Oxford, 1846-1851), 
with notes of previous commentators and Greek scholia ; R. Whiston 
(political speeches) with introductions and notes (1859-1868). For 
a select list of the numerous English and foreign editions and trans- 
lations of separate speeches see J. B. Mayor, Guide to the Choice of 
Classical Books (1885, suppt. 1896). Mention may here be made of 
De corona by W. W. Goodwin (1901, ed. min., 1904) ; W. H. Simcox 
(1873, with Aeschines In Ctesiphontem) ; and P. E. Matheson 
(1899); Leptines by J. E. Sandys (1890); De falsa legatione by 
R. Shilleto (4th ed., 1874) ; Select Private Orations by J. E. Sandys and 
F. A. Paley (3rd ed., 1898, 1896) ; Midias by W. W. Goodwin (1906). 
C. R. Kennedy's complete translation is a model of scholarly finish, 
and the appendices on Attic law, &c, are of great value. There are 
indices to Demosthenes by J. Reiske (ed. G. H. Schafer, 1823) ; 
S. Preuss (1892). Among recent papyrus finds are fragments of a 
special lexicon to the Aristocralea and a commentary by Didymus 
(ed. H. Diels and W. Schubart, 1904). Illustrative literature: A. D. 
Schafer, Demosthenes und seine Zeit (2nd ed., 1885-1887), a masterly 
and exhaustive historical work; F. Blass, Die altische Beredsamkeit 
(1887-1898); W. J. Brodribb, " Demosthenes " in Ancient Classics 
for English Readers (1877); S. H. Butcher, Introduction to the Study 
of Demosthenes (1881); C. G. Bohnecke, Demosthenes, Lykurgos, 
Hyperides, und ihr Zeitalter (1864) ; A. Bouille, Histoire de Demos- 
thene (2nd ed., 1868) ; J. Girard, Utiides sur I'eloquence attique (1874) ; 
M. Croiset, Des idSes morales dans V&loqwnce politique de Demos- 
ihlne (1874);^. Hug, Demosthenes als polilischer Denker (1881); 
L. Bredit, L'Eloquence politique en Grece (2nd ed., 1886); A. Bougot, 
Rivalite d'Eschine et Demosthine (1891). For fuller bibliographical 
information consult R. Nicolai, Griechische Literaturgeschichte 
(1881); W. Engelmann, Scriptores Graeci (1881); G. Huttner in 
C. Bursian's Jahresbericht, li. (1889). (R. C. J.) 



DEMOTIC (Gr. drjuonKos, of or belonging to the people), a 
term, meaning popular, specially applied to that cursive script 
of the ancient Egyptian language used for business and literary 
purposes, — for the people. It is opposed to " hieratic " (Gr. 
UpariKos, of or belonging to the priests), the script, an abridged 
form of the hieroglyphic, used in transcribing the religious texts. 
(See Writing, and Egypt: II., Ancient,D. Languageand Writing.) 

DEMOTICA, or Dimotica, a town of European Turkey, in the 
vilayet of Adrianople; on the Maritza valley branch of the 
Constantinople-Salonica railway, about 35 m. S. of Adrianople. 
Pop. (1905) about 10,000. Demotica is built at the foot of a 
conical hill on the left bank of the river Kizildeli, near its junction 
with the Maritza. It was formerly the seat of a Greek arch- 
bishop, and besides the ancient citadel and palace on the summit 
of the hill contains several Greek churches, mosques and public 
baths. In the middle ages, when it was named Didymotichos, 
it was one of the principal marts of Thrace; in modern times 
it has regained something of its commercial importance, and 
exports pottery, linen, silk and grain. These goods are sent 
to Dedeagatch for shipment. Demotica was the birthplace of the 

1 See also H. Usener in Nachrichten von der Konigl. Chsdlschaft der 
Wissenschaften zu Gbttingen, p. 188 (1892) ; J. H. Lipsius, " Zur Text- 
critik des Demosthenes " in Berichle . . . der Konigl. Sachsischen 
Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften (1893) with special reference to the 
papyrus finds at the end of the 19th century; E. Bethe, Demosthenis 
scriplorum corpus (1893). 



Turkish sultan Bayezid I. (1347); after the battle of Poltava, 
Charles XII. of Sweden resided here from February 17 13 to 
October 17 14. 

DEMPSTER, THOMAS (1579-1625), Scottish scholar and 
historian, was born at Cliftbog, Aberdeenshire, the son of 
Thomas Dempster of Muresk, Auchterless and Killesmont, 
sheriff of Banff and Buchan. According to his own account, 
he was the twenty-fourth of twenty-nine children, and was early 
remarkable for precocious talent. He obtained his early educa- 
tion in Aberdeenshire, and at ten entered Pembroke Hall, 
Cambridge; after a short while he went to Paris, and, driven 
thence by the plague, to Louvain, whence by order of the pope 
he was transferred with several other Scottish students to the 
papal seminary at Rome. Being soon forced by ill health to 
leave, he went to the English college at Douai, where he remained 
three years and took his M.A. degree. While at Douai he wrote 
a scurrilous attack on Queen Elizabeth, which caused a riot 
among the English students. But, if his truculent character 
was thus early displayed, his abilities were no less conspicuous; 
and, though still in his teens, he became lecturer on the 
Humanities at Tournai, whence, after but a short stay, he returned 
to Paris, to take his degree of doctor of canon law, and become 
regent of the college of Navarre. He soon left Paris for Toulouse, 
which in turn he was forced to leave owing to the hostility of the 
city authorities, aroused by his violent assertion of university 
rights. He was now elected professor of eloquence at the 
university or academy of Nimes, but not without a murderous 
attack upon him by one of the defeated candidates and his 
supporters, followed by a suit for libel, which, though he ulti- 
mately won his case, forced him to leave the town. A short 
engagement in Spain, as tutor to the son of Marshal de Saint Luc, 
was terminated by another quarrel; and Dempster now returned 
to Scotland with the intention of asserting a claim to his father's 
estates. Finding his relatives unsympathetic, and falling into 
heated controversy with the Presbyterian clergy, he made no 
long stay, but returned to Paris, where he remained for seven 
years, becoming professor in several colleges successively. At 
last, however, his temporary connexion with the college de 
Beauvais was ended by a feat of arms which proved him as stout 
a fighter with his sword as with his pen; and, since his victory 
was won over officers of the king's guard, it again became 
expedient for him to change his place of residence. The dedica- 
tion of his edition of Rosinus' Antiquitatum Romanorum corpus 
absolulissimum to King James I. had won him an invitation 
to the English court; and in 161 5 he went to London. His 
reception by the king was flattering enough; but his hopes of 
preferment were dashed by the opposition of the Anglican clergy 
to the promotion of a papist. He left for Rome, where, after a 
short imprisonment on suspicion of being a spy, he gained the 
favour of Pope Paul V., through whose influence with Cosimo II., 
grand duke of Tuscany, he was appointed to the professorship of 
the Pandects at Pisa. He had married while in London, but ere 
long had reason to suspect his wife's relations with a certain 
Englishman. Violent accusations followed, indignantly repudi- 
ated; a diplomatic correspondence ensued, and a demand was 
made, and supported by the grand duke, for an apology, which 
the professor refused to make, preferring rather to lose his chair. 
He now set out once more for Scotland, but was intercepted by 
the Florentine cardinal Luigi Capponi, who induced him to 
remain at Bologna as professor of Humanity. This was the most 
distinguished post in the most famous of continental universities, 
and Dempster was now at the height of his fame. Though his 
Roman Antiquities and Scotia iUustrior had been placed on the 
Index pending correction, Pope Urban VIII. made him a knight 
and gave him a pension. He was not, however, to enjoy his 
honours long. His wife eloped with a student, and Dempster, 
pursuing the fugitives in the heat of summer, caught a fever, and 
died at Bologna on the 6th of September 1625. 

Dempster owed his great position in the history of scholarship 
to his extraordinary memory, and to the versatility which made 
him equally at home in philology, criticism, law, biography and 
history. His style is, however, often barbarous; and the obvious 



DEMURRAGE— DENBIGH 



17 



defects of his works, are due to his restlessness and impetuosity, 
and to a patriotic and personal vanity which led him in Scottish 
questions into absurd exaggerations, and in matters affecting 
his own life into an incurable habit of romancing. The best 
known of his works is the Historia ecclesiastica gentis Scotorum 
(Bologna, 1627). In this book he tries to prove that Bernard 
(Sapiens), Alcuin, Boniface and Joannes Scotus Erigena were 
all Scots, and even Boadicea becomes a Scottish author. This 
criticism is not applicable to his works on antiquarian subjects, 
and his edition of Benedetto Accolti's De hello a Chris tianis 
contra barbaros (1623) has great merits. 

A portion of his Latin verse is printed in the first volume (pp. 306- 
354) of Delitiae poetarum Scotorum (Amsterdam, 1637). 

DEMURRAGE (from "demur," Fr. demeurer, to delay, 
derived from Lat. mora), in the law of merchant shipping, the 
sum payable by the freighter to the shipowner for detention of 
the vessel in port beyond the number of days allowed for the 
purpose of loading or unloading (see Affreightment: under 
Charter-parties). The word is also used in railway law for the 
charge on detention of trucks; and in banking for the charge 
per ounce made by the Bank of England in exchanging coin 
or notes for bullion. 

DEMURRER (from Fr. demeurer, to delay, Lat. morari), in 
English law, an objection taken to the sufficiency, in point of 
law, of the pleading or written statement of the other side. In 
equity pleading a demurrer lay only against the bill, and not 
against the answer; at common law any part of the pleading 
could be demurred to. On the passing of the Judicature Act 
of 1875 the procedure with respect to demurrers in civil cases 
was amended, and, subsequently, by the Rules of the Supreme 
Court, Order XXV. demurrers were abolished and a more 
summary process for getting rid of pleadings which showed 
no reasonable cause of action or defence was adopted, called 
proceedings in lieu of demurrer. Demurrer in criminal cases 
still exists, but is now seldom resorted to. Demurrers are still 
in constant use in the United States. See Answer; Pleading. 

DENAIN, a town of northern France in the department of 
Nord, 8 m. S.W. of Valenciennes by steam tramway. A mere 
village in the beginning of the 19th century, it rapidly increased 
from 1850 onwards, and, according to the censusof 1906, possessed 
22,845 inhabitants, mainly engaged in the coal mines and iron- 
smelting works, to which it owes its development. There are 
also breweries, manufactories of machinery, sugar and glass. 
A school of commerce and industry is among the institutions. 
Denain has a port on the left bank of the Scheldt canal. Its 
vicinity was the scene of the decisive victory gained in 171 2 by 
Marshal Villars over the allies commanded by Prince Eugene; 
and the battlefield is marked by a monolithic monument 
inscribed with the verses of Voltaire: — 

" Regardez dans Denain l'audacieux Villars 
Disputant le tonnerre k l'aigle des Cesars." 

DENBIGH, WILLIAM FEILDING, ist Earl of (d. 1643), son 
of Basil Feilding 1 of Newnham Paddox in Warwickshire, and 
of Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Walter Aston, was educated 
at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and knighted in 1603. He 
married Susan, daughter of Sir George Villiers, sister of the 
future duke of Buckingham, and on the rise of the favourite 
received various offices and dignities. He was appointed custos 
rotulorum of Warwickshire, and master of the great wardrobe 
in 1622, and created baron and viscount Feilding in 1620, and 
earl of Denbigh. on the 14th of September 1622. He attended 
Prince Charles on the Spanish adventure, served as admiral in 
the unsuccessful expedition to Cadiz in 1625, and commanded the 
disastrous attempt upon Rochelle in 1628, becoming the same 
year a member of the council of war, and in 1633 a member of the 
council of Wales. In 163 1 Lord Denbigh visited the East. On 
the outbreak of the Civil War he served under Prince Rupert 

1 The descent of the Feildings from the house of Habsburg, through 
the counts of Laufenburg and Rheinfelden, long considered authentic, 
and immortalized by Gibbon, has been proved to have been based on 
forged documents. See J. H. Round, Peerage and Family History 
(1901). 



and was present at Edgehill. On the 3rd of April 1643 during 
Rupert's attack on Birmingham he was wounded and died from 
the effects on the 8th, being buried at Monks Kirby in Warwick- 
shire. His courage, unselfishness and devotion to duty are much 
praised by Clarendon. 

See E. Lodge, Portraits (1850), iv. 113; J. Nichols, Hist, of 
Leicestershire (1807), iv. pt. 1, 273; Hist. MSS. Comm Ser. 4th Rep. 
app. 254 ; Cal. of State Papers, Dom. ; Studies in Peerage and Family 
History, by J. H. Round (1901), 216. 

His eldest son, Basil Feilding, 2nd earl of Denbigh (c. i6o8-> 
1675), was educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge. He was 
summoned to the House of Lords as Baron Feilding in March 
1629. After seeing military service in the Netherlands he was 
sent in 1634 by Charles I. as ambassador to Venice, where he 
remained for five years. When the Civil War broke out Feilding, 
unlike the other members of his family, ranged himself among 
the Parliamentarians, led a regiment of horse at Edgehill, and, 
having become earl of Denbigh in April 1643, was made com- 
mander-in-chief of the Parliamentary army in Warwickshire and 
the neighbouring counties, and lord-lieutenant of Warwickshire. 
During the year 1644 he was fairly active in the field, but in some 
quarters he was distrusted and he resigned his command after 
the passing of the self-denying ordinance in April 1645. At 
Uxbridge in 1645 Denbigh was one of the commissioners appointed 
to treat with the king, and he undertook a similar duty at 
Carisbrooke in 1647. Clarendon relates how at Uxbridge 
Denbigh declared privately that he regretted the position in 
which he found himself, and expressed his willingness to serve 
Charles I. He supported the army in its dispute with the 
parliament, but he would take no part in the trial of Charles I. 
Under the government of the commonwealth Denbigh was a 
member of the council of state, but his loyalty to his former 
associates grew lukewarm, and gradually he came to be regarded 
as a royalist. In 1664 the earl was created Baron St Liz. 
Although four times married he .'.eft no issue when he died on the 
28th of November 1675. 

His titles devolved on his nephew William Feilding (1640- 
1685), son and heir of his brother George (created Baron Feilding 
of Lecaghe, Viscount Callan and earl of Desmond), and the 
earldom of Desmond has been held by his descendants to the 
present day in conjunction with the earldom of Denbigh. 

DENBIGH (Dinbych), a municipal and (with Holt, Ruthin 
and Wrexham) contributory parliamentary borough, market 
town and county town of Denbighshire, N. Wales, on branches 
of the London & North Western and the Great Western railways. 
Pop. (1901) 6438. Denbigh Castle, surrounding the hill with a 
double wall, was built; in Edward I.'s reign, by Henry de Lacy, 
earl of Lincoln, from whom the town received its first charter. 
The outer wall is nearly a mile round; over its main gateway is a 
niche with a figure representing, possibly, Edward L, but more 
probably, de Lacy. Here, in 1645, after the defeat of Rowton 
Moor, Charles I. found shelter, the castle long resisting the 
Parliamentarians, and being reduced to ruins by his successor. 
The chief buildings are the Carmelite Priory (ruins dating 
perhaps from the 13th century); a Bluecoat school (1514); a 
free grammar school (1527); an orphan girl school (funds left by 
Thomas Howel to the Drapers' Co., in Henry VII. 's reign); 
the town hall (built in 1572 by Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester, 
enlarged and restored in 1780); an unfinished church (begun 
by Leicester); a market hall (with arcades or " rows," such as 
those of Chester or Yarmouth); and the old parish church of 
St Marcella. The streams near Denbigh are the Clwyd and 
Elwy. The inhabitants of Denbigh are chiefly occupied in 
the timber trade, butter-making, poultry-farming, bootmaking, 
tanning and quarrying (lime, slate and paving-stones). The 
borough of Denbigh has a separate commission of the peace, but 
no separate court of quarter sessions. The town has long been 
known as a Welsh publishing centre, the vernacular newspaper, 
Baner, being edited and printed here. Near Denbigh, at 
Bodelwyddan, &c, coal is worked. 

The old British tower and castle were called Castell caled 
fryn yn Rhds, the " castle of the hard hill in Rh6s." Din in 



i8 



DENBIGHSHIRE— DENDERA 



Dinbych means a fort. There is a goblin well at the castle. 
Historically, David (Dafydd), brother of the last Llewelyn, was 
here (aet. Edward I.) perhaps on a foray; also Henry Lacy, who 
built the castle (aet. Edward I.), given to the Mortimers and to 
Leicester (under Edward III. and Elizabeth, respectively). 

DENBIGHSHIRE (Dinbych), a county of N. Wales, bounded 
N. by the Irish Sea, N.E. by Flint and Cheshire, S.E. by Flint 
and Shropshire, S. by Montgomery and Merioneth, and W. by 
Carnarvon. Area, 662 sq. m. On the N. coast, within the 
Denbighshire borders and between Old Colwyn and Llandulas, 
is a wedge of land included in Carnarvonshire, owing to a change 
in the course of the Conwy stream. (Thus, also, Llandudno is 
partly in the Bangor, and partly in the St Asaph, diocese.) The 
surface of Denbighshire is irregular, and physically diversified. 
In the N.W. are the bleak Hiraethog (" longing ") hills, sloping W. 
to the Conw}' and E. to the Clwyd. In the N. are Colwyn and 
Abergele bays, on the S. the Yspytty (Lat. Hospitium) and 
Llangwm range, between Denbigh and Merioneth. From this 
watershed flow the Elwy, Aled, Clywedog, Merddwr and Alwen, 
tributaries of the Clwyd, Conwy and Dee (Dyfrdwy). Some of 
the valleys contrast agreeably with the bleak hills, e.g. those 
of the Clwyd and Elwy. The portion lying between Ruabon 
(Rhiwabon) hills and the Dee is agricultural and rich in minerals; 
the Berwyn to Offa's Dyke (Wdl Of a) is wild and barren, 
except the Tanat valley, Llansilin and Ceiriog. One feeder of 
the Tanat forms the Pistyll Rhaiadr (waterspout fall), another 
rises in Llyncaws (cheese pool) under Moel Sych (dry bare-hill), 
the highest point in the county. Aled and Alwen are both lakes 
and streams. 

Geology. — The geology of the county is full of interest, as it 
develops all the principal strata that intervenes between the 
Ordovician and the Triassic series. Id the Ordovician district, which 
extends from the southern boundary to the Ceiriog, the Llandeilo 
formation of the eastern slopes of the Berwyn and the Bala beds of 
shelly sandstone are traversed east and west by bands of intrusive 
felspathic porphyry and ashes. The same formation occurs just 
within the county border at Cerrig-y-Druidion, Langum, Bettys-y- 
coed and in the Fairy Glen. Northwards from the Ceiriog to the 
limestone fringe at Llandrillo the Wenlock shale of the Silurian 
covers the entire mass of the Hiraethog and Clwydian hills, but 
verging on its western slopes into the Denbighshire grit, which may 
be traced southward in a continuous line from the mouth of the 
Conway as far as Llanddewi Ystrad Enni in Radnorshire, near 
Pentre-Voelas and Conway they are abundantly fossiliferous. On its 
eastern slope a narrow broken band of the Old Red, or what may be 
a conglomeratic basement bed of the Carboniferous Limestone series, 
crops up along the Vale of Clwyd and in Eglwyseg. Resting upon this 
the Carboniferous Limestone extends from Llanymynach, its extreme 
southern point, to the Cyrnybrain fault, and there forks into two 
divisions that terminate respectively in the Great Orme's Head and 
in Talargoch, and are separated from each other by the denuded 
shales of the Moel Famma range. In the Vale of Clwyd the limestone 
underlies the New Red Sandstone, and in the eastern division it is 
itself overlaid by the Millstone Grit of Ruabon and Minera, and by 
a long reach of the Coal Measures which near Wrexham are 4! m. 
in breadth. Eastward of these a broad strip of the red marly beds 
succeeds, formerly considered to be Permian but now regarded as 
belonging to the Coal Measures, and yet again between this and the 
Dee the ground is occupied — as in the Vale of Clwyd— by the New 
Red rocks. As in the other northern counties of Wales, the whole 
of the lower ground is covered more or less thickly with glacial drift. 
On the western side of the Vale of Clwyd, at Cefn and Plas Heaton, 
the caves, which are a common feature in such limestone districts, 
have yielded the remains of the rhinoceros, mammoth, hippopotamus 
and other extinct mammals. 

Coal is mined from the Coal Measures, and from the limestone 
below, lead with silver and zinc ores have been obtained. Valuable 
fireclays and terra-cotta marls are also taken from the Coal Measures 
about Wrexham. 

The uplands being uncongenial for corn, ponies, sheep and 
black cattle are reared, for fattening in the Midlands of England 
and sale in London. Oats and turnips, rather than wheat, 
barley and potatoes, occupy the tilled land. The county is 
fairly wooded. There are several important farmers' clubs (the 
Denbighshire and Flintshire, the vale of Conway, the Cerrig y 
druidion, &c.) . The London & North- Western railway (Holyhead 
line), with the Conway and Clwyd valleys branches, together 
with the lines connecting Denbigh with Ruabon (Rhiwabon), 
via Ruthin and Corwen, Wrexham with Connah's Quay (Great 



Central) and Rhosllanerchrhugog with Glyn Ceiriog (for the Great 
Western and Great Central railways) have opened up the county. 
Down the valley of Llangollen also runs the Holyhead road from 
London, well built and passing through fine scenery. At Nantglyn 
paving flags are raised, at Rhiwfelen (near Llangollen) slabs and 
slates, and good slates are also obtained at Glyn Ceiriog. There 
is plenty of limestone, with china stone at Brymbo. Cefn 
Rhiwabon yields sandstone (for hones) and millstone grit. 
Chirk, Ruabon and Brymbo have coal mines. The great Minera 
is the principal lead mine. There is much brick and pottery clay. 
The Ceiriog valley has a dynamite factory. Llangollen and 
Llansantffraid (St Bridgit's) have woollen manufactures. 

The area of the ancient county is 423,499 acres, with a popula- 
tion in 1901 of 129,942. The area of the administrative county 
is 426,084 acres. The chief towns are: Wrexham, a mining 
centre and N. Wales military centre, with a fine church; 
Denbigh; Ruthin, where assizes are held (here are a grammar 
school, a warden and a 13th-century castle rebuilt); Llangollen 
and Llanrwst; and Holt, with an old ruined castle. The 
Denbigh district of parliamentary boroughs is formed of: 
Denbigh (pop. 6483), Holt (1059), Ruthin (2643), and Wrexham 
(14,966). The county has two parliamentary divisions. The 
urban districts are: Abergele and Pensarn (2083), Colwyn Bay 
and Colwyn (8689), Llangollen (3303), and Llanrwst (2645). 
Denbighshire is in the N. Wales circuit, assizes being held 
at Ruthin. Denbigh and Wrexham boroughs have separate 
commissions of the peace, but no separate quarter-session courts. 
The ancient county, which is in the diocese of St Asaph, contains 
seventy-five ecclesiastical parishes and districts and part of a 
parish. 

The county was formed, by an act of Henry VIII., out of the 
lordships of Denbigh, Ruthin (Rhuthyn), Rhos and Rhyfoniog, 
which are roughly the Perfeddwlad (midland) between Conway 
and Clwyd, and the lordships of Bromfield, Yale (Idl, open land) 
and Chirkland, the old possessions of Gruffydd ap Madoc, 
arglwydd (lord) of Dinas Bran. Cefn (Elwy Valley) limestone 
caves hold the prehistoric hippopotamus, elephant, rhinoceros, 
lion, hyena, bear, reindeer, &c; Plas Heaton cave, the glutton; 
Pont Newydd, felstone tools and a polished stone axe (like that 
of Rhosdigre) ; Carnedd Tyddyn Bleiddian, " platycnemic 
(skeleton) men of Denbighshire " (like those of Perthi Chwareu). 
Clawdd Coch has traces of the Romans; so also Penygaer 
and Penbarras. Roman roads ran from Deva (Chester) to 
Segontium (Carnarvon) and from Deva to Mons Heriri ( Tomen 
y tnur). To their period belong the inscribed Gwytherin and 
Pentrefoelas (near Bettws-y-coed) stones. The Valle Crucis 
" Eliseg's pillar " tells of Brochmael and the Cairlegion (Chester) 
struggle against iEthelfrith's invading Northumbrians, a.d. 613, 
while Offa's dike goes back to the Mercian advance. Near 
and parallel to Offa's is the shorter and mysterious Watt's 
dike. Chirk is the only Denbighshire castle comparatively 
untouched by time and still occupied. Ruthin has cloisters; 
Wrexham, the Brynffynnon " nunnery "; and at both are 
collegiate churches. Llanrwst, Gresford and Derwen boast 
rood lofts and screens; Whitchurch and Llanrwst, portrait 
brasses and monuments; Derwen, a churchyard cross; Gresford 
and Llanrhaiadr (Dyff ryn Clwyd) , stained glass. Near Abergele, 
known for its sea baths, is the ogoj (or cave), traditionally the 
refuge of Richard II. and the scene of his capture by Bolingbroke 
in 1390. 

See J. Williams, Denbigh (1856), and T. F. Tout, Welsh Shires. 

DENDERA, a village in Upper Egypt, situated in the angle 
of the great westward bend of the Nile opposite Kena. Here 
was the ancient city'of Ten tyra, capital of the Tentyrite nome, the 
sixth of Upper Egypt, and the principal seat of the worship of 
Hathor [Aphrodite] the cow-goddess of love and joy. The old 
Egyptian name of Tentyra was written 'In-t (Ant), but the pro- 
nunciation of it is unknown: in later days it was 'Imt-t-ntr-t, 
" ant of the goddess," pronounced Ni-tent6ri, whence Tivrvpa, 
Tkvrvpis. The temple of Hathor was built in the 1st century B.C., 
being begun under the later Ptolemies (Ptol. XIII.) and finished 
by Augustus, but much of the decoration is later. A great 



DENDROCOMETES— DENE-HOLES 



rectangular enclosure of crude bricks, measuring about 900 X 850 
ft., contains the sacred buildings: it was entered by two stone 
gateways, in the north and the east sides, built by Domitian. 
Another smaller enclosure lies to the east with a gateway also 
of the Roman period. 

The plan of the temple may be supposed to have included a 
colonnaded court in front of the present facade, and pylon towers 
at the entrance; but these were never built, probably for lack 
of funds. The building, which is of sandstone, measures about 
300 ft. from front to back, and consists of two oblong rectangles; 
the foremost, placed transversely to the other, is the great 
hypostyle hall or pronaos, the broadest and loftiest part of the 
temple, measuring 135 ft. in width, and comprising about one- 
third of the whole structure; the facade has six columns with 
heads of Hathor, and the ceiling is supported by eighteen great 
columns. The second rectangle contains a small hypostyle hall 
with six columns, and the sanctuary, with their subsidiary 
chambers. The sanctuary is surrounded by a corridor into which 
the chambers open: on the west side is an apartment forming a 
court and kiosk for the celebration of the feast of the New 
Year, the principal festival of Dendera. On the roof of the 
temple, reached by two staircases, are a pavilion and several 
chambers dedicated to the worship of Osiris. Inside and out, 
the whole of the temple is covered with scenes and inscriptions 
in crowded characters, of ceremonial and religious import; the 
decoration is even carried into a remarkable series of hidden 
passages and chambers or crypts made in the solid walls for the 
reception of its most valuable treasures. The architectural style 
is dignified and pleasing in design and proportions. The interior 
of the building has been completely cleared: from the outside, 
however, its imposing effect is quite lost, owing to the mounds 
of rubbish amongst which it is sunk. North-east of the entrance 
is a " Birth House " for the cult of the child Harsemteu, and 
behind the temple a small temple of Isis, dating from the reign 
of Augustus. The original foundation of the temple must date 
back to a remote time: the work of some of the early builders 
is in fact referred to in the inscriptions on the present structure. 
Petrie's excavation of the cemetery behind the temple enclosures 
revealed burials dating from the fourth dynasty onwards, the 
most important being mastables of the period from the sixth 
to the eleventh dynasties; many of these exhibited a peculiar 
degradation of the contemporary style of sculpture. 

The zodiacs of the temple of Dendera gave rise to a consider- 
able literature before their late origin, was established by 
Champollion in 1822: one of them, from a chamber on the roof, 
was removed in 1820 to the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris. 
Figures of the celebrated Cleopatra VI. occur amongst the 
sculptures on the exterior of the temple, but they are purely 
conventional, without a trace of portraiture. Horus of Edfu, 
the enemy of the crocodiles and hippopotami of Set, appears 
sometimes as the consort of Hathor of Dendera. The skill 
displayed by the Tentyrites in capturing the crocodile is referred 
to by Strabo and other Greek writers. Juvenal, in his seventeenth 
satire, takes as his text a religious riot between the Tentyrites 
and the neighbouring Ombites, in the course of which an unlucky 
Ombite was torn to pieces and devoured by the opposite party. 
The Ombos in question is not the distant Ombos south of Edfu, 
where the crocodile was worshipped; Petrie has shown that 
opposite Coptos, only about 15 m. from Tentyra, there was 
another Ombos, venerating the hippopotamus sacred to Set. 

See A. Marieitte, Denderah (5 vols, atlas and text, 1869-1880) ; 
W. M. F. Petrie, Denderah (1900) ; Nagada and Ballas (1896). 

(F. Ll. G.) 

DENDROCOMETES (so named by F. Stein), a genus of 
suctorian Infusoria, characterized by the repeatedly branched 
attached body; each of the lobes of the body gives off a few 
retractile tentacles. It is parasitic on the gills of the so-called 
freshwater shrimp Gammarus pulex. 

For its conjugation see Sydney H. Hickson, in Quarterly Journ. of 
Microsc. Science, vol xlv. (1902), p. 32.5. 

DENE-HOLES, the name given to certain caves or excavations 
in England, which have been popularly supposed to be due to the 



Danes or some other of the early northern invaders of the country. 
The common spelling " Dane hole " is adduced as evidence of 
this, and individual names, such as Vortigern's Caves at Margate, 
and Canute's Gold Mine near Bexley, naturally follow the same 
theory. The word, however, is probably derived from the Anglo- 
Saxon den, a hole or valley. There are many underground 
excavations in the south of the country, also found to some extent 
in the midlands and the north, but true dene-holes are found 
chiefly in those parts of Kent and Essex along the lower banks 
of the Thames. With one exception there are no recorded 
specimens farther east than those of the Grays Thurrock district; 
situated in Hangman's Wood, on the north, and one near 
Rochester on the south side of the river. 

The general outline of the formation of these caves is invariably 
the same. The entrance is a vertical shaft some 3 ft. in diameter 
falling, on an average, to a depth of 60 ft. The depth is regulated, 
obviously, by the depth of the chalk from the surface, but, 
although chalk could have been obtained close at hand within 
a few feet, or even inches, from the surface, a depth of from 
45 to 80 ft., or more, is a characteristic feature. It is believed 
that dene-holes were also excavated in sand, but as these would 
be of a perishable nature there are no available data of any 
value. The shaft, when the chalk is reached, widens out into a 
domed chamber with a roof of chalk some 3 ft. thick. The walls 
frequently contract somewhat as they near the floor. As a rule 
there is only one chamber, from 16 to 18 ft. in height, beneath 
each shaft. From this excessive height it has been inferred that 
the caves were not primarily intended for habitations or even 
hiding-places. In some cases the chamber is extended, the roof 
being supported by pillars of chalk left standing. A rare specimen 
of a twin-chamber was discovered at Gravesend. In this case 
the one entrance served for both caves, although a separate 
aperture connected them on the floor level. Where galleries 
are found connecting the chambers, forming a bewildering 
labyrinth, a careful scrutiny of the walls usually reveals evidence 
that they are the work of a people of a much later period than 
that of the chambers, or, as they become in these cases, the 
halls of the galleries. 

Isolated specimens have been discovered in various parts of 
Kent and Essex, but the most important groups have been found 
at Grays Thurrock, in the districts of Woolwich, Abbey Wood 
and Bexley, and at Gravesend. Those at Bexley and Grays 
Thurrock are the most valuable still existing. 

It is generally found that the tool work on the roof or ceiling 
is rougher than that on the walls, where an upright position 
could be maintained. Casts taken of some of the pick-holes 
near the roof show that, in all probability, they were made 
by bone or horn picks. And numerous bone picks have been 
discovered in Essex and Kent. These pick-holes are amongst 
the most valuable data for the study of dene-holes, and have 
assisted in fixing the date of their formation to pre-Roman 
times. Very few relics of antiquarian value have been discovered 
in any of the known dene-holes which have assisted in fixing the 
date or determining the uses of these prehistoric excavations. 
Pliny mentions pits sunk to a depth of a hundred feet, " where 
they branched out like the veins of mines." This has been used 
in support of the theory that dene-holes were wells sunk for the 
extraction of chalk; but no known dene-hole branches out in this 
way. Chretien de Troyes has a passage on underground caves in 
Britain which may have reference to dene-holes, and tradition of 
the 14th century treated the dene-holes of Grays as the fabled 
gold mines of Cunobeline (or Cymbeline) of the 1st century. 

Vortigern's Caves at Margate are possibly dene-holes which 
have been adapted by later peoples to other purposes; and 
excellent examples of various pick-holes may be seen on different 
parts of the walls. 

Local tradition in some cases traces the use of these caves to 
the smugglers, and, when it is remembered that illicit traffic was 
common not only on the coast but in the Thames as far up the 
river as Barking Creek, the theory is at least tenable that these 
ready-made hiding-places, difficult of approach and dangerous 
to descend, were so utilized- 



20 



DENGUE— DENHAM 



There are three purposes for which dene-holes may have been 
originally excavated: (a) as hiding-places or dwellings, (b) draw- 
wells for the extraction of chalk for agricultural uses, and (c) store- 
houses for grain. For several reasons it is unlikely that they were 
used as habitations, although they may have been used occasion- 
ally as hiding-places. Other evidence has shown that it is 
equally improbable that they were used for the extraction of 
chalk. The chief reasons against this theory are that chalk 
could have been obtained outcropping close by, and that every 
trace of loose chalk has been removed from the vicinity of the 
holes, while known examples of chalk draw-wells do not descend 
to so great a depth. The discovery of a shallow dene-hole, about 
14 ft. below the surface, at Stone negatives this theory still 
further. The last of the three possible uses for which these 
prehistoric excavations were designed is usually accepted as 
the most probable. Silos, or underground storehouses, are well 
known in the south of Europe and Morocco. It is supposed that 
the grain was stored in the ear and carefully protected from 
damp by straw. A curious smoothness of the roof of one of the 
chambers of the Gravesend twin-chamber dene-hole has been put 
forward as additional evidence in support of this theory. One 
other theory has been advanced, viz. that the excavations were 
made in order to get flints for implements, but this is quite 
impossible, as a careful examination of a few examples will show. 
Further reference may be made to Essex Dene-holes by T.V. Holmes 
and W. Cole; €0 The Archaeological Journal (1882); the Transac- 
tions of the Essex Field Club; Archaeologia Cantiana, &c; Dene- 
holes by F. W. Reader, in Old Essex, ed. A. C. Kelway (1908). 

(A. J. P.) 
DENGUE (pronounced deng-ga), an infectious fever occurring 
in warm climates. The symptoms are a sudden attack of fever, 
accompanied by rheumatic pains in the joints and muscles with 
severe headache and erythema. After a few days a crisis is 
reached and an interval of two or three days is followed by a 
slighter return of fever and pain and an eruption resembling 
measles, the most marked characteristic of the disease. The 
disease is rarely fatal, death occurring only in cases of extreme 
weakness caused by old age, infancy or other illness. Little is 
known of the aetiology of " dengue." The virus is probably 
similar to that of other exanthematous fevers and communicated 
by an intermediary culex. The disease is nearly always epidemic, 
though at intervals it appears to be pandemic and in certain 
districts almost endemic. The area over which the disease ranges 
may be stated generally to be between 32° 47' N. and 23 23' S. 
Throughout this area " dengue " is constantly epidemic. The 
earliest epidemic of which anything is known occurred in 1779- 
1 780 in Egypt and the East Indies. The chief epidemics have 
been those of 1824-1826 in India, and in the West Indies and 
the southern states of North America, of 1870-1875, extending 
practically over the whole of the tropical portions of the East and 
reaching as far as China. In 1888 and 1889 a great outbreak 
spread along the shores of the Aegean and over nearly the whole 
of Asia Minor. Perhaps " dengue " is most nearly endemic in 
equatorial East Africa and in the West Indies. The word has 
usually been identified with the Spanish dengue, meaning stiff or 
prim behaviour, and adopted in the West Indies as a name suit- 
able to the curious cramped movements of a sufferer from the 
disease, similar to the name " dandy-fever " which was given to 
it by the negroes. According to the New English Dictionary 
(quoting Dr Christie in The Glasgow Medical Journal, September 
1881), both "dengue" and "dandy" are corruptions of the 
Swahili word dinga or denga, meaning a sudden attack of cramp, 
the Swahili name for the disease being ka-dinga pepo. 

See Sir Patrick Manson, Tropical Diseases; a Manual of Diseases 
of Warm Climates (1903). 

DENHAM, DIXON (1786-1828^, English traveller in West 
Central Africa, was born in London on the 1st of January 1786. 
He was educated at Merchant Taylors' School, and was articled 
to a solicitor, but joined the army in 1811. First in the 23rd 
Royal Welsh Fusiliers, and afterwards in the 54th foot, he served 
in the campaigns in Portugal, Spain, France and Belgium, and 
received the Waterloo medal. In 1821 he volunteered to join 
Dr Oudney and Hugh Clapperton (q.v.), who had been sent by the 



British government via Tripoli to the central Sudan. He joined 
the expedition at Murzuk in Fezzan. Finding the promised 
escort not forthcoming, Denham, whose energy was boundless, 
started for England to complain of the " duplicity " of the pasha 
of Tripoli. The pasha, alarmed, sent messengers after him with 
promises to meet his demands. Denham, who had reached 
Marseilles, consented to return, the escort was forthcoming, and 
Murzuk was regained in November 1822. Thence the expedition 
made its way across the Sahara to Bornu, reached in February 
1823. Here Denham, against the wish of Oudney and Clapperton, 
accompanied a slave-raiding expedition into the Mandara high- 
lands south of Bornu. The raiders were defeated, and Denham 
barely escaped with his life. When Oudney and Clapperton set 
out, December 1823, for the Hausa states, Denham remained 
behind. He explored the western, south and south-eastern 
shores of Lake Chad, and the lower courses of the rivers Waube, 
Logone and Shari. In August 1824, Clapperton having returned 
and Oudney being dead, Bornu was left on the return journey 
to Tripoli and England. In December 1826 Denham, promoted 
lieutenant-colonel, sailed for Sierra Leone as superintendent of 
liberated Africans. In 1828 he was appointed governor of Sierra 
Leone, but after administering the colony for five weeks died of 
fever at Freetown on the 8th of May 1828. 

See Narrative of Travels and Discoveries in Northern and Central 
Africa in the years 1822-1824 (London, 1826), the greater part of 
which is written by Denham ; The Story of Africa, vol. i. chap. xiii. 
(London, 1892), by Dr Robert Brown. 

DENHAM, SIR JOHN (1615-1669), English poet, only son of 
Sir John Denham (iSSg-r'w), lord chief baron of the exchequer 
in Ireland, was born in Dublin in 161 5. In 161 7 his father 
became baron of the exchequer in England, and removed to 
London with his family. In Michaelmas term 1631 the future 
poet was entered as a gentleman commoner at Trinity College, 
Oxford. He removed in 1634 to Lincoln's Inn, where he was, says 
John Aubrey, a good student, but not suspected of being a wit. 
The reputation he had gained at Oxford of being the " dream- 
ingest young fellow " gave way to a scandalous reputation for 
gambling. In 1634 he married Ann Cotton, and seems to have 
lived with his father at Egham, Surrey. In 1636 he wrote his 
paraphrase of the second book of the Aeneid (published in 1656 
as The Destruction of Troy, with an excellent verse essay on the 
art of translation). About the same time he wrote a prose tract 
against gambling, The Anatomy of Play (printed 1651), designed 
to assure his father of his repentance, but as soon as he came into 
his fortune he squandered it at play. It was a surprise to every- 
one when in- 1642 he suddenly, as Edmund Waller said, " broke 
out like the Irish rebellion, three score thousand strong, when no 
one was aware, nor in the least expected it," by publishing The 
Sophy, a tragedy in five acts, the subject of which was drawn 
from Sir Thomas Herbert's travels. At the beginning of the Civil 
War Denham was high sheriff for Surrey, and was appointed 
governor of Farnham Castle. He showed no military ability, and 
speedily surrendered the castle to the parliament. He was sent 
as a prisoner to London, but was soon permitted to join the king 
at Oxford. 

In 1642 appeared Cooper's Hill, a poem describing the Thames 
scenery round his home at Egham. The first edition was 
anonymous: subsequent editions show numerous alterations, 
and the poem did not assume its final form until 1655. This 
famous piece, which was Pope's model for his Windsor Forest, was 
not new in theme or manner, but the praise which it received was 
well merited by its ease and grace. Moreover Denham expressed 
his commonplaces with great dignity and skill. He followed the 
taste of the time in his frequent use of antithesis and metaphor, 
but these devices seem to arise out of the matter, and are not 
of the nature of mere external ornament. At Oxford he wrote 
many squibs against the roundheads. One of the few serious 
pieces belonging to this period is the short poem " On the Earl 
of Strafford's Trial and Death." 

From this time Denham was much in Charles I.'s confidence. 
He was entrusted with the charge of forwarding letters to and 
from the king when he was in the custody of the parliament, a 



DENIA— DENIS, SAINT 



21 



duty which he discharged successfully with Abraham Cowley, but 
in 1648 he was suspected by the Parliamentary authorities, and 
thought it wiser to cross the Channel. He helped in the removal 
of the young duke of York to Holland, and for some time he 
served Queen Henrietta Maria in Paris, being entrusted by her 
with despatches for Holland. In 1650 he was sent to Poland in 
company with Lord Crofts to obtain money for Charles II. They 
succeeded in raising £10,000. After two years spent at the exiled 
court in Holland, Denham returned to London and being quite 
without resources, he was for some time the guest of the earl of 
Pembroke at Wilton. In 165s an order was given that Denham 
should restrict himself to some place of residence to be selected 
by himself at a distance of not less than 20 m. from London; 
subsequently he obtained from the Protector a licence to live at 
Bury St Edmunds, and in 1658 a passport to travel abroad with 
the earl of Pembroke. At the Restoration Denham's services 
were rewarded by the office of surveyor-general of works. His 
qualifications as an architect were probably slight, but it is safe 
to regard as grossly exaggerated the accusations of incompetence 
and peculation made by Samuel Butler in his brutal " Panegyric 
upon Sir John Denham's Recovery from his Madness." He 
eventually secured the services of Christopher Wren as deputy- 
surveyor. In 1660 he was also made a knight of the Bath. 

In 1665 he married for the second time. His wife, Margaret, 
daughter of Sir William Brooke, was, according to the comte de 
Gramont, a beautiful girl of eighteen. She soon became known 
as the mistress of the duke of York, and the scandal, according 
to common report, shattered the poet's reason. While Denham 
was recovering, his wife died, poisoned, it was said, by a cup of 
chocolate. Some suspected the duchess of York of the crime, 
but the Comte de Gramont says that the general opinion was 
that Denham himself was guilty. No sign of poison, however, 
was found in the examination after Lady Denham's death. 
Denham survived her for two years, dying at his house near 
Whitehall in March 1669. He was buried on the 23rd in West- 
minster Abbey. In the last years of his life he wrote the bitter 
political satires on the shameful conduct of the Dutch War entitled 
" Directions to a Painter," and " Fresh Directions," continuing 
Edmund Waller's " Instructions to a Painter." The printer of 
these poems, with which were printed one by Andrew Marvell, 
was sentenced to stand in the pillory. In 1667 Denham wrote his 
beautiful elegy on Abraham Cowley. 

Denham's poems include, beside those already given, a verse 
paraphrase of Cicero's Cato major, and a metrical version of the 
Psalms. As a writer of didactic verse, he was perhaps too highly 
praised by his immediate successors. Dryden called Cooper's Hill 
" the exact standard of good writing," and Pope in his Windsor 
Forest called him " majestic Denham." His collected poems with a 
dedicatory epistle to Charles II. appeared in 1668. Other editions 
followed, and they are reprinted in Chalmers' (1810) and other col- 
lections of the English poets. His political satires were printed with 
some of Rochester's and Marvell's in Bibliotheca curiosa, vol. i. 
(Edinburgh, 1885). 

DfSNIA, a seaport of eastern Spain, in the province of Alicante; 
on the Mediterranean Sea, at the head of a railway from Car- 
cagente. Pop. (1900) 12,431. Denia occupies the seaward slopes 
of a hill surmounted by a ruined castle, and divided by a narrow 
valley on the south from the limestone ridge of Mongo (2500 ft.), 
which commands a magnificent view of the Balearic Islands and 
the Valencian coast. The older houses of Denia are characterized 
by their flat Moorish roofs (azoteas) and view-turrets (mir adores), 
while fragments of the Moorish ramparts are also visible near the 
harbour; owing, however, to the rapid extension of local com- 
merce, many of the older quarters were modernized at the 
beginning of the 20th century. Nails, and wbollen, linen and 
esparto grass fabrics are manufactured here; and there is a 
brisk export trade in grapes, raisins and onions, mostly consigned 
to Great Britain or the United States. Baltic timber and 
British coal are largely imported. The harbour bay, which is 
well lighted and sheltered by a breakwater, contains only a small 
space of deep water, shut in by deposits of sand on three sides. 
In 1904 it accommodated 402 vessels of 175,000 tons; about 
half of which were small fishing craft, and coasters carrying 
agricultural produce to Spanish and African ports. 



Denia was colonized by Greek merchants from Emporiae 
(Ampurias in Catalonia), or Massilia (Marseilles), at a very early 
date; but its Greek name of Hemeroskopeion was soon super- 
seded by the Roman Dianium. In the 1st century B.C., Sertorius 
made it the naval headquarters of his resistance to Rome; and, 
as its name implies, it was already famous for its temple of Diana, 
built in imitation of that at Ephesus. The site of this temple can 
be traced at the foot of the castle hill. Denia was captured by 
the Moors in 713, and from 1031 to 1253 belonged successively to 
the Moorish kingdoms of Murcia and Valencia. According to an 
ancient but questionable tradition, its population rose at this 
period to 50,000, and its commerce proportionately increased. 
After the city was retaken by the Christians in 1253, its pros- 
perity dwindled away, and only began to revive in the 19th 
century. During the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-14), 
Denia was thrice besieged; and in 1813 the citadel was held for 
five months by the French against the allied British and Spanish 
forces, until the garrison was reduced to 100 men, and compelled 
to surrender, on honourable terms. 

DENIKER, JOSEPH (1852- ) French naturalist and 
anthropologist, was born of French parents at Astrakhan, Russia, 
on the 6th of March 1852. After receiving his education at the 
university and technical institute of St Petersburg, he adopted 
engineering as a profession, and in this capacity travelled ex- 
tensively in the petroleum districts of the Caucasus, in Central 
Europe, Italy and Dalmatia. Settling at Paris in 1876, he 
studied at the Sorbonne, where he took his degree in natural 
science. In 1888 he was appointed chief librarian of the Natural 
History Museum, Paris. Among his many valuable ethnological 
works mention may be made of Recherches anatomiques et embryo- 
logiques sur les singes anthropoUes (1886); Etude sur les Kal- 
mouks (1883); Les Ghiliaks (1883); and Races et peuples de la 
terre (1900). He became one of the chief editors of the Diction- 
naire de g&ographie universelle, and published many papers in the 
anthropological and zoological journals of France. 

DENILIQUIN, a municipal town of Townsend county, New 
South Wales, Australia, 534 m. direct S.W. of Sydney, and 195 m. 
by rail N. of Melbourne. Pop. (1901) 2644. The business of 
the town is chiefly connected with the interests of the sheep 
and cattle farmers of the Riverina district, a plain country, in 
the main pastoral, but suited in some parts for cultivation. 
Deniliquin has a well-known public school. 

DENIM (an abbreviation of serge de Nimes), the name origin- 
ally given to a kind of serge. It is now applied to a stout twilled 
cloth made in various colours, usually of cotton, and used for 
overalls, &c. 

DENINA, CARLO GIOVANNI MARIA (1731-1813), Italian 
historian, was born at Revello, Piedmont, in 1731, and was 
educated at Saluzzo and Turin. In 1753 he was appointed to the 
chair of humanity at Pignerol, but he was soon compelled by the 
influence of the Jesuits to retire from it. In 1756 he graduated 
as doctor in theology, and began authorship with a theological 
treatise. Promoted to the professorship of humanity and rhetoric 
in the college of Turin, he published (1769-1772) his Delle re- 
volutions d'ltalia, the work on which his reputation is mainly 
founded. Collegiate honours accompanied the issue of its 
successive volumes, which, however, at the same time multiplied 
his foes and stimulated their hatred. In 1782, at Frederick the 
Great's invitation, he went to Berlin, where he remained for many 
years, in the course of which he published his Vie et regne de 
Frederic II (Berlin, 1788) and La Prusse litteraire sous Frideric 
II (3 vols., Berlin, 1790-1791). His Delle revoluzioni delta 
Germania was published at Florence in 1804, in which year he 
went to Paris as the imperial librarian, on the invitation of 
Napoleon. At Paris he published in 1 805 his Tableau de la Haute 
Italie, et des Alpes qui I'entourent. He died there on the 5th of 
December 1813. 

DENIS (Dionysius), SAINT, first bishop of Paris, patron saint 
of France. According to Gregory of Tours (Hist. Franc, i. 30), 
he was sent into Gaul at the time of the emperor Decius. He 
suffered martyrdom at the village of Catulliacus, the modern St 
Denis. His tomb was situated by the side of the Roman road. 



22 



DENIS, J. N. C. M.— DENIZLI 



where rose the priory of St-Denis-de-l'Estr6e, which existed 
until the 18th century. In the 5th century the clergy of the 
diocese of Paris built a basilica over the tomb. About 625 
Dagobert, son of Lbthair II., founded in honour of St Denis, at 
some distance from the basilica, the monastery where the greater 
number of the kings of France have been buried. The festival of 
St Denis is celebrated on the 9th of October. With his name are 
already associated in the Martyrologium Hieronymianum the 
priest Rusticus and the deacon Eleutherius. Other traditions— 
of no value — are connected with the name of St Denis. A false 
interpretation of Gregory of Tours, apparently dating from 724, 
represented St Denis as having received his mission from Pope 
Clement, and as having suffered martyrdom under Domitian 
(81-96). Hilduin, abbot of St-Denis in the first half of the 9th 
century, identified Denis of Paris with Denis (Dionysius) the 
Areopagite (mentioned in Acts xviii. 34), bishop of Athens 
(Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. iii. 4. 10, iv. 23. 3), and naturally attributed 
to him the celebrated writings of the pseudo-Areopagite. St 
Denis is generally represented carrying his head in his hands. 

See Acta Sanctorum, Octobris, iv. 696-987; Bibliotheca hagio- 
graphica graeca, p. 37 (Brussels, 1895); Bibliotheca hagiographica 
latina, No. 2171-2203 (Brussels, 1899); J. Havet, Les Origines de 
Saint-Denis, in his collected works, i. 191-246 (Paris, 1896) ; Cahier, 
Caracteristiques des saints, p. 761 (Paris, 1867). (H. De.) 

DENIS, JOHANN NEPOMUK COSMAS MICHAEL (1729-1800), 
Austrian poet, was born at Scharding on the Inn, on the 27th 
of September 1729. He was brought up by the Jesuits, entered 
their order, and in 1759 was appointed professor in the 
Theresianum in Vienna, a Jesuit college. In 1784, after the 
suppression of the college, he was made second custodian of 
the court library, and seven years later became chief librarian. 
He died on the 29th of September 1800. A warm admirer of 
Klopstock, he was one of the leading members of the group of 
so-called " bards "; and his original poetry, published under the 
title Die Lieder Sineds des Barden (1772), shows all the extrava- 
gances of the " bardic " movement. He is best remembered 
as the translator of Ossian (1 768-1 769; also published together 
with his own poems in 5 vols, as Ossians und Sineds Lieder, 1784). 
More important than either his original poetry or his translations 
were his efforts to familiarize the Austrians with the literature 
of North Germany; his Sammlung kiirzerer Gedichte aus den 
neuern Dichtem Deutschlands, 3 vols. (1762-1766), was in this 
respect invaluable. He has also left a number of bibliographical 
compilations, Grundriss der Bibliographic und Biicherkunde 
(1774), Grundriss der Liter aturgeschichte (1776), Einleitung in 
die Biicherkunde (1777) and Wiens Buchdruckergeschichte bis 1560 
(1782). 

Ossians und Sineds Lieder have not been reprinted since 1791 ; but 
a selection of his poetry edited by R. Hamel will be found in vol. 
48 (1884) of Kiirschner's Deutsche Nationalliteratur. His Litera- 
rischer Nachlass was published by J. F. von Retzer in 1802 (2 vols.). 
See P. von Hofmann-Wellenhof, Michael Denis (1881). 

DENISON, GEORGE ANTHONY (1805-1896), English church- 
man, brother of John Evelyn Denison (1800-1873; speaker of 
the House of Commons 1857-1872; Viscount Ossington), was 
born at Ossington, Notts, on the nth of December 1805, and 
educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford. In 1828 he was 
elected fellow of Oriel; and after a few years there as a tutor, 
during which he was ordained and acted as curate at Cuddesdon, 
he became rector of Broadwindsor, Dorset (1838). He became 
a prebendary of Sarum in 1841 and of Wells in 1849. In 185 1 
he was preferred to the valuable living of East Brent, Somerset, 
and in the same year was made archdeacon of Taunton. For 
many years Archdeacon Denison represented the extreme High 
Tory party not only in politics but in the Church, regarding 
all " progressive " movements in education or theology as 
abomination, and vehemently repudiating the " higher criticism " 
from the days of Essays and Reviews (i860) to those of Lux 
Mundi (1890). In 1853 he resigned his position as examining 
chaplain to the bishop of Bath and Wells owing to his pronounced 
eucharistic views. A suit on the complaint of a neighbouring 
clergyman ensued and after various complications Denison was 
condemned by the archbishops' court at Bath (1856); but on 



appeal the court of Arches and the privy council quashed this 
judgment on a technical plea. The result was to make Denison 
a keen champion of the ritualistic school. He edited The Church 
and State Review (186 2-1 86 5). Secular state education and the 
" conscience clause " were anathema to him. Until the end of 
his life he remained a protagonist in theological controversy and 
a keen fighter against latitudinarianism and liberalism; but the 
sharpest religious or political differences never broke his personal 
friendships and his Christian charity. Among other things for 
which he will be remembered was his origination of harvest 
festivals. He died on the 21st of March 1896. 

DENISON, GEORGE TAYLOR (1839- ), Canadian soldier 
and publicist, was born in Toronto on the 31st of August 1839. 
In 1 86 1 he was called to the bar, and was from 186 5- 186 7 a 
member of the city council. From the first he took a prominent 
part in the organization of the military forces of Canada, becom- 
ing a lieutenant-colonel in the active militia in 1866. He saw 
active service during the Fenian raid of 1866, and during the 
rebellion of 1885. Owing to his dissatisfaction with the conduct 
of the Conservative ministry during the Red River Rebellion in 
1869-70, he abandoned that party, and in 1872 unsuccessfully 
contested Algoma in the Liberal interest. Thereafter he remained 
free from party ties. In 1877 he was appointed police magistrate 
of Toronto. Colonel Denison was one of the founders of the 
" Canada First " party, which did much to shape the national 
aspirations from 1870 to 1878, and was a consistent supporter 
of imperial federation and of preferential trade between Great 
Britain and her colonies. He became a member of the Royal 
Society of Canada, and was president of the section dealing with 
English history and literature. The best known of his military 
works is his History of Modern Cavalry (London, 1877), which 
was awarded first prize by the Russian government in an open 
competition and has been translated into German, Russian and 
Japanese. In 1900 he published his reminiscences under the 
title of Soldiering in Canada. 

DENISON, a city of Grayson county, Texas, U.S.A., about 
25 m. from the S. bank of the Red river, about 70 m. N. of Dallas. 
Pop. (1890) 10,958; (1900) 11,807, of whom 2251 were negroes; 
(1910 census) 13,632. It is served by the Houston & Texas 
Central, the Missouri, Kansas & Texas, the Texas & Pacific, and 
the St Louis & San Francisco ("Frisco System) railways, and is 
connected with Sherman, Texas, by an electric line. Denison 
is the seat of the Gate City business college (generally known 
as Harshaw Academy), and of St Xavier's academy (Roman 
Catholic). It is chiefly important as a railway centre, as a 
collecting and distributing point for the fruit, vegetables, hogs 
and poultry, and general farming products of the surrounding 
region, and as a wholesale and jobbing market for the upper 
Red river valley. It has railway repair shops, and among its 
manufactures are cotton-seed oil, cotton, machinery and foundry 
products, flour, wooden-ware, and dairy products. In 1905 its 
factory products were valued at $1,234,956, 47-0 % more than 
in 1900. Denison was settled by Northerners at the time of 
the construction of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas railway to 
this point in 1872, and was named in honour of George Denison 
(1822-1876), a director of the railway; it became a city in 1891, 
and in 1907 adopted the commission form of government. 

DENIZEN (derived through the Fr. from Lat. de intus, " from 
within," i.e. as opposed to "foreign"), an alien who obtains 
by letters patent {ex donatione regis) certain of the privileges of 
a British subject. He cannot be a member of the privy council 
or of parliament, or hold any civil or military office of trust, or 
take a grant of land from the crown. The Naturalization Act 
1870 provides that nothing therein contained shall affect the 
grant of any letters of denization by the sovereign. 

DENIZLI (anc. Laodicea (q.v.) ad Lycum), chief town of a 
sanjak of the Aidin vilayet of Asia Minor, altitude 1167 ft. 
Pop. about 17,000. It is beautifully situated at the foot of Baba 
Dagh (Mt. Salbacus), on a tributary of the Churuk Su (Lycus), 
and is connected by a branch line with the station of Gonjeli 
on the Smyrna-Dineir railway. It took the place of Laodicea 
when that town was deserted during the wars between the 



DENMAN— DENMARK 



23 



Byzantines and Seljuk Turks, probably between 1158 and 1174. 
It had become a fine Moslem city in the 14th century, and was 
then called Ladik, being famous for the woven and embroidered 
products of its Greek inhabitants. The delightful gardens of 
Denizli have obtained for it the name of the "^Damascus of 
Anatolia." 

DENMAN, THOMAS, ist Baron (1779-1854), English judge, 
was born in London, the son of a well-known physician, on the 
23rd of July 1779. He was educated at Eton and St John's 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1800. Soon after 
leaving Cambridge he married; and in 1806 he was called to the 
bar at Lincoln's Inn, and at once entered upon practice. His 
success was rapid, and in a few years he attained a position at 
the bar second only to that of Brougham and Scarlett (Lord 
Abinger). He distinguished himself by his eloquent defence of 
the Luddites; but his most brilliant appearance was as one of 
the counsel for Queen Caroline. His speech before the Lords 
was very powerful, and some competent judges even considered 
it not inferior to Brougham's. It contained one or two daring 
passages, which made the king his bitter enemy, and retarded 
his legal promotion. At the general election of 1818 he was 
returned M.P. for Wareham, and at once took his seat with the 
Whig opposition. In the following year he was returned for 
Nottingham, for which place he continued to sit till his elevation 
to the bench in 1832. His liberal principles had caused his 
exclusion from office till in 1822 he was appointed common 
Serjeant by the corporation of London. In 1830 he was made 
attorney-general under Lord Grey's administration. Two years 
later he was made lord chief justice of the King's Bench, and 
in 1834 he was raised to the peerage. As a judge he is most 
celebrated for his decision in the important privilege case of 
Stockdale v. Hansard (9 Ad. & El. I.; 11 Ad. & El. 253), but 
he was never ranked as a profound lawyer. In 1850 he resigned 
his chief justiceship and retired into private life. He died on 
the 26th of September 1854, his title continuing in the direct line. 

The Hon. George Denman (1819-1896), his fourth son, was 
also a distinguished lawyer, and a judge of the Queen's Bench 
from 1872 till his death in 1896. 

See Memoir of Thomas, first Lord Denman, by Sir Joseph Arnould 
(2 vols., 1873); E. Manson, Builders of our Law (1904). 

DENMARK (Danmark), a small kingdom of Europe, occupying 
part of a peninsula and a group of islands dividing the Baltic 
and North Seas, in the middle latitudes of the eastern coast. 
The kingdom lies between 54 33' and 57 45' N. and between 
8° 4' 54" and 12 47' 25" E., exclusive of the island of Bornholm, 
which, as will be seen, is not to be included in the Danish archi- 
pelago. The peninsula is divided between Denmark and Germany 
(Schleswig- Holstein). The Danish portion is the northern and 
the greater, and is called Jutland (Dan. Jylland). Its northern 
part is actually insular, divided from the mainland by the 
Limfjord or Liimfjord, which communicates with the North Sea 
to the west and the Cattegat to the east, but this strait, though 
broad and possessing lacustrine characteristics to the west, has 
only very narrow entrances. The connexion with the North Sea 
dates from 1825. The Skagerrack bounds Jutland to the north 
and north-west. The Cattegat is divided from the Baltic by the 
Danish islands, between the east coast of the Cimbric peninsula 
in the neighbourhood of the German frontier and south-western 
Sweden. 

There is little variety in the surface of Denmark. It is 
uniformly low, the highest elevation in the whole country, the 
Himmelbjerg near Aarhus in eastern Jutland, being little more 
than 500 ft. above the sea. Denmark, however, is nowhere low 
in the sense in which Holland is; the country is pleasantly 
diversified, and rises a little at the coast even though it remains 
flat inland. The landscape of the islands and the south-eastern 
part of Jutland is rich in beech-woods, corn fields and meadows, 
and even the minute islets are green and fertile. In the western 
and northern districts of Jutland this condition gives place to a 
wide expanse of moorland, covered with heather, and ending 
towards the sea in low whitish-grey cliffs. There is a certain 
charm even about these monotonous tracts, and it cannot be 



said that Denmark is wanting in natural beauty of a quiet 
order. Lakes, though small, are numerous; the largest are the 
Arreso and the Esromso in Zealand, and the chain of lakes in 
the Himmelbjerg region, which are drained by the largest river 
in Denmark, the Gudenaa, which, however, has a course not 
exceeding 80 m. Many of the meres, overhung with thick beech- 
woods, are extremely beautiful. The coasts are generally low" 
and sandy; the whole western shore of Jutland is a succession 
of sand ridges and shallow lagoons, very dangerous to shipping. 
In many places the sea has encroached; even in the 19th 
century entire villages were destroyed, but during the last 
twenty years of the century systematic efforts were made to 
secure the coast by groynes and embankments. A belt of sand 
dunes, from 500 yds. to 7 m. wide, stretches along the whole of 
this coast for about 200 m. Skagen, or the Skaw, a long, low, 
sandy point, stretches far into the northern sea, dividing the 
Skagerrack from the Cattegat. On the western side the coast is 
bolder and less inhospitable; there are several excellent havens, 
especially on the islands. The coast is nowhere, however, very 
high, except at one or two points in Jutland, and at the eastern 
extremity of Moen, where limestone cliffs occur. 

Continental Denmark is confined wholly to Jutland, the 
geographical description of which is given under that heading. 
Out of the total area of the kingdom, 14,829 sq. m., Jutland, 
including the small islands adjacent to it, covers 9753 sq. m., and 
the insular part of the kingdom (including Bornholm), 5076 sq. m. 
The islands may be divided into two groups, consisting of the 
two principal islands Filnen and Zealand, and the lesser islands 
attendant on each. Fun en (Dan. Fyen), in form roughly an oval 
with an axis from S.E. to N.W. of 53 m., is separated from 
Jutland by a channel not half a mile wide in the north, but 
averaging 10 m. between the island and the Schleswig coast, and 
known as the Little Belt. Fiinen, geologically a part of southern 
Jutland, has similar characteristics, a smiling landscape of 
fertile meadows, the typical beech-forests clothing the low hills 
and the presence of numerous erratic blocks, are the superficial 
signs of likeness. Several islands, none of great extent, lie off 
the west coast of Fiinen in the Little Belt; off the south, how- 
ever, an archipelago is enclosed by the long narrow islands of 
Aero (16 m. in length) and Langeland (32 m.), including in a 
triangular area of shallow sea the islands of Taasinge, Avernako, 
Dreio, Turo and others. These are generally fertile and well 
cultivated. Aeroskjobing and Rudkjobing, on Aero and 
Langeland respectively, are considerable ports. On Langeland is 
the great castle of Tranekjaer, whose record dates from the 13th 
century. The chief towns of Fiinen itself are all coastal. Odense 
is the principal town, lying close to a great inlet behind the 
peninsula of Hindsholm on the north-east, known as Odense 
Fjord. Nyborg on the east is the port for the steam-ferry to 
Korsor in Zealand; Svendborg picturesquely overlooks the 
southern archipelago; Faaborg on the south-west lies on a 
fjord of the same name; Assens, on the west, a port for the 
crossing of the Little Belt into Schleswig, still shows traces of 
the fortifications which were stormed by John of Ranzau in 
1535; Middelfart is a seaside resort near the narrowest reach 
of the Little Belt; Bogense is a small port on the north coast. 
All these towns are served by railways radiating from Odense. 
The strait crossed by the Nyborg- Korsor ferry is the Great Belt 
which divides the Fiinen from the Zealand group, and is con- 
tinued south by the Langelands Belt, which washes the straight 
eastern shore of that island, and north by the Samso Belt, 
named from an island 15 m. in length, with several large villages, 
which lies somewhat apart from the main archipelago. 

Zealand, or Sealand (Dan. Sjaelland), measuring 82 m. N. 
to S. by 68 E. to W. (extremes), with its fantastic coast-line 
indented by fjords and projecting into long spits or promontories 
may be considered as the nucleus of the kingdom, inasmuch as it 
contains the capital, Copenhagen, and such important towns as 
Roskilde, Slagelse, Korsor, Naestved and Elsinore (Helsingor). 
Its topography is described in detail under Zealand. Its 
attendant islands lie mainly to the south and are parts of itself, 
only separated by geologically recent troughs. The eastern 



24 



DENMARK 



[GEOGRAPHY 



coast of Moen is rocky and bold. It is recorded that this island 
formed three separate isles in i ioo, and the village of Borre, now 
2 m. inland, was the object of an attack by a fleet from Liibeck 
in 1510. On Falster is the port of Nykjobing, and from Gjedser, 
the extreme southern point of Denmark, communication is 
maintained with Warnemiinde in Germany (29 m.). From 
Nykjobing a bridge nearly one-third of a mile long crosses to 
Laaland, at the west of which is the port of Nakskov; the other 
towns are the county town of Maribo with its fine church of the 
14th century, Saxkjobing and Rodby. The island of Bornholm 
lies 86 m. E. of the nearest point of the archipelago, and as it 
belongs geologically to Sweden (from which it is distant only 
22m.) must be considered to be physically an appendage rather 
than an internal part of the kingdom of Denmark. 

Geology. — The surface in Denmark is almost everywhere 
formed by the so-called Boulder Clay and what the Danish 
geologists call the Boulder Sand. The former, as is well known, 
owes its origin to the action of ice on the mountains of Norway 
in the Glacial period. It is unstratified; but by the action of 
water on it, stratified deposits have been formed, some of clay, 
containing remains of arctic animals, some, and very extensive 
ones, of sand and gravel. This boulder sand forms almost every- 
where the highest hills, and besides, in the central part of Jutland, 
a wide expanse of heath and moorland apparently level, but really 
sloping gently towards the west. The deposits of the boulder 
formation rest generally on limestone of the Cretaceous period, 
which in many places comes near the surface and forms cliffs 
on the sea-coast. Much of the Danish chalk, including the well- 
known limestone of Faxe, belongs to the highest or "Danian" 
subdivision of the Cretaceous period. In the south-western 
parts a succession of strata, described as the Brown Coal or 
Lignite formations, intervenes between the chalk and the boulder 
clay; its name is derived from the deposits of lignite which occur 
in it. It is only on the island of Bornholm that older formations 
come to light. This island agrees in geological structure with the 
southern part of Sweden, and forms, in fact, the southernmost 
portion of the Scandinavian system. There the boulder clay 
lies immediately on trj^e primitive rock, except in the south-western 
corner of the island, where a series of strata appear belonging to 
the Cambrian, Silurian, Jurassic and Cretaceous formations, the 
true Coal formation, &c, being absent. Some parts of Denmark 
are supposed to have been finally raised out of the sea towards 
the close of the Cretaceous period; but as a whole the country 
did not appear above the water till about the close of the Glacial 
period. The upheaval of the country, a movement common to a 
large part of the Scandinavian peninsula, still continues, though 
slowly, north-east of a line drawn in a south-easterly direction 
from Nissumfjord on the west coast of Jutland, across the island 
of Fyen, a little south of the town of Nyborg. Ancient sea- 
beaches, marked by accumulations of seaweed, rolled stones, 
&c, have been noticed as much as 20 ft. above the present level. 
But the upheaval does not seem to affect all parts equally. 
Even in historic times it has vastly changed the aspect and 
configuration of the country. 

Climate, Flora, Fauna. — The climate of Denmark does not 
differ materially from that of Great Britain in the same latitude; 
but whilst the summer is a little warmer, the winter is colder, so 
that most of the evergreens which adorn an English garden in the 
winter cannot be grown in the open in Denmark. During thirty 
years the annual mean temperature varied from 43-88° F. to 
4.6-22° in different years and different localities, the mean 
average for the whole country being 45-14°. The islands have, 
upon the whole, a somewhat warmer climate than Jutland. The 
mean temperatures of the four coldest months, December to 
March, are 33-26°, 31-64°, 31-82°, and 33-98° respectively,, or for 
the whole winter 32-7°; that of the summer, June to August, 
59-2°, but considerable irregularities occur. Frost occurs on an 
average on twenty days in each of the four winter months, but 
only on two days in either October or May. A fringe of ice 
generally lines the greater part of the Danish coasts on the eastern 
side for some time during the winter, and both the Sound and the 
Great Bel f are at times impassable on account of ice. In some 



winters the latter is sufficiently firm and level to admit of sledges 
passing between Copenhagen and Malmo. The annual rainfall 
varies between 21-58 in. and 27-87 in. in different years and 
different localities. It is highest on the west coast of Jutland; 
while the small island of Anholt in the Cattegat has an annual 
rainfall of only 15-78 in. More than half the rainfall occurs 
from July to November, the wettest month being September, with 
an average of 2-95 in.; the driest month is April, with an 
average of 1-14 in. Thunderstorms are frequent in the summer. 
South-westerly winds prevail from January to March, and from 
September to the end of the year. In April the east wind, which 
is particularly searching, is predominant, while westerly winds 
prevail from May to August. In the district of Aalborg, in the 
north of Jutland, a cold and dry N.W. wind called skai prevails 
in May and June, and is exceedingly destructive to vegetation; 
while along the west coast of the peninsula similar effects are 
produced by a salt mist, which carries its influence from 15 to 
30 m. inland. 

The flora of Denmark presents greater variety than might 
be anticipated in a country of such simple physical structure. 
The ordinary forms of the north of Europe grow freely in the mild 
air and protected soil of the islands and the eastern coast; while 
on the heaths and along the sandhills on the Atlantic side there 
flourish a number of distinctive species. The Danish forest h 
almost exclusively made up of beech, a tree which thrives better 
in Denmark than in any other country of Europe. The oak and 
ash are now rare, though in ancient times both were abundant 
in the Danish islands. The elm is also scarce. The almost 
universal predominance of the beech is by no means of ancient 
origin, for in the first half of the 17th century the oak was still 
the characteristic Danish tree. No conifer grows in Denmark 
except under careful cultivation, which, however, is largely 
practised in Jutland (q.v.). But again, abundant traces of 
ancient extensive forests of fir and pine are found in the numerous 
peat bogs which supply a large proportion of the fuel locally used. 
In Bornholm, it should be mentioned, the flora is more like that 
of Sweden; not the beech, but the pine, birch and ash are the 
most abundant trees. 

The wild animals and birds of Denmark are those of the rest 
of central Europe. The larger quadrupeds are all extinct; even 
the red deer, formerly so abundant that in a single hunt in 
Jutland in 1593 no less than 1600 head of deer were killed, is now 
only to be met with in preserves. In the prehistoric " kitchen- 
middens " (kj okkenmodding) and elsewhere, however, vestiges are 
found which prove that the urochs, the wild boar, the beaver, 
the bear and the wolf all existed subsequently to the arrival of 
man. The usual domestic animals are abundantly found in 
Denmark, with the exception of the goat, which is uncommon. 
The sea fisheries are of importance. Oysters are found in some 
places, but have disappeared from many localities, where their 
abundance in ancient times is proved by their shell moulds on the 
coast. The Gudenaa is the only salmon river in Denmark. 

Population. — The population of Denmark in 1901 was 
2,449,540. It was 929,001 in 1801, showing an increase during 
the century in the proportion of 1 to 2-63. In 1901 the average 
density of the population of Denmark was 165-2 to the square 
mile, but varied much in the different parts. Jutland showed 
an average of only 109 inhabitants per square mile, whilst on the 
islands, which had a total population of 1,385,537, the average 
stood at 272-95, owing, on the one hand, to the fact that large 
tracts in the interior of Jutland are almost uninhabited, and on 
the other to the fact that the capital of the country, with its pro- 
portionately large population, is situated on the island of Zealand. 
The percentages of urban and rural population are respectively 
about 38 and 62. A notable movement of the population to the 
towns began about the middle of the 19th century, and increased 
until very near its end. It was stronger on the islands, where the 
rural population increased by 5-3 % only in eleven years, whereas 
in Jutland the increase of the rural population between 1890 and 
1901 amounted to 12-0%. Here, however, peculiar circum- 
stances contributed to the increase, as successful efforts have 
been made to render the land fruitful by artificial means. The 



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INDUSTRIES] 



DENMARK 



25 



Danes are a yellow-haired and blue-eyed Teutonic race of 
middle stature, bearing traces of their kinship with the northern 
Scandinavian peoples. Their habits of life resemble those of the 
North Germans even more than those of the Swedes. The in- 
dependent tenure of the land by a vast number of small farmers, 
who are their own masters, gives an air of carelessness, almost of 
truculence, to the well-to-do Danish peasants. They are gener- 
ally slow of speech and manner, and somewhat irresolute, but 
take an eager interest in current politics, and are generally fairly 
educated men of extreme democratic principles. The result of 
a fairly equal distribution of wealth is a marked tendency toward* 
equality in social intercourse. The townspeople show a bias in 
favour of French habits and fashions. The separation from 
the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, which were more than 
half German, intensified the national character; the Danes are 
intensely patriotic; and there is no portion of the Danish 
dominions except perhaps in the West Indian islands, where 
a Scandinavian language is not spoken. The preponderance of 
the female population over the male is approximately as 1052 to 
1000. The male sex remains in excess until about the twentieth 
year, from which age the female sex preponderates in increasing 
ratio with advancing age. The percentage of illegitimacy is high 
as a whole, although in some of the rural districts it is very low. 
But in Copenhagen 20 % of the births are illegitimate. Between 
the middle and the end of the 19th century the rate of mortality 
decreased most markedly for all ages. During the last decade of 
the century it ranged between 19-5 per thousand in 1891 and 
15-1 in 1898 (17-4 in 1900). Emigration for some time in the 
19th century at different periods, both in its early part and towards 
its close, seriously affected the population of Denmark. But in 
the last decade it greatly diminished. Thus in 1892 the number 
of emigrants to Transatlantic places rose to 10,422 but in 1900 
it was only 3570. The great bulk of them go to the United States; 
next in favour is Canada. 

Communications. — The roads of Denmark form an extensive 
and well-maintained system. The railway system is also fairly 
complete, the state owning about three-fifths of the total mileage, 
which amounts to some 2000. Two lines enter Denmark from 
Schleswig across the frontier. The main Danish lines are as 
follows. From the frontier a line runs east by Fredericia, across 
the island of Ftinen by Odense and Nyborg, to Korsor on Zealand, 
and thence by Roskilde to Copenhagen. The straits between 
Fredericia and Middelfart and between Nyborg and Korsor are 
crossed by powerful steam-ferries which are generally capable of 
conveying a limited number of railway wagons. This system is 
also in use on the line which runs south fromRoskilde to the island 
of Falster, from the southernmost point of which, Gjedser, ferry- 
steamers taking railway cars serve Warnemiinde in Germany. 
The main lines in Jutland run (a) along the eastern side north 
from Fredericia by Horsens, Aarhus, Randers, Aalborg and 
Hjorring, to Frederikshavn, and (b) along the western side from 
Esbjerg by Skjerne and Vemb, and thence across the peninsula 
by Viborg to Langaa on the eastern line. The lines are generally 
of standard gauge (4 ft. 85 in.), but there is also a considerable 
mileage of light narrow-gauge railways. Besides the numerous 
steam-ferries which connect island and island, and Jutland with 
the islands, and the Gjedser-Warnemunde route, a favourite 
passenger line from Germany is that between Kiel and Korsor, 
while most of the German Baltic ports have direct connexion with 
Copenhagen. With Sweden communications are established by 
ferries across the Sound between Copenhagen and Malmo and 
Landskrona, and between Elsinore (Helsingor) and Helsingborg. 
The postal department maintains a telegraph and telephone 
service. 

Industries. — The main source of wealth in Denmark is agri- 
culture, which employs about two-fifths of the entire population. 
Most of the land is freehold and cultivated by the owner himself, 
and comparatively little land is let on lease except very large 
holdings and glebe farms. The independent small farmer 
{bonder) maintains a hereditary attachment to his ancestral 
holding. There is also a class of cottar freeholders (junster). 
Fully 74 % of the total area of the country is agricultural land. 



Of this only about one-twelfth is meadow land. The land under 
grain crops is not far short of one-half the remainder, the principal 
crops being oats, followed by barley and rye in about equal 
quantities, with wheat about one-sixth that of barley and hardly 
one-tenth that of oats. Beet is extensively grown. During the 
last forty years of the 19th century dairy-farming was greatly 
developed in Denmark, and brought to a high degree of perfection 
by the application of scientific methods and the best machinery, 
as well as by the establishment of joint dairies. The Danish 
government has assisted this development by granting money 
for experiments and by a rigorous system of inspection for the 
prevention of adulteration. The co-operative system plays an 
important part in the industries of butter-making, poultry-farm- 
ing and the rearing of swine. 

Rabbits, which are not found wild in Denmark, are bred for 
export. Woods cover fully 7 % of the area, and their preserva- 
tion is considered of so much importance that private owners are 
under strict control as regards cutting of timber. The woods 
consist mostly of beech, which is principally used for fuel, but 
pines were extensively planted during the 1 9th century. Allusion 
has been made already to the efforts to plant the extensive heaths 
in Jutland {q.v.) with pine-trees. 

Agriculture. — Rates and taxes on land are mostly levied ac- 
cording to a uniform system of assessment, the unit of which is 
called a Tonde Hartkorn. The Td. Htk., as it is usually abbrevi- 
ated, has further subdivision, and is intended to correspond to 
the same value of land throughout the country. The Danish 
measure for land is a Tonde Land (Td. L.), which is equal to 1-363 
statute acres. Of the best ploughing land a little over 6 Td. L., 
or about 8 acres, go to a Td. Htk., but of unprofitable land a Td. 
Htk. may represent 300 acres or more. On the islands and in the 
more fertile part of Jutland the average is about 10 Td. L., or 
135 acres. Woodland, tithes, &c, are also assessed to Td. Htk. 
for fiscal purposes. In the island of Bornholm, the assessment 
is somewhat different, though the general state of agricultural 
holdings is the same as in other parts. The selling value of land 
has shown a decrease in modern times on account of the agri- 
cultural depression. A homestead with land assessed less than 
1 Td. Htk. is legally called a Huus or Sted, i.e. cottage, whilst 
a farm assessed at 1 Td. Htk. or more is called Gaard, i.e. farm. 
Farms of between 1 and 1 2 Td. Htk. are called Bonder gaarde, or 
peasant farms, and are subject to the restriction that such a hold- 
ing cannot lawfully be joined to or entirely merged into another. 
They may be subdivided, and portions may be added to another 
holding, but the homestead, with a certain amount of land, must 
be preserved as a separate holding for ever. The seats of the 
nobility and landed gentry are called Herregaarde. The peasants 
hold about 73 % of all the land according to its value. As regards 
their size about 30 % are assessed from 1 to 4 Td. Htk. ; about 
33% from 4 to 8 Td. Htk.; the remainder at about 8 Td. Htk. 
An annual sum is voted by parliament out of which loans are 
granted to cottagers who desire to purchase small freehold plots. 

The fishery along the coasts of Denmark is of some importance 
both on account of the supply of food obtained thereby for the 
population of the country, and on account of the export; but the 
good fishing grounds, not far from the Danish coast, particularly 
in the North Sea, are mostly worked by the fishing vessels of other 
nations, which are so numerous that the Danish government is 
obliged to keep gun-boats stationed there in order to prevent 
encroachments on territorial waters. 

Other Industries. — The mineral products of Denmark are 
unimportant. It is one of the poorest countries of Europe in 
this particular. It is rich, however, in clays, while in the island 
of Bornholm there are quarries of freestone and marble. The 
factories of Denmark supply mainly local needs. The largest are 
those engaged in the construction of engines and iron ships. The 
manufacture of woollens and cotton, the domestic manufacture 
of linen in Zealand, sugar refineries, paper mills, breweries, and 
distilleries may also be mentioned. The most notable manu- 
facture is that of porcelain. The nucleus of this industry was a 
factory started in 1772, by F. H. Muller, for the making of china 
out of Bornholm clay. In 1779 it passed into the hands of the 



26 



DENMARK 



[GOVERNMENT 



state, and has remained there ever since, though there are 
also private factories. Originally the Copenhagen potters 
imitated the Dresden china made at Meissen, but they later pro- 
duced graceful original designs. The creations of Thorvaldsen 
have been largely repeated and imitated in this ware. Trade- 
unionism flourishes in Denmark, and strikes are of frequent 
occurrence. 

Commerce. — Formerly the commercial legislation of Denmark 
was to such a degree restrictive that imported manufactures had 
to be delivered to the customs, where they were sold by public 
auction, the proceeds of which the importer received from the 
custom-houses after a deduction was made for the duty. To this 
restriction, as regards foreign intercourse, was added a no less 
injurious system of inland duties impeding the commerce of the 
different provinces with each other. The want of roads also, 
and many other disadvantages, tended to keep down the develop- 
ment of both commerce and industry. During the 19th century, 
however, several commercial treaties were concluded between 
Denmark and the other powers of Europe, which made the 
Danish tariff more regular and liberal. 

The vexed question, of many centuries' standing, concerning 
the claim of Denmark to levy dues on vessels passing through the 
Sound (q.v.), was settled by the abolition of the dues in 1857. 
The commerce of Denmark is mainly based on home production 
and home consumption, but a certain quantity of goods is im- 
ported with a view to re-exportation, for which the free port and 
bonded 'warehouses at Copenhagen give facilities. In modern 
times the value of Danish commerce greatly increased, being 
doubled in the last twenty years of the 19th century, and ex- 
ceeding a total of fifty millions sterling. The value of export is 
exceeded as a whole by that of import in the proportion, roughly, 
of 1 to 1-35. By far the most important articles of export may be 
classified as articles of food of animal origin, a group which covers 
the vast export trade in the dairy produce, especially butter, for 
which Denmark is famous. The value of the butter for export 
reaches nearly 40% of the total value of Danish exports. A 
small , proportion of the whole is imported chiefly from Russia 
(also Siberia) and Sweden and re-exported as of foreign origin. 
The production of margarine is large, but not much is exported, 
margarine being largely consumed in Denmark instead of 
butter, which is exported. Next to butter the most important 
article of Danish export is bacon, and huge quantities of eggs 
are also exported. Exports of less value, but worthy of special 
notice, are vegetables and wool, bones and tallow, also dairy 
machinery, and finally cement, the production of which is a 
growing industry. The classes of articles of food of animal 
origin, and living animals, are the only ones of which the 
exportation exceeds the importation; with regard to all other 
goods, the reverse is the case. In the second of these classes the 
most important export is home-bred horned cattle. The trade 
in live sheep and swine, which was formerly important, has mostly 
been converted into a dead-meat trade. A proportionally large 
importation of timber is caused by the scarcity of native timber 
suitable for building purposes, the plantations of firs and pines 
being insufficient to produce the quantity required, and the 
quality of the wood being inferior beyond the age of about forty 
years. The large importation of coal, minerals and metals, and 
goods made from them is likewise caused by the natural poverty 
of the country in these respects. 

Denmark carries on its principal import trade with Germany, 
Great Britain and the United States of America, in this order, 
the proportions being about 30, 20 and 16% respectively of the 
total. Its principal export trade is with Great Britain, Germany 
and Sweden, the percentage of the whole being 60, 18 and 10. 
With Russia, Norway and France (in this order) general trade is 
less important, but still large. A considerable proportion of 
Denmark's large commercial fleet is engaged in the carrying 
trade between foreign, especially British, ports. 

Under a law of the 4th of May 1907 it was enacted that the 
metric system of weights and measures should come into official 
use in three years from that date, and into general use in 
five years. 



Money and Banking. — The unit of the Danish monetarysystem, 
as of the Swedish and Norwegian, is the krone (crown), equal to 
is. ijd., which is divided into 100 ore; consequently 75 ore are 
equal to one penny. Since 1873 gold has been the standard, and 
gold pieces of 20 and 10 kroner are coined, but not often met with, 
as the public prefers bank-notes. The principal bank is the 
National Bank at Copenhagen, which is the only one authorized 
to issue notes. These are of the value of 10, 50, 100 and 500 kr. 
Next in importance are the Danske Landmands Bank, the 
Handels Bank and the Private Bank, all at Copenhagen. The 
^provincial banks are very numerous; many of them are at the 
same time savings banks. Their rate of interest, with few ex- 
ceptions, is 3I to 4%. There exist, besides, in Denmark several 
mutual loan associations (Kreditjoreninger) , whose business is 
the granting of loans on mortgage. Registration of mortgages 
is compulsory in Denmark, and the system is extremely simple, a 
fact which has been of the greatest importance for the improve- 
ment of the country. There are comparatively large institutions 
for insurance of all kinds in Denmark. The largest office for life 
insurance is a state institution. By law of the 9th of April 1891 
a system of old-age pensions was established for the benefit of 
persons over sixty years of age. 

Government. — Denmark is a limited monarchy, according to 
the law of 1849, revised in 1866. The king shares his power with 
the parliament (Rigsdag), which consists of two chambers, the 
Landsthing and the Folkething, but the constitution contains no 
indication of any difference in their attributes. The Lands thing, 
or upper house, however, is evidently intended to form the con- 
servative element in the constitutional machinery. While the 
1 14 members of the Folkething (House of Commons) are elected 
for three years in the usual way by universal suffrage, 12 out of 
the 66 members of the Landsthing are life members nominated 
by the crown. The remaining 54 members of the Landsthing are 
returned for eight years according to a method of proportionate 
representation by a body of deputy electors. Of these deputies 
one-half are elected in the same way as members of the Folke- 
thing, without any property qualification for the voters; the 
other half of the deputy electors are chosen in the towns by those 
who during the last preceding year were assessed on a certain 
minimum of income, or paid at least a certain amount in rates 
and taxes. In the rural districts the deputy electors returned by 
election are supplemented by an equal number of those who have 
paid the highest amounts in taxes and county rate - together. 
In this manner a representation is secured for fairly large 
minorities, and what is considered a fair share of influence on 
public affairs given to those who contribute the most to the needs 
of the state. The franchise is held by every male who has reached 
his thirtieth year, subject to independence of public charity and 
certain other circumstances. A candidate for either house of the 
Rigsdag must have passed the age of twenty-five. Members are 
paid ten kroner each day of the session and are allowed travelling 
expenses. The houses meet each year on the first Monday in 
October. The constitutional theory of the Folkething is that of 
one member for every 16,000 inhabitants. The Faeroe islands, 
which form an integral part of the kingdom of Denmark in the 
wider sense, are represented in the Danish parliament, but not 
the other dependencies of the Danish crown, namely Iceland, 
Greenland and the West Indian islands of St Thomas, St John 
and St Croix. The budget is considered by the Folkething at the 
beginning of each session. The revenue and expenditure average 
annually about £4,700,000. The principal items of revenue are 
customs and excise, land and house tax, stamps, railways, legal 
fees, the state lottery and death duties. A considerable reserve 
fund is maintained to meet emergencies. The public debt is 
about £13,500,000 and is divided into an internal debt, bearing 
interest generally at 3i%, and a foreign debt (the larger), with 
interest generally at 3 %. The revenue and expenditure of the 
Faeroes are included in the budget for Denmark proper, but 
Iceland and the West Indies have their separate budgets. The 
Danish treasury receives nothing from these possessions; on the 
contrary, Iceland receives an annual grant, and the West Indian 
islands have been heavily subsidized by the Danish finances to 



-ADMINISTRATION] 



DENMARK 



27 



assist the sugar industry. The administration of Greenland 
(q.v.) entails an annual loss which is posted on the budget of the 
ministry of finances. The state council (Statsraad) includes the 
presidency of the council and ministries of war, and marine, 
foreign affairs, the interior, justice, finance, public institution and 
ecclesiastical, agriculture and public works. 

Local Government. — For administrative purposes the country is 
divided into eighteen counties (Amter, singular Ami), as follows. 
(1) Covering the islands of Zealand and lesser adjacent islands, 
Copenhagen, Frederiksborg, Holbaek, Soro, Praesto. (2) Cover- 
ing the islands of Laaland and Falster, Maribo. (3) Covering 
Fiinen, Langeland and adjacent islets, Svendborg, Odense. 
(4) On the mainland, Hjorring, Aalborg, Thisted, Ringkjobing, 
Viborg, Randers, Aarhus, Vejle, Ribe. (5} Bornholm. The 
principal civil officer in each of these is the Amlmand. Local 
affairs are managed by the Amstraad and Sogneraad, correspond- 
ing to the English county council and parish council. These 
institutions date from 1841, but they have undergone several 
modifications since. The members of these councils are elected 
on a system similar to that applied to the elections for the 
Landsthing. The same is the case with the provincial town 
councils. That of Copenhagen is elected by those who are rated 
on an income of at least 400 kroner (£2 2). The burgomasters are 
appointed by the crown, except at Copenhagen, where they are 
elected by the town council, subject to royal approbation. The 
financial position of the municipalities in Denmark is generally 
good. The ordinary budget of Copenhagen amounts to about 
£1,100,000 a year. 

Justice. — For the administration of justice Denmark is 
divided into herreds or hundreds; as, however, they are mostly 
of small extent, several are generally served by one judge 
(herredsfoged) ; the townships are likewise separate jurisdictions, 
each with a byfcged. There are 126 such local judges, each of 
whom deals with all kinds of cases arising in his district, and 
is also at the head of the police. There are two intermediary 
Courts of Appeal (Overret), one in Copenhagen, another in 
Viborg; the Supreme Court of Appeal (Hojesteret) sits at Copen- 
hagen. In the capital the different functions are more divided. 
There is also a Court of Commerce and Navigation, on which 
leading members of the trading community serve as assessors. 
In the country, Land Commissions similarly constituted deal with 
many questions affecting agricultural holdings. A peculiarity 
of the Danish system is that, with few exceptions, no civil cause 
can be brought before a court until an attempt has been made 
at effecting an amicable settlement. This is mostly done by 
so-called Committees of Conciliation, but in some cases by the 
court itself before commencing formal judicial proceedings. In 
this manner three-fifths of all the causes are settled, and many 
which remain unsettled are abandoned by the plaintiffs. 
Sanitary matters are under the control of a Board of Health. 
The whole country is divided into districts, in each of which a 
medical man is appointed with a salary, who is under the obliga^- 
tion to attend to poor sick and assist the authorities in medical 
matters, inquests, &c. The relief of the poor is well organized, 
mostly on the system of out-door relief. Many workhouses have 
been established for indigent persons capable of work. There are 
also many almshouses and similar institutions. 

Army and Navy. — The active army consists of a life guard 
battalion and 10 infantry regiments of 3 battalions each, infantry, 
S cavalry regiments of 3 squadrons each, 12 field batteries (now 
re-armed with a Krupp Q.F. equipment), 3 battalions of fortress 
artillery and 6 companies of engineers, with in addition various 
local troops and details. The peace strength of permanent 
troops, without the annual contingent of recruits, is about 
13,500 officers and men, the annual contingent of men trained 
two or three years with the colours about 22,500, and the annual 
contingent of special reservists (men trained for brief periods) 
about 17,000. Thus the number of men maintained under arms 
(without calling up the reserves) is as high as 75,000 during 
certain periods of the year and averages nearly 60,000. Reservists 
who have definitively left the colours are recalled for short 
refresher trainings, the number of men so trained in 1907 being 



about 80,000. The field army on a war footing, without depot 
troops, garrison troops and reservists, would be about 50,000 
strong, but by constituting new cadres at the outbreak of war 
and calling up the reserves it could be more than doubled, and as 
a matter of fact nearly 1 20,000 men were with the colours in the 
manoeuvre season in 1907. The term of service is eight years in 
the active army and its reserves and eight years in the second 
line. The armament of the infantry is the Krag-jorgensen of 
•314 in. calibre, model 1889, that of the field artillery a 7-5 cm. 
Krupp Q.F. equipment, model 1902. The navy consists of 6 
small battleships, 3 coast defence armour-clads, 5 protected 
cruisers, 5 gun-boats, and 24 torpedo craft. 

Religion. — The national or state church of Denmark is officially 
styled " Evangelically Reformed," but is popularly described 
as Lutheran. The king must belong to it. There is complete 
religious toleration, but though most of the important Christian 
communities are represented their numbers are very small. The 
Mormon apostles for a considerable time made a special raid upon 
the Danish peasantry and a few hundreds profess this faith. 
There are seven dioceses, Fiinen, Laaland and Falster, Aarhus, 
Aalborg, Viboxg and Ribe, while the primate is the bishop 
of Zealand, and resides at Copenhagen, but his cathedral is at 
Roskilde. The bishops have no political function by reason of 
their office, although they may, and often do, take a prominent 
part in politics. The greater part of the pastorates comprise 
more than one parish. The benefices are almost without excep- 
tion provided with good residences and glebes, and the tithes, &c, 
generally afford a comfortable income. The bishops have fixed 
salaries in lieu of tithes appropriated by the state. 

Education and Arts.- — The educational system of Denmark is 
maintained at a high standard. The instruction in primary schools 
is gratuitous. Every child is bound to attend the parish school at 
least from the seventh to the thirteenth year, unless the parents 
can prove that it receives suitable instruction in other ways. 
The schools are under the immediate control of school boards 
appointed by the parish councils, but of which the incumbent of 
the parish is ex-officio member; superior control is exercised by 
the Amtmand, the rural dean, and the bishop, under the Minister 
for church and education. Secondary public schools are provided 
in towns, in which moderate school fees are paid. There are also 
public grammar-schools. Nearly all schools are day-schools. 
There are only two public schools, which, though on a much 
smaller scale, resemble the great English schools, namely, 
those of Soro and Herlufsholm, both founded by private munifi- 
cence. Private schools are generally under a varying measure 
of public control. The university is at Copenhagen (q.v.). 
Amongst numerous other institutions for the furtherance of 
science and training of various kinds may be mentioned the large 
polytechnic schools; the high school for agriculture and veter- 
inary art; the royal library; the royal society of sciences; 
the museum of northern antiquities; the society of northern 
antiquaries, &c. The art museums of Denmark are not consider- 
able, except the museum of Thorvaldsen, at Copenhagen, but 
much is done to provide first-rate training in the fine arts and 
their application to industry through the Royal Academy of Arts, 
and its schools. Finally, it may be mentioned that a sum 
proportionately large is available from public funds and regular 
parliamentary grants for furthering science and arts by temporary . 
subventions to students, authors, artists and others of insufficient 
means, in order to enable them to carry out particular works, to 
profit by foreign travel, &c. The principal scientific societies 
and institutions are detailed under Copenhagen. During the 
earlier part of the 19th century not a few men could be mentioned 
who enjoyed an exceptional reputation in various departments 
of science, and Danish scientists continue to contribute their full 
share to the advancement of knowledge. The society of sciences, 
that of northern antiquaries, the natural history and the botanic 
cal societies, &c, publish their transactions and proceedings, 
but the Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift, of which 14 volumes with 
259 plates were published (1861-1884), and which was in the 
foremost rank in its department, ceased with the death in 
1884 of the editor, the distinguished zoologist, I. C. Schiodte. 



28 



DENMARK 



JHISTORY 



Another extremely valuable publication of wide general interest, 
the Meddelelser om Gronland, is published by the commission for 
the exploration of Greenland. What may be called the modern 
" art " current, with its virtues and vices, is as strong in Denmark 
as in England. Danish sculpture will be always famous, if only 
through the name of Thorvaldsen. In architecture the prevailing 
fashion is a return to the style of the first half of the 17th century, 
called the Christian IV. style; but in this branch of art no 
marked excellence has been obtained. 

Authorities. — J. P. Trap, Statistisk Topographisk Beskrivelse af 
Kongeriget Danmark (Copenhagen, 1859-1860, 3 vols., 2nd ed., 1872- 
1879) ; V. Falbe-Hansen and W. Scharling, Danmarks Statistik 
(Copenhagen, 1878-1891, 6 vols.). (Various writers) Vort Folk i 
det nittende Aarhundrede (Copenhagen, 1899 et seq.), illustrated; 
J. Carlsen, H. Olrik and C. N. Starcke, Le Danemark (Copenhagen, 
1900), 700 pp. ; illustrated, published in connexion with the Paris 
Exhibition. Statistisk Aarbog (1896, &c). Annual publication, 
and other publications of Statens Statistiske Bureau, Copenhagen;. 
Annuaire mtieorologique, Danish Meteorological Institution, Copen- 
hagen ; E. Loffler, Danemarks Natur and Volk (Copenhagen, 1905) ; 
Margaret Thomas, Denmark Past and Present (London, 1902). 
6 (C. A. G.;0. J. R. H.) 

History 

Ancient. — Our earliest knowledge of Denmark is derived 
from Pliny, who speaks of three islands named " Skandiai," a 
name which is also applied to Sweden. He says nothing about 
the inhabitants of these islands, but tells us more about the 
Jutish peninsula, or Cimbric Chersonese as he calls it. He 
places the Saxons on the neck, above them the Sigoulones, 
Sabaliggoi and Kobandoi, then the Chaloi, then above them the 
"Phoundousioi, then the Charondes and finally the Kimbroi. 
He also mentions the three islands called Alokiai, at the northern 
end of the peninsula. This would point to the fact that the 
Limfjord was then open at both ends, and agree with Adam of 
Bremen (iv. 16), who also speaks of three islands called Wendila, 
Morse and Thud. The Cimbri and Charydes are mentioned in 
the Monumentum Ancyranum as sending embassies to Augustus 
in a.d. 5. The Promontorium Cimbrorum is spoken of in Pliny, 
who says that the Sinus Codanus lies between it and Mons 
Saevo. The latter place is probably to be found in the high- 
lying land on the N.E. coast of Germany, and the Sinus Codanus 
must be the S.W. corner of the Baltic, and not the whole sea. 
Pomponius Mela says that the Cimbri and Teutones dwelt on the 
Sinus Codanus, the latter also in Scandinavia (or Sweden). The 
Romans believed that these Cimbri and Teutones were the same 
as those who invaded Gaul and Italy at the end of the 2nd century 
B.C. The Cimbri may probably be traced in the province of 
Aalborg, formerly known as Himmerland; the Teutones, with 
less certainty, may be placed in Thyth or Thyland, north of the 
Limfjord. No further reference to these districts is found till 
towards the close of the migration period, about the beginning of 
the 6th century, when the Heruli (q.v.), a nation dwelling in or 
near the basin of the Elbe, were overthrown by the Langobardi. 
According to Procopius (Bellum Gothicum, ii. 15), a part of them 
made their way across the " desert of the Slavs," through the 
lands of the Warni and the Danes to Thoule (i.e. Sweden). This 
is the first recorded use of the name " Danes." It occurs again 
in Gregory of Tours (Historiae Francorum, iii. 3) in connexion 
with an irruption of a Gotish (loosely called Danish) fleet into the 
Netherlands (c. 520). From this time the use of the name is 
fairly common. The heroic poetry of the Anglo-Saxons may 
carry the name further back, though probably it is not very 
ancient, at all events on the mainland. 

According to late Danish tradition Denmark now consisted 
of Vitheslaeth (i.e. Zealand, Moen, Falster and Laaland), 
Jutland (with Fyen) and Skaane. Jutland was acquired by 
Dan, the eponymous ancestor of the Danes. He also won 
Skaane, including the modern provinces of Halland, Kristianstad, 
Malmohus and Blekinge, and these remained part of Denmark 
until the middle of the 17th century. These three divisions 
aiways remained more or less distinct, and the Danish kings had 
to be recognized at Lund, Ringsted and Viborg, but Zealand 
was from time immemorial the centre of government, and Lejre 
was the royal seat and national sanctuary. According to tradition 



this dates from the time of Skioldr, the eponymous ancestor of the 
Danish royal family of Skioldungar. He was a son of Othin and 
husband of the goddess Gefjon, who created Zealand. Anglo- 
Saxon tradition also speaks of Scyld (i.e. Skioldr), who was 
regarded as the ancestor of both the Danish and English royal 
families, and it represented him as coming as a child of unknown 
origin in a rudderless boat. There can be little doubt that from 
a remote antiquity Zealand had been a religious sanctuary, 
and very probably the god Nerthus was worshipped here by the 
Angli and other tribes as described in Tacitus (Germania, c. 40). 
The Lejre sanctuary was still in existence in the time of Thietmar 
of Merseburg (i. 9), at the beginning of the nth century. 

In Scandinavian tradition the next great figure is Fr65e the 
peace-king, but it is not before the 5th century that we meet with 
the names of any kings which can be regarded as definitely 
historical. In Beowulf we hear of a Danish king Healfdene, 
who had three sons, Heorogar, Hrothgar and Halga. The hero 
Beowulf comes to the court of Hrothgar from the land of the 
Gotar, where Hygelac is king. This Hygelac is undoubtedly to 
be identified with the Chochilaicus, king of the Danes (really 
Gotar) who, as mentioned above, made a raid against the Franks 
c. 520. Beowulf himself won fame in this campaign, and by the 
aid of this definite chronological datum we can place the reign 
of Healfdene in the last half of the 5th century, and that of 
Hrothgar's nephew Hrothwulf, son of Halga, about the middle 
of the 6th century. Hrothgar and Halga correspond to Saxo's 
Hroar and Helgi, while Hrothwulf is the famous Rolvo or 
Hrolfr Kraki of Danish and Norse saga. There is probably some 
historical truth in the story that Heoroweard or HiorvarSr was 
responsible for the death of Hrolfr Kraki. Possibly a still earlier 
king of Denmark was Sigarr or Sigehere, who has won lasting 
fame from the story of his daughter Signy and her lover 
HagbaroY. 

From the middle of the 6th to the beginning of the 8th century 
we know practically nothing of Danish history. There are 
numerous kings mentioned in Saxo, but it is impossible to identify 
them historically. We have mention at the beginning of the 
8th century of a Danish king Ongendus (cf. O. E. Ongenheow) 
who received a mission led by St Willibrord, and it was probably 
about this time that there flourished a family of whom tradition 
records a good deal. The founder of this line was Ivarr ViSfaSmi 
of Skaane, who became king of Sweden. His daughter AuSr 
married one Hroerekr and became the mother of Haraldr 
Hilditonn. The genealogy of Haraldr is given differently in Saxo, 
but there can be no doubt of his historical existence. In his time 
it is said that the land was divided into four kingdoms — Skaane, 
Zealand, Fyen and Jutland. After a reign of great splendour 
Haraldr met his death in the great battle of Bravalla (Bravik in 
Ostergotland), where he was opposed by his nephew Ring, king 
of Sweden. 

The battle probably took place about the year 750. Fifty 
years later the Danes begin to be mentioned with comparative 
frequency in continental annals. From 777-798 we have mention 
of a certain Sigifridus as king of the Danes, and then in 804 his 
name is replaced by that of one Godefridus. This Godefridus 
is the Godefridus-Guthredus of Saxo, and is to be identified also 
with GuSroor the Yngling, king in Vestfold in Norway. He came 
into conflict with Charlemagne, and was preparing a great 
expedition against him when he was killed by one of his own 
followers (c. 810). He was succeeded by his brother Hemmingus, 
but the latter died in 812 and there was a disputed succession. 
The two claimants were " Sigefridus nepos Godefridi regis " 
and " Anulo nepos Herioldi quondam regis " (i.e. probably 
Haraldr Hilditonn). A great battle took place in which both 
claimants were slain, but the party of Anulo (O.N. Ali) were 
victorious and appointed as kings Anulo's brothers Herioldus 
and Reginfridus. They soon paid a visit to Vestfold, " the 
extreme district of their realm, whose peoples and chief men were 
refusing to be made subject to them," and on their return had 
trouble with the sons of Godefridus. The latter expelled them 
from their kingdom, and in 814 Reginfridus fell in a vain attempt 
to regain it. Herioldus now received the support of the emperor, 



HISTORY] 



DENMARK 



29 



and after several unsuccessful attempts a compromise was 
effected in 819 when the parties agreed to share the realm. 
In 820 Herioldus was baptized at Mainz and received from the 
emperor a grant of Riustringen in N.E. Friesland. In 827 he 
was expelled from his kingdom, but St Anskar, who had been sent 
with Herioldus to preach Christianity, remained at his post. In 
836 we find one Horic as king of the Danes; he was probably 
a son of Godefridus. During his reign there was trouble with 
the emperor as to the overlordship of Frisia. In the meantime 
Herioldus remained on friendly terms with Lothair and received 
a further grant of Walcheren and the neighbouring districts. 
In 850 Horic was attacked by his own nephews and compelled 
to share the kingdom with them, while in 852 Herioldus was 
charged with treachery and slain by the Franks. In 854 a revo- 
lution took place in Denmark itself. Horic's nephew Godwin, 
returning from exile with a large following of Northmen, over- 
threw his uncle in a three days' battle in which all members 
of the royal house except one boy are said to have perished. 
This boy now became king as " Horicus junior." Of his reign 
we know practically nothing. The next kings mentioned are 
Sigafrid and Halfdane, who were sons of the great Viking leader 
Ragnarr LoSbrok. There is also mention of a third king named 
Godefridus. The exact chronology and relationship of these 
kings it is impossible to determine, but we know that Healfdene 
died in Scotland in 877, while Godefridus was treacherously 
slain by Henry of Saxony in 885. During these and the next 
few years there is mention of more than one king of the names 
Sigefridus and Godefridus: the most important event associated 
with their names is that two kings Sigefridus and Godefridus fell 
in the great battle on the Dyle in 891. 

We now have the names of several kings, Heiligo, Olaph (of 
Swedish origin), and his sons Chnob and Gurth. Then come a 
Danish ruler Sigeric, followed by Hardegon, son of Swein, coming 
from Norway. At some date after 916 we find mention of one 
" Hardecnuth Urm " ruling among the Danes. Adam of Bremen, 
from whom these details come, was himself uncertain whether 
" so many kings or rather tyrants of the Danes ruled together or 
succeeded one another at short intervals." Hardecnuth Urm 
is to be identified with the famous Gorm the old, who married 
Thyra Danmarkarbot: their son was Harold Bluetooth. 

(A. Mw.) 

Medieval and Modern. — Danish history first becomes authentic 
at the beginning of the 9th century. The Danes, the southern- 
most branch of the Scandinavian family, referred to by Alfred 
(c. 890) as occupying Jutland, the islands and Scania, were, in 
777, strong enough to defy the Frank empire by harbouring 
its fugitives. Five years later we find a Danish king, Sigfrid, 
among the princes who assembled at I.ippe in 782 to make 
their submission to Charles the Great. About the same 
time Willibrord, from his see at Utrecht, made an unsuccessful 
attempt to convert the " wild Danes." These three salient 
facts are practically the sum of our knowledge of early Danish 
history previous to the Viking period. That mysterious upheaval, 
most generally attributed to a love of adventure, stimulated by 
the pressure of over-population, began with the ravaging of 
Lindisfarne in 793, and virtually terminated with the establish- 
ment of Rollo in Normandy (911). There can be little doubt 
that the earlier of these expeditions were from Denmark, though 
the 'term Northmen was originally applied indiscriminately to all 
these terrible visitants from the unknown north. The rovers 
who first chastened and finally colonized southern England and 
Normandy were certainly Danes. 

The Viking raids were one of the determining causes of the 
establishment of the feudal monarchies of western Europe, 
but the un tameable freebooters were themselves finally 
Con " . subdued by the Church. At first sight it seems curious 
V theDanes. that Christianity should have been so slow to reach 
Denmark. But we must bear in mind that one very 
important consequence of the Viking raids was to annihilate the 
geographical remoteness which had hitherto separated Denmark 
from the Christian world. Previously to 793 there lay between 
Jutland and England a sea which no keel had traversed within 



the memory of man. The few and peaceful traders who explored 
those northern waters were careful never to lose sight of the 
Saxon, Frisian and Frankish shores during their passage. Nor 
was communication with the west by land any easier. For genera- 
tions the obstinately heathen Saxons had lain, a compact and 
impenetrable mass, between Scandinavia and the Frank empir?, 
nor were the measures adopted by Charles the Great for the 
conversion of the Saxons to the true faith very much to the 
liking of their warlike Danish neighbours on the other side. 
But by the time that Charles had succeeded in " converting " 
the Saxons, the Viking raids were already at their height, and 
though generally triumphant, necessity occasionally taught the 
Northmen the value of concessions. Thus it was the desire 
to secure his Jutish kingdom which induced Harold Klak, in 
826, to sail up the Rhine to Ingelheim, and there accept 
baptism, with his wife, his son Godfred and 400 of his suite, 
acknowledging the emperor as his overlord, and taking back 
with him to Denmark the missionary monk Ansgar. Ansgar 
preached in Denmark from 826 to 861, but it was not till after 
the subsidence of the Viking raids that Adaldag, archbishop 
of Hamburg, could open a new and successful mission, which 
resulted in the erection of the bishoprics of Schleswig, Ribe and 
Aarhus (c. 948), though the real conversion of Denmark must be 
dated from the baptism of King Harold Bluetooth (960). 

Meanwhile the Danish monarchy was attempting to aggrandize 
itself at the expense of the Germans, the Wends who then 
occupied the Baltic littoral as far as the Vistula, and 
the other Scandinavian kingdoms. Harold Bluetooth expansion. 
(940-986) subdued German territory south of the 
Eider, extended the Danevirke, Denmark's great line of defensive 
fortifications, to the south of Schleswig and planted the military 
colony of Julin or Jomsborg, at the mouth of the Oder. Part of 
Norway was first seized after the united Danes and Swedes had 
defeated and slain King Olaf Trygvesson at the battle of Svolde 
(1000); and between 1028 and 1035 Canute the Great added the 
whole kingdom to his own; but the union did not long survive 
him. Equally short-lived was the Danish dominion in England, 
which originated in a great Viking expedition of King Sweyn I. 

The period between the death of Canute the Great and the 
accession of Valdemar I. was a troublous time for Denmark. 
The k> gdom was harassed almost incessantly, and consoiida- 
more than once partitioned.by pretenders to the throne, tion of the 
who did not scruple to invoke the interference of the kI "i do ^l 
neighbouring monarchs, and even of the heathen vaide- 
Wends, who established themselves for a time on mars, 
the southern islands. Yet, throughout this chaos, one 1, ^ 7m 
thing made for future stability, and that was the 
growth and consolidation of a national church, which culmin- 
ated in the erection of the archbishopric of Lund (c. n 04) and 
the consequent ecclesiastical independence of Denmark. The 
third archbishop of Lund was Absalon (n 28-1 201), Denmark's 
first great statesman, who so materially assisted Valdemar I. 
(1157-1182) and Canute VI. (1182-1202) to establish the 
dominion of Denmark over the Baltic, mainly at the expense 
of the Wends. The policy of Absalon was continued on a still 
vaster scale by Valdemar II. (1202-1241), at a time when the 
German kingdom was too weak and distracted to intervene to 
save its seaboard; but the treachery of a vassal and the loss of 
one great battle sufficed to plunge this unwieldy, unsubstantial 
empire in the dust. (See Valdemar I., II., and Absalon.) 

Yet the age of the Valdemars was one of the most glorious in 
Danish history, and it is of political importance as marking a 
turning-point. Favourable circumstances had, from the first, 
given the Danes the lead in Scandinavia. They held the richest 
and therefore the most populous lands, and geographically 
they were nearer than their neighbours to western civilization. 
Under the Valdemars, however, the ancient patriarchal system 
was merging into a more complicated development, of separate 
estates. The monarchy, now dominant, and far wealthier than 
before, rested upon the support of the great nobles, many of 
whom held their lands by feudal tenure, and constituted the 
royal Raad, or council. The clergy, fortified by royal privileges, 



3° 



DENMARK 



[HISTORY 



had also risen to influence; but celibacy and independence of the 
civil courts tended to make them more and more of a separate 
caste. Education was spreading. Numerous Danes, lay as well 
as clerical, regularly frequented the university of Paris. There 
were signs too of the rise of a vigorous middle class, due to the 
extraordinary development of the national resources (chiefly 
the herring fisheries, horse-breeding and cattle-rearing) and the 
foundation of gilds, the oldest of which, the Edslag of Schleswig, 
dates from the early 12th century. The bonder, or yeomen, were 
prosperous and independent, with well-defined rights. Danish 
territory extended over 60,000 sq. kilometres, or nearly double 
its present area; the population was about 700,000; and 160,000 
men and 1400 ships were available for national defence. 

On the death of Valdemar II. a period of disintegration ensued. 

Valdemar's son, Eric Plovpenning, succeeded him as king; but 

his near kinsfolk also received huge appanages, and 

Period of family discords led to civil wars. Throughout the 

tion. tegra " I 3 th and P art of the I4th centurv , tbe struggle raged 
between the Danish kings and the Schleswig dukes; 
and of six monarchs no fewer than three died violent deaths. 
Superadded to these troubles was a prolonged struggle for 
supremacy between the popes and the crown, and, still more 
serious, the beginning of a breach between the kings and nobles, 
which had important constitutional consequences. The prevalent 
disorder had led to general lawlessness, in consequence of which 
the royal authority had been widely extended; and a strong 
opposition gradually arose which protested against the abuses 
of this authority. In 1282 the nobles extorted from King Eric 
dipping the first Haandfoestning, or charter, which recognized 
the Danehof, or national assembly, as a regular branch of the 
administration and gave guarantees against further usurpations. 
Christopher II. (1319-1331) was constrained to grant another 
charter considerably reducing the prerogative, increasing the 
privileges of the upper classes, and at the same time reducing the 
burden of taxation. But aristocratic licence proved as mischiev- 
ous as royal incompetence; and on the death of Christopher II. 
the whole kingdom was on the verge of dissolution. Eastern 
Denmark was in the hands of one magnate; another magnate 
held Jutland and Funen in pawn ; the dukes of Schleswig were 
practically independent of the Danish crown; the Scandian pro- 
vinces had (1332) surrendered themselves to Sweden. 

It was reserved for another Valdemar (Valdemar IV., q.v.) to 
reunite and weld together the scattered members of his heritage. 
Vaide- His long reign (1340-1375) resulted in the re-establish- 
mariv., ment of Denmark as the great Baltic power. It is also 
1340- a verv interesting period of her social and constitutional 

1 75 ' development. This great ruler, who had to fight, year 

after year, against foreign and domestic foes, could, nevertheless, 
always find time to promote the internal prosperity of his much 
afflicted country. For the dissolution of Denmark, during the 
long anarchy, had been internal as well as external. The whole 
social fabric had been convulsed and transformed. The monarchy 
had been undermined. The privileged orders had aggrandized 
themselves at the expense of the community. The yeoman class 
had sunk into semi-serfdom. In a word, the natural cohesion of 
the Danish nation had been loosened and there was no security 
for law and justice. To make an end of this universal lawlessness 
Valdemar IV. was obliged, in the first place, to re-establish the 
royal authority by providing the crown with a regular and certain 
income. This he did by recovering the alienated royal demesnes 
in every direction, and from henceforth the annual landgilde, or 
rent, paid by the royal tenants, became the monarch's principal 
source of revenue. Throughout his reign Valdemar laboured 
incessantly to acquire as much land as possible. Moreover, the 
old distinction between the king's private estate and crown 
property henceforth ceases; all such property was henceforth 
regarded as the hereditary possession of the Danish crown. 

The national army was also re-established on its ancient 
footing. Not only were the magnates sharply reminded that they 
held their lands on military tenure x but the towns were also made 
to contribute both men and ships, and peasant levies, especially 
archers, were recruited from every parish. Everywhere indeed 



Valdemar intervened personally. The smallest detail was not 
beneath his notice. Thus he invented nets for catching wolves 
and built innumerable water-mills, " for he would not let the 
waters run into the sea before they had been of use to the 
community." Under such a ruler law and order were speedily re- 
established. The popular tribunals regained their authority, and 
a supreme court of justice, Del Kongelige Retterting, presided over 
by Valdemar himself, not only punished the unruly and guarded 
the prerogatives of the crown, but also protected the weak and 
defenceless from the tyranny of the strong. Nor did Valdemar 
hesitate to meet his people in public and periodically render an 
account of his stewardship. He voluntarily resorted to the old 
practice of summoning national assemblies, the so-called Danehof. 
At the first of these assemblies held at Nyborg, Midsummer Day 
13 14, the bishops and councillors solemnly promised that the 
commonalty should enjoy all the ancient rights and privileges 
conceded to them by Valdemar II., and the wise provision that 
the Danehof should meet annually considerably strengthened its 
authority. The keystone to the whole constitutional system was 
" King Valdemar's Charter " issued in May 1360 at the Rigsmbde, 
or parliament, held at Kalundborg in May 1360. This charter 
was practically an act of national pacification, the provisions 
of which king and people together undertook to enforce for the 
benefit of the commonweal. 

The work of Valdemar was completed and consolidated by 
his illustrious daughter Margaret (1375-14T2), whose crowning 
achievement was the Union of Kalmar (1397), whereby 
she sought to combine the three northern kingdoms Ths Vaioa 
into a single state dominated by Denmark. In any jrjp 7 _ a ' 
case Denmark was bound to be the only gainer by 
the Union. Her population was double that of the two other 
kingdoms combined, and neither Margaret nor her successors 
observed the stipulations that each country should retain its own 
laws and customs and be ruled by natives only. In both Norway 
and Sweden, therefore, the Union was highly unpopular. The 
Norwegian aristocracy was too weak, however, seriously to 
endanger the Union at any time, but Sweden was, from the 
first, decidedly hostile to Margaret's whole policy. Nevertheless 
during her lifetime the system worked fairly well; but her pupil 
and successor, Eric of Pomerania, was unequal to the burden 
of empire and embroiled himself both with his neighbours and 
his subjects. The Hanseatic League, whose political ascendancy 
had been shaken by the Union, enraged by Eric's efforts to bring 
in the Dutch as commercial rivals, as well as by the establish- 
ment of the Sound tolls, materially assisted the Holsteiners in 
their twenty-five years' war with Denmark (1410-35), and 
Eric VII. himself was finally deposed (1439) in favour of his 
nephew, Christopher of Bavaria. 

The deposition of Eric marks another turning-point in Danish 
history. It was the act not of the people but of the Rigsraad 
(Senate), which had inherited the authority of the Growth of 
ancient Danehof and, after the death of Margaret, the power 
grew steadily in power at the expense of the crown. o/ '* e 
As the government grew more and more aristocratic, 
the position of the peasantry steadily deteriorated. It is under 
Christopher that we first hear, for instance, of the Vornedskab, or 
patriarchal control of the landlords over their tenants, a system 
which degenerated into rank slavery. In Jutland, too, after 
the repression, in 144 1, of a peasant rising, something very like 
serfdom was introduced. 

On the death of Christopher III. without heirs, in 1448, the 
Rigsraad elected his distant cousin, Count Christian of Oldenburg, 
king; but Sweden preferred Karl Knutsson (Charles 
" VIII."), while Norway finally combined with Den- Break-up 
mark, at the conference of Halmstad, in a double y a y ^ 
election which practically terminated the Union, 
though an agreement was come to that the survivor of the two 
kings should reign over all three kingdoms. Norway, subse- 
quently, threw in her lot definitively with Denmark. Dissensions 
resulting in interminable civil wars had, even before the Union, 
exhausted the resources of the poorest of the three northern 
realms; and her ruin was completed by the ravages of the Black 



HISTORY] 



DENMARK 



3i 



Death, which wiped out two-thirds of her population. Unfortu- 
nately, too, for Norway's independence, the native gentry had 
gradually died out, and were succeeded by immigrant Danish 
fortune-hunters; native burgesses there were none, and the 
peasantry were mostly thralls; so that, excepting the clergy, 
there was no patriotic class to stand up for the national 
liberties. 

Far otherwise was it in the wealthier kingdom of Sweden. Here 
the clergy and part of the nobility were favourable to the Union; 
but the vast majority of the people hated it as a foreign usurpa- 
tion. Matters were still further complicated by the continual 
interference of the Hanseatic League; and Christian I. (1448- 
1481) and Hans (1481-1513), whose chief merit it is to have 
founded the Danish fleet, were, during the greater part of their 
reigns, only nominally kings of Sweden. Hans also received 
in fief the territory of Dietmarsch from the emperor, but, in 
attempting to subdue the hardy Dietmarschers, suffered a 
crushing defeat in which the national banner called " Danebrog " 
fell into the enemy's hands ( 1 500) . Moreover, this defeat led to a 
successful rebellion in Sweden, and a long and ruinous war with 
Ltibeck, terminated by the peace of Malmo, 1512. It was during 
this war that a strong Danish fleet dominated the Baltic for the 
first time since the age of the Valdemars. 

On the succession of Hans's son, Christian II. (1513-1523), 
Margaret's splendid dream of a Scandinavian empire seemed, 
finally, about to be realized. The young king, a man 
11 1513° °^ c ^ aracter an d genius, had wide views and original 
1523. ideas. Elected king of Denmark and Norway, he suc- 

ceeded in subduing Sweden by force of arms; but 
he spoiled everything at the culmination of his triumph by the 
hideous crime and blunder known as the Stockholm massacre, 
which converted the politically divergent Swedish nation into the 
irreconcilable foe of the unional government (see Christian 
II.). Christian's contempt of nationality in Sweden is the more 
remarkable as in Denmark proper he sided with the people 
against the aristocracy, to his own undoing in that age of privilege 
and prejudice. His intentions, as exhibited to his famous 
Landelove (National Code*), were progressive and enlightened to 
an eminent degree; so much so, indeed, that they mystified 
the people as much as they alienated the patricians; but his 
actions were often of revolting brutality, and his whole career 
was vitiated by an incurable double-mindedness which provoked 
general distrust. Yet there is no doubt that Christian II. was 
a true patriot, whose ideal it was to weld the three northern 
kingdoms into a powerful state, independent of all foreign 
influences, especially of German influence as manifested in the 
commercial tyranny of the Hansa League. His utter failure was 
due, partly to the vices of an undisciplined temperament, and 
partly to the extraordinary difficulties of the most inscrutable 
period of European history, when the shrewdest heads were at 
fault and irreparable blunders belonged to the order of the day. 
That period was the period of the Reformation, which profoundly 
affected the politics of Scandinavia. Christian II. had always 
subordinated religion to politics, and was Papist or Lutheran 
according to circumstances. But, though he treated the Church 
more like a foe than a friend and was constantly at war with the 
Curia, he retained the Catholic form of church worship and never 
seems to have questioned the papal supremacy. On the flight of 
Christian II. and the election of his uncle, Frederick I. (1523- 
Fr d rick J 533)> t ^ le Church resumed her jurisdiction and every- 
/., 1523- thing was placed on the old footing. The newly 
1533. The elected and still insecure German king at first remained 
Reforms- neu t r al; but in the autumn of 1525 the current of 
Lutheranism began to run so strongly in Denmark as 
to threaten to whirl away every opposing obstacle. This novel 
and disturbing phenomenon was mainly due to the zeal and 
eloquence of the ex-monk Hans Tausen and his associates, or 
disciples, Peder Plad and Sadolin; and, in the autumn of 1526, 
Tausen was appointed one of the royal chaplains. The three 
ensuing years were especially favourable for the Reformation, 
as during that time the king had unlooked-for opportunities for 
filling the vacant episcopal sees with men after his own heart, 



and at heart he was a Lutheran. The reformation movement in 
Denmark was further promoted by Schleswig-Holstein influence. 
Frederick's eldest son Duke Christian had, since 1527, resided at 
Haderslev, where he collected round him Lutheran teachers 
from Germany, and made his court the centre of the propaganda 
of the new doctrine. On the other hand, the Odense Recess of 
the 20th of August 1527, which put both confessions on a footing 
of equality, remained unrepealed; and so long as it remained in 
force, the spiritual jurisdiction of the bishops, and, consequently, 
their authority over the " free preachers " (whose ambition 
convulsed all the important towns of Denmark and aimed 
at forcibly expelling the Catholic priests from their churches) 
remained valid, to the great vexation of the reformers. The 
inevitable ecclesiastical crisis was still further postponed by the 
superior stress of two urgent political events — Christian II. 's 
invasion of Norway (1531) and the outbreak, in 1533, of 
" Grevens fejde," or "The Count's War" (1534-36), Th 
the count in question being Christopher of Oldenburg, count's 
great-nephew of King Christian I., whom Liibeck and War, 
her allies, on the death of Frederick I., raised up 'ff 3 ' 
against Frederick's son Christian III. The Catholic 
party and the lower orders generally took the part of Count 
Christopher, who acted throughout as the nominee of the captive 
Christian II., while the Protestant party, aided by the Holstein 
dukes and Gustavus Vasa of Sweden, sided with Christian III. 
The war ended with the capture of Copenhagen by the forces of 
Christian III., on the 29th of July 1536, and the triumph of so 
devoted a Lutheran sealed the fate of the Roman Catholic 
Church in Denmark, though even now it was necessary for the 
victorious king to proceed against the bishops and their friends 
by a coup d'itat, engineered by his German generals the Rantzaus. 
The Recess of 1536 enacted that the bishops should forfeit their 
temporal and spiritual authority, and that all their property 
should be transferred to the crown for the good of the common- 
wealth. In the following year a Church ordinance, based upon 
the canons of Luther, Melanchthon and Bugenhagen, was drawn 
up, submitted to Luther for his approval, and promulgated on 
the 2nd of September 1537. On the same day seven " super- 
intendents," including Tausen and Sadolin, all of whom had 
worked zealously for the cause of the Reformation, were 
consecrated in place of the dethroned bishops. The position of 
the superintendents and of the reformed church generally was 
consolidated by the Articles of Ribe in 1542, and the constitution 
of the Danish church has practically continued the same to the 
present day. But Catholicism could not wholly or immediately 
be dislodged by the teaching of Luther. It had struck deep 
roots into the habits and feelings of the people, and traces of its 
survival were distinguishable a whole century after the triumph 
of the Reformation. Catholicism lingered longest in the cathedral 
chapters. Here were to be found men of ability proof against 
the eloquence of Hans Tausen or Peder Plad and quite capable 
of controverting their theories — men like Povl Helgesen, for 
instance, indisputably the greatest Danish theologian of his day, 
a scholar whose voice was drowned amidst the clash of conflicting 
creeds. 

Though the Reformation at first did comparatively little for 
education, 1 and the whole spiritual life of Denmark was poor and 
feeble in consequence for at least a generation after- 
wards, the change of religion was of undeniable, if the n e . 
temporary, benefit to the state from the political formation. 
point of view. The enormous increase of the royal 
revenue consequent upon the confiscation of the property of the 
Church could not fail to increase the financial stability of the 
monarchy. In particular the suppression of the monasteries 
benefited the crown in two ways. The old church had, indeed, 
frequently rendered the state considerable financial aid, but such 
voluntary assistance was, from the nature of the case, casual 
and arbitrary. Now, however, the state derived a fixed and 
certain revenue from the confiscated lands; and the possession 

1 It is true the university was established on the 9th of September 
1537, but its influence was of very gradual growth and small at 
first. 



32 



DENMARK 



[HISTORY 



1544- 
1626. 



of immense landed property at the same time enabled the 
crown advantageously to conduct the administration. The 
gross revenue of the state is estimated to have risen threefold. 
Before the Reformation the annual revenue from land averaged 
400,000 bushels of corn; after the confiscations of Church 
property it averaged 1,200,000 bushels. The possession of a 
full purse materially assisted the Danish government in its 
domestic administration, which was indeed epoch-making. It 
enabled Christian III. to pay off his German mercenaries 
immediately after the religious coup d'ttat of 1536. It enabled 
him to prosecute shipbuilding with such energy that, by, 1550, 
the royal fleet numbered at least thirty vessels, which were 
largely employed as a maritime police in the pirate-haunted 
Baltic and North Seas. It enabled him to create and 
remunerate adequately a capable official class, which proved 
its efficiency under the strictest supervision, and ultimately 
produced a whole series of great statesmen and admirals like 
Johan Friis, Peder Oxe, Herluf Trolle and Peder Skram. It is 
not too much to say that the increased revenue derived from the 
appropriation of Church property, intelligently applied, gave 

Denmark the hegemony of the North during the 
Influence latter P art °f Christian III.'s reign, the whole reign 
0/ of Frederick II. and the first twenty-five years of the 

Denmark, reign of Christian IV., a period embracing, roughly 

speaking, eighty years (1544-1626). Within this period 

Denmark was indisputably the leading Scandinavian 
power. While Sweden, even after the advent of Gustavus Vasa, 
was still of but small account in Europe, Denmark easily held 
her own in Germany and elsewhere, even against Charles V., and 
was important enough, in 1553, to mediate a peace between the 
emperor and Saxony. Twice during this period Denmark and 
Sweden measured their strength in the open field, on the first 
occasion in the " Scandinavian Seven Years' War" (1562-70), 
on the second in the " Kalmar War " (1611-13), and on both 
occasions Denmark prevailed, though the temporary advantage 
she gained was more than neutralized by the intense feeling of 
hostility which the unnatural wars, between the two kindred 
peoples of Scandinavia, left behind them. Still, the fact remains 
that, for a time, Denmark was one of the great powers of Europe. 
Frederick II., in his later years (1571-1588), aspired to the 
dominion of all the seas which washed the Scandinavian coasts, 
and before he died he was able to enforce the rule that all foreign 
ships should strike their topsails to Danish men-of-war as a token 
of his right to rule the northern seas. Favourable political 
circumstances also contributed to this general acknowledgment 
of Denmark's maritime greatness. The power of the Hansa had 
gone; the Dutch were enfeebled by their contest with Spain; 
England's sea-power was yet in the making; Spain, still the 
greatest of the maritime nations, was exhausting her resources 
in the vain effort to conquer the Dutch. Yet more even than to 
felicitous circumstances, Denmark owed her short-lived greatness 
to the great statesmen and administrators whom Frederick II. 
succeeded in gathering about him. Never before, since the age 
of Margaret, had Denmark been so well governed, never before 
had she possessed so many political celebrities nobly emulous for 
the common good. 

Frederick II. was succeeded by his son Christian IV. (April 4, 
1588), who attained his majority on the 17th of August 1596, at 
Denmark t ^ le a S e °^ nineteen. The realm which Christian IV. was 
at the ac- to govern had undergone great changes within the last 
cession of two generations. Towards the south the boundaries of 
^y^fjgg the Danish state remained unchanged. Levensaa and 

the Eider still separated Denmark from the Empire. 
Schleswig was recognized as a Danish fief, in contradistinc- 
tion to Holstein, which owed vassalage to the Empire. The 
" kingdom " stretched as far as Kolding and Skedborg, where 
the " duchy " began; and this duchy since its amalgamation 
with Holstein by means of a common Landtag, and especially 
since the union of the dual duchy with the kingdom on almost 
equal terms in 1533, was, in most respects, a semi-independent 
state. Denmark, moreover, like Europe in general, was, politic- 
ally, on the threshold of a transitional period. During the whole 



course of the 16th century the monarchical form of government 
was in every large country, with the single exception of Poland, 
rising on the ruins of feudalism. The great powers of the late 
16th and early 17th centuries were to be the strong, highly 
centralized, hereditary monarchies, like France, Spain and 
Sweden. There seemed to be no reason why Denmark also should 
not become a powerful state under the guidance of a powerful 
monarchy, especially as the sister state of Sweden was developing 
into a great power under apparently identical conditions. Yet, 
while Sweden was surely ripening into the dominating power of 
northern Europe, Denmark had as surely entered upon a period 
of uninterrupted and apparently incurable decline. What was 
the cause of this anomaly ? Something of course must be allowed 
for the superior and altogether extraordinary genius of the great 
princes of the house of Vasa; yet the causes of the decline 
of Denmark lay far deeper than this. They may roughly be 
summed up under two heads: the inherent weakness of an 
elective monarchy, and the absence of that public spirit which 
is based on the intimate alliance of ruler and ruled. Whilst 
Gustavus Vasa had leaned upon the Swedish peasantry, in other 
words upon the bulk of the Swedish nation, which was and 
continued to be an integral part of the Swedish body-politic, 
Christian III. on his accession had crushed the middle and lower 
classes in Denmark and reduced them to political insignificance. 
Yet it was not the king who benefited by this blunder. The 
Danish monarchy since the days of Margaret had continued to be 
purely elective; and a purely elective monarchy at that stage of 
the political development of Europe was a mischievous anomaly. 
It signified in the first place that the crown was not the highest 
power in the state, but was subject to the aristocratic Rigsraad, 
or council of state. The Rigsraad was the permanent owner of the 
realm and the crown-lands; the king was only their temporary 
administrator. If the king died before the election of his 
successor, the Rigsraad stepped into the king's place. Moreover, 
an elective monarchy implied that, at every fresh succession, the 
king was liable to be bound by a new Haandfaeslning, or charter. 
The election itself might, and did, become a mere formality; 
but the condition precedent of election, the acceptance of 
the charter, invariably limiting the royal authority, remained a 
reality. This period of aristocratic rule, which dates practically 
from the accession of Frederick I. (1523), and lasted for nearly 
a century and a half, is known in Danish history as Adelsvaelde, 
or rule of the nobles. 

Again, the king was the ruler of the realm, but over a very 
large portion of it he had but a slight control. The crown-lands 
and most of the towns were under his immediate jurisdiction, 
but by the side of the crown-lands lay the estates of the nobility, 
which already comprised about one-half of the superficial area 
of Denmark, and were in many respects independent of the central 
government both as regards taxation and administration. In a 
word, the monarchy had to share its dominion with the nobility; 
and the Danish nobility in the 16th century was one of the most 
exclusive and selfish aristocracies in Europe, and already far 
advanced in decadence. Hermetically sealing itself from any 
intrusion from below, it deteriorated by close and constant inter- 
marriage; and it was already, both morally and intellectually, 
below the level of the rest of the nation. Yet this very aristo- 
cracy, whose claim to consideration was based not upon its own 
achievements but upon the length of its pedigrees, insisted upon 
an amplification of its privileges which endangered the economical 
and political interests of the state and the nation. The time was 
close at hand when a Danish magnate was to demonstrate that he 
preferred the utter ruin of his country to any abatement of his 
own personal dignity. 

All below the king and the nobility were generally classified 
together as " subjects." Of these lower orders the clergy stood 
first in the social scale. As a spiritual estate, indeed, it had 
ceased to exist at the Reformation, though still represented in the 
Rigsdag or diet. Since then too it had become quite detached 
from the nobility, which ostentatiously despised the teaching 
profession. The clergy recruited themselves therefore from 
the class next below them, and looked more and more to the 



HISTORY] 



DENMARK 



33 



crown for help and protection as they drew apart from 
the gentry, who, moreover, as dispensers of patronage, lost no 
opportunity of appropriating church lands and cutting down 
tithes. 

The burgesses had not yet recovered from the disaster of 
" Grevens fejde"; but while the towns had become more 
dependent on the central power, they had at the same time been 
released from their former vexatious subjection to the local mag- 
nates, and could make their voices heard in the Rigsdag, where 
they were still, though inadequately, represented. Within the 
Estate of Burgesses itself, too, a levelling process had begun. 
The old municipal patriciate, which used to form the connecting 
link between the bourgeoisie and the nobility, had disappeared, 
and a feeling of common civic fellowship had taken its place. 
All this tended to enlarge the political views of the burgesses, and 
was not without its influence on the future. Yet, after all, the 
prospects of the burgesses depended mainly on economic con- 
ditions; and in this respect there was a decided improvement, 
due to the increasing importance of money and commerce all 
over Europe, especially as the steady decline of the Hanse towns 
immediately benefited the trade of Denmark-Norway; Norway 
by this time being completely merged in the Danish state, 
and ruled from Copenhagen. There can, indeed, be no doubt 
that the Danish and Norwegian merchants at the end of the 
16th century flourished exceedingly, despite the intrusion and 
competition of the Dutch and the dangers to neutral shipping 
arising from the frequent wars between England, Spain and 
the Netherlands. 

At the bottom of the social ladder lay the peasants, whose 
condition had decidedly deteriorated. Only in one respect had 
they benefited by the peculiar conditions of the 16th century: 
the rise in the price of corn without any corresponding rise in the 
land-tax must have largely increased their material prosperity. 
Yet the number of peasant-proprietors had diminished, while 
the obligations of the peasantry generally had increased; and, 
still worse, their obligations were vexatiously indefinite, varying 
from year to year and even from month to month. They 
weighed especially heavily on the so-called Ugedasmaend, who 
were forced to work two or three days a week in the demesne 
lands. This increase of villenage morally depressed the peasantry, 
and widened still further the breach between the yeomanry and 
the gentry. Politically its consequences were disastrous. While 
in Sweden the free and energetic peasant was a salutary power 
in the state, which he served with both mind and plough, the 
Danish peasant was sinking to the level of a bondman. While 
the Swedish peasants were well represented in the Swedish 
Riksdag, whose proceedings they sometimes dominated, the 
Danish peasantry had no political rights or privileges what- 
ever. 

Such then, briefly, was the condition of things in Denmark 
when, in 1 588, Christian IV. ascended the throne. Where so much 
was necessarily uncertain and fluctuating, there was 
IV 1588- room f° r an almost infinite variety of development. 
1648. Much depended on the character and personality of 

the young prince who had now taken into his hands 
the reins of government, and for half a century was to guide the 
destinies of the nation. In the beginning of his reign the hand 
of the young monarch, who was nothing if not energetic, made 
itself felt in every direction. The harbours of Copenhagen, 
Elsinore and other towns were enlarged; many decaying towns 
were abolished and many new ones built under more promising 
conditions, including Christiania, which was founded in August 
1624, on the ruins of the ancient city of Oslo. Various attempts 
were also made to improve trade and industry by abolishing the 
still remaining privileges of the Hanseatic towns, by promoting 
a wholesale immigration of skilful and well-to-do Dutch traders 
and handicraftsmen into Denmark under most favourable 
conditions, by opening up the rich fisheries of the Arctic seas, 
and by establishing joint-stock chartered companies both in the 
East and the West Indies. Copenhagen especially benefited by 
Christian IV. 's commercial policy. He enlarged and embellished 
it, and provided it with new harbours and fortifications; in short, 



did his best to make it the worthy capital of a great empire. 
But it was in the foreign policy of the government that the royal 
influence was most perceptible. Unlike Sweden, Denmark had 
remained outside the great religious-political movements which 
were the outcome of the Catholic reaction; and the peculiarity 
of her position made her rather hostile than friendly to the other 
Protestant states. The possession of the Sound enabled her to 
close the Baltic against the Western powers; the possession of 
Norway carried along with it the control of the rich fisheries 
which were Danish monopolies, and therefore a source of irrita- 
tion to England and Holland. Denmark, moreover, was above 
all things a Scandinavian power. While the territorial expansion 
of Sweden in the near future was a matter of necessity, Denmark 
had not only attained, but even exceeded, her natural limits. 
Aggrandizement southwards, at the expense of the German 
empire, was becoming every year more difficult; and in every 
other direction she had nothing more to gain. Nay, more, 
Denmark's possession of the Scanian provinces deprived Sweden 
of her proper geographical frontiers. Clearly it was Denmark's 
wisest policy to seek a close alliance with Sweden in their common 
interests, and after the conclusion of the " Kalmar War " the 
two countries did remain at peace for the next thirty-one years. 
But the antagonistic interests of the two countries in Germany 
during the Thirty Years' War precipitated a fourth contest 
between them (1643-45), in which Denmark would have been 
utterly ruined but for the heroism of King Christian IV. and his 
command of the sea during the crisis of the struggle. Even so, 
by the peace of Bromsebro (February 8, 1645) 
Denmark surrendered the islands of Oesel and Gotland /o ^ es of 
and the provinces of Jemteland and Herjedal (in territory. 
Norway) definitively, and Halland for thirty years. 
The freedom from the Sound tolls was by the same treaty also 
extended to Sweden's Baltic provinces. 

The peace of Bromsebro was the first of the long series 
of treaties, extending down to our own days, which mark the 
progressive shrinkage of Danish territory into an irreducible 
minimum. Sweden's appropriation of Danish soil had begun, 
and at the same time Denmark's power of resisting the encroach- 
ments of Sweden was correspondingly reduced. The Danish 
national debt, too, had risen enormously, while the sources of 
future income and consequent recuperation had diminished 
or disappeared. The Sound tolls, for instance, in consequence of 
the treaties of Bromsebro and Kristianope! (by the latter treaty 
very considerable concessions were made to the Dutch) had sunk 
from 400,000 to 140,000 rix-dollars. The political influence of 
the crown, moreover, had inevitably been weakened, and the 
conduct of foreign affairs passed from the hands of the king 
into the hands of the Rigsraad. On the accession 
of Frederick III. (1648-1670) moreover, the already 7/ " \^ s . 
diminished royal prerogative was still further curtailed 1670. 
by the Haandfaestning, or charter, which he was 
compelled to sign. Fear and hatred of Sweden, and the never 
abandoned hope of recovering the lost provinces, animated king 
and people alike; but it was Denmark's crowning misfortune 
that she possessed at this difficult crisis no statesman of the first 
rank, no one even approximately comparable with such com- 
petitors as Charles X. of Sweden or the " Great Elector " 
Frederick William of Brandenburg. From the very beginning 
of his reign Frederick III. was resolved upon a rupture at the 
first convenient opportunity, while the nation was, if possible, 
even more bellicose than the king. The apparently insuperable 
difficulties of Sweden in Poland was the feather that turned the 
scale; on the 1st of June 1657, Frederick III. signed the manifesto 
justifying a war which was never formally declared and brought 
Denmark to the very verge of ruin. The extraordinary details 
of this dramatic struggle will be found elsewhere (see Frederick 
III., king of Denmark, and Charles X., king of Sweden); 
suffice it to say that by the peace of Roskilde 
(February 26, 1658), Denmark consented to cede the Roskilde 
three Scanian provinces, the island of Bornholm and I6S8. 
the Norwegian provinces of Baahus and Trondhjem; 
to renounce all anti-Swedish alliances and to exempt all Swedish 

11 



34 



DENMARK 



[HISTORY 



llshed, 
1660. 



vessels, even when carrying foreign goods, from all tolls. These 
terrible losses were somewhat retrieved by the subsequent 
treaty of Copenhagen (May 27, 1660) concluded by the Swedish 
regency with Frederick III. after the failure of Charles X.'s 
second war against Denmark, a failure chiefly owing to the 
heroic defence of the Danish capital (1658-60). By this treaty 
Treaty of Sweden gave back the province of Trondhjem and the 
Copen- isle of Bornholm and released Denmark from the most 
hagen, onerous of the obligations of the treaty of Roskilde. 
1660. j n £ ac j. ^ p eace f Copenhagen came as a welcome 

break in an interminable series of disasters and humiliations. 
Anyhow, it confirmed the independence of the Danish state. 
On the other hand, if Denmark had emerged from the war with 
her honour and dignity unimpaired, she had at the same time 
tacitly surrendered the dominion of the North to her Scandi- 
navian rival. 

But the war just terminated had important political conse- 
quences, which were to culminate in one of the most curious and 
Hereditary interesting revolutions of modern history. In the first 
monarchy place, it marks the termination of the Adelsvaelde, or 
estab- rule of the nobility. By their cowardice, incapacity, 
egotism and treachery during the crisis of the struggle, 
the Danish aristocracy had justly forfeited the respect 
of every other class of the community, and emerged from the 
war hopelessly discredited. On the other hand, Copenhagen, 
proudly conscious of her intrinsic importance and of her inestim- 
able services to the country, whom she had saved from annihilation 
by her constancy, now openly claimed to have a voice in public 
affairs. Still higher had risen the influence of the crown. The 
courage and resource displayed by Frederick III. in the extremity 
of the national danger had won for " the least expansive of 
monarchs " an extraordinary popularity. 

On the 10th of September 1660, the Rigsdag, which was to 
repair the ravages of the war and provide for the future, was 
opened with great ceremony in the Riddersaal of the castle 
of Copenhagen. The first bill laid before the Estates by the 
government was to impose an excise tax on the principal articles 
of consumption, together with subsidiary taxes on cattle, poultry, 
&c, in return for which the abolition of all the old direct taxes 
was promised. The nobility at first claimed exemption from 
taxation altogether, while the clergy and burgesses insisted upon 
an absolute equality of taxation. There were sharp encounters 
between the presidents of the contending orders, but the position 
of the Lower Estates was considerably prejudiced by the dissen- 
sions of its various sections. Thus the privileges of the bishops 
and of Copenhagen profoundly irritated the lower clergy and 
the unprivileged towns, and made a cordial understanding 
impossible, till Hans Svane, bishop of Copenhagen, and Hans 
Nansen the burgomaster, who now openly came forward as the 
leader of the reform movement, proposed that the privileges 
which divided the non-noble Estates should be abolished. In 
accordance with this proposal, the two Lower Estates, on the 
16th of September, subscribed a memorandum addressed to the 
Rigsraad, declaring their willingness to renounce their privileges, 
provided the nobility did the same; which was tantamount to a 
declaration that the whole of the clergy and burgesses had made 
common cause against the nobility. The opposition so formed 
took the name of the " Conjoined Estates." The presentation 
of the memorial provoked an outburst of indignation. But the 
nobility soon perceived the necessity of complete surrender. 
On the 30th of September the First Estate abandoned its former 
standpoint and renounced its privileges, with one unimportant 
reservation. 

The struggle now seemed to be ended, and the financial 
question having also been settled, the king, had he been so 
minded, might have dismissed the Estates. But the still more 
important question of reform was now raised. On the 17th of 
September the burgesses introduced a bill proposing a new 
constitution, which was to include local self-government in the 
towns, the abolition of serfdom, and the formation of a national 
army. It fell to the ground for want of adequate support; but 
another proposition, the fruit of secret discussion between the 



king and his confederates, which placed all fiefs under the control 
of the crown as regards taxation, and provided for selling and 
letting them to the highest bidder, was accepted by the Estate 
of burgesses. The significance of this ordinance lay in the fact 
that it shattered the privileged position of the nobility, by 
abolishing the exclusive right to the possession of fiefs. What 
happened next is not quite clear. Our sources fail us, and we are 
at the mercy of doubtful rumours and more or less unreliable 
anecdotes. We have a vision of intrigues, mysterious conferences, 
threats and bribery, dimly discernible through a shifting mirage 
of tradition. 

The first glint of light is a letter, dated the 23rd of September, 
from Frederick III. to Svane and Nansen, authorizing them to 
communicate the arrangements already made to reliable men, 
and act quickly, as " if the others gain time they may possibly 
gain more." The first step was to make sure of the city train- 
bands: of the garrison of Copenhagen the king had no doubt. 
The headquarters of the conspirators was the bishop's palace 
near Vor Frue church, between which and the court messages 
were passing continually, and where the document to be adopted 
by the Conjoined Estates took its final shape. On the 8th of 
October the two burgomasters, Hans Nansen and Kristoffer 
Hansen, proposed that the realm of Denmark should be made 
over to the king as a hereditary kingdom, without prejudice to 
theprivilegesof theEstates; whereupon theyproceeded to Brewer's 
Hall, and informed the Estate of burgesses there assembled 
of what had been done. A fiery oration from Nansen dissolved 
some feeble opposition; and simultaneously Bishop Svane 
carried the clergy along with him. The so-called " Instrument," 
now signed by the Lower Estates, offered the realm to the king 
and his house as a hereditary monarchy, by way of thank-offering 
mainly for his courageous deliverance of the kingdom during 
the war; and the Rigsraad and the nobility were urged to 
notify the resolution to the king, and desire him to maintain 
each Estate in its due privileges, and to give a written counter- 
assurance that the revolution now to be effected was for the sole 
benefit of the state. Events now moved forward rapidly. On 
the 10th of October a deputation from the clergy and burgesses 
proceeded to the Council House where the Rigsraad were de- 
liberating, to demand an answer to their propositions. After 
a tumultuous scene, the aristocratic Raad rejected the " Instru- 
ment " altogether, whereupon the deputies of the commons pro- 
ceeded to the palace and were graciously received by the king, 
who promised them an answer next day. The same afternoon 
the guards in the streets and on the ramparts were doubled; on 
the following morning the gates of the city were closed, powder 
and bullets were distributed among the city train-bands, who 
were bidden to be in readiness when the alarm bell called them, 
and cavalry was massed on the environs of the city. The same 
afternoon the king sent a message to the Rigsraad urging them 
to declare their views quickly, as he could no longer hold himself 
responsible for what might happen. After a feeble attempt 
at a compromise the Raad gave way. On the 13 th of October 
it signed a declaration to the effect that it associated itself 
still with the Lower Estates in the making over of the kingdom, 
as a hereditary monarchy, to his majesty and his heirs male and 
female. The same day the king received the official communi- 
cation of this declaration and the congratulation of the burgo- 
masters. Thus the ancient constitution was transformed; and 
Denmark became a monarchy hereditary in Frederick III. and 
his posterity. 

But although hereditary sovereignty had been introduced, the 
laws of the land had not been abolished. The monarch was 
specifically now a sovereign over-lord, but he had not been 
absolved from his obligations towards his subjects. Hereditary 
sovereignty per se was not held to signify unlimited dominion, 
still less absolutism. On the contrary, the magnificent gift of 
the Danish nation to Frederick III. was made under express 
conditions. The " Instrument " drawn up by the Lower 
Estates implied the retention of all their rights; and the king, 
in accepting the gift of a hereditary crown, did not repudi- 
ate the implied inviolability of the privileges of the donors. 



HISTORY] 



DENMARK 



35 



Unfortunately everything had been left so vague, that it was 
an easy matter for ultra-royalists like Svane and Nansen to 
ignore the privileges of the Estates, and even the Estates 
themselves. 

On the 14th of October a committee was summoned to the 
palace to organize the new government. The discussion turned 
mainly upon two points, (1) whether a new oath of homage should 
be taken to the king, and (2) what was to be done with the 
Haandjaestning or royal charter. The first point was speedily 
decided in the affirmative, and, as to the second, it was ultimately 
decided that the king should be released from his oath and the 
charter returned to him; but a rider was added suggesting that 
he should, at the same time, promulgate a Recess providing for 
his own and his people's welfare. Thus Frederick III. was not 
left absolutely his own master; for the provision regarding a 
Recess, or new constitution, showed plainly enough that such 
a constitution was expected, and, once granted, would of course 
have limited the royal power. 

It now only remained to execute the resolutions of the com- 
mittee. On the 17th of October the charter, which the king had 
sworn to observe twelve years before, was solemnly handed back 
to him at the palace, Frederick III. thereupon promising to rule 
as a Christian king to the satisfaction of all the Estates of the 
realm. On the following day the king, seated on the topmost 
step of a lofty tribune surmounted by a baldaquin, erected in the 
midst of the principal square of Copenhagen, received the public 
homage of his subjects of all ranks, in the presence of an immense 
concourse, on which occasion he again promised to rule " as a 
Christian hereditary king and gracious master," and, " as soon as 
possible, to prepare and set up " such a constitution as should 
secure to his subjects a Christian and indulgent sway. The 
ceremony concluded with a grand banquet at the palace. After 
dinner the queen and the clergy withdrew; but the king remained. 
An incident now occurred which made a strong impression on all 
present. With a brimming beaker in his hand, Frederick III. 
went up to Hans Nansen, drank with him and drew him aside. 
They communed together in a low voice for some time, till the 
burgomaster, succumbing to the influence of his potations, 
fumbled his way to his carriage with the assistance of some of 
his civic colleagues. Whether Nansen, intoxicated by wine 
and the royal favour, consented on this occasion to sacrifice the 
privileges of his order and his city, it is impossible to say; but 
it is significant that, from henceforth, we hear no more of the 
Recess which the more liberal of the leaders of the lower 
orders had hoped for when they released Frederick III. from 
the obligations of the charter. 

We can follow pretty plainly the stages of the progress from 
a limited to an absolute monarchy. By an act dated the 10th 
Establish- °^ J anuar y 1661, entitled " Instrument, or pragmatic 
mentor sanction," of the king's hereditary right to the king- 
absolute doms of Denmark and Norway, it was declared that 
"*• all the prerogatives of majesty, and " all regalia as an 

absolute sovereign lord," had been made over to the king. Yet, 
even after the issue of the " Instrument," there was nothing, 
strictly speaking, to prevent Frederick III. from voluntarily 
conceding to his subjects some share in the administration. 
Unfortunately the king was bent upon still further emphasizing 
the plenitude of his power. At Copenhagen his advisers were 
busy framing drafts of a Lex Regia Perpetua ; and the one 
which finally won the royal favour was the famous Kongelov, or 
" King's Law." 

This document was in every way unique. In the first place 
it is remarkable for its literary excellence. Compared with the 
barbarous macaronic jargon of the contemporary official language 
it shines forth as a masterpiece of pure, pithy and original 
Danish. Still more remarkable are the tone and tenor of this 
royal law. The Kongelov has the highly dubious honour of being 
the one written law in the civilized world which fearlessly carries 
out absolutism to the last consequences. The monarchy is de- 
clared to owe its origin to the surrender of the supreme authority 
by the Estates to the king. The maintenance of the indivisi- 
bility of the realm and of the Christian faith according to the | 



Augsburg Confession, and the observance of the Kongelov itself, 
are now the sole obligations binding upon the king. The supreme 
spiritual authority also is now claimed; and it is expressly stated 
that it becomes none to crown him; the moment he ascends the 
throne, crown and sceptre belong to him of right. Moreover, 
par. 26 declares guilty of lese-majestS whomsoever shall in any 
way usurp or infringe the king's absolute authority. In the 
following reign the ultra-royalists went further still. In their 
eyes the king was not merely autocratic, but sacrosanct. Thus 
before the anointing of Christian V. on the 7th of June 167 1, a 
ceremony by way of symbolizing the new autocrat's humble 
submission to the Almighty, the officiating bishop of Zealand 
delivered an oration in which he declared that the king was God's 
immediate creation, His vicegerent on earth, and that it was the 
bounden duty of all good subjects to serve and honour the 
celestial majesty as represented by the king's terrestrial majesty. 
The Kongelov is dated and subscribed the 14th of November 
1665, but was kept a profound secret, only two initiated persons 
knowing of its existence until after the death of Frederick III., 
one of them being Kristoffer Gabel, the king's chief intermediary 
during the revolution, and the other the author and custodian 
of the Kongelov, Secretary Peder Schumacher, better known as 
Griffenfeldt. It is significant that both these confidential agents 
were plebeians. 

The revolution of 1660 was certainly beneficial to Norway. 
With the disappearance of the Rigsraad, which, as representing 
the Danish crown, had hitherto exercised sovereignty Effects Bf 
over both kingdoms, Norway ceased to be a subject the revola- 
principality. The sovereign hereditary king stood in tion of 
exactly the same relations to both kingdoms; and I660 ' 
thus, constitutionally, Norway was placed on an equality with 
Denmark, united with but not subordinate to it. It is clear 
that the majority of the Norwegian people hoped that the 
revolution would give them an administration independent 
of the Danish government; but these expectations were not 
realised. Till the cessation of the Union in 1814, Copenhagen 
continued to be the headquarters of the Norwegian administra- 
tion; both kingdoms had common departments of state; and 
the common chancery continued to be called the Danish chancery. 
On the other hand the condition of Norway was now greatly 
improved. In January 1661 a land commission was appointed 
to investigate the financial and economical conditions of the 
kingdoms; the fiefs were transformed into counties; the nobles 
were deprived of their immunity from taxation; and in July 
1662 the Norwegian towns received special privileges, including 
the monopoly of the lucrative timber trade. 

The Enevaelde, or absolute monarchy, also distinctly benefited 
the whole Danish state by materially increasing its reserve of 
native talent. Its immediate consequence was to throw open 
every state appointment to the middle classes; and the middle 
classes of that period, with very few exceptions, monopolized the 
intellect and the energy of the nation. New blood of the best 
quality nourished and stimulated the whole body politic. Ex- 
pansion and progress were the watchwords at home, and abroad 
it seemed as if Denmark were about to regain her 
former position as a great power. This was especially y hr fJlg° 
the case during the brief but brilliant administration I'^gg. 
of Chancellor Griffenfeldt. Then, if ever, Denmark 
had the chance of playing once more a leading part in inter- 
national politics. But Griffenfeldt's difficulties, always serious, 
were increased by the instability of the European situation, 
depending as it did on the ambition of Louis XIV. Resolved to 
conquer the Netherlands, the French king proceeded, first of all, 
to isolate her by dissolving the Triple Alliance. (See Sweden 
and Griffenfeldt.) In April 1672 a treaty was concluded 
between France and Sweden, on condition that France should not 
include Denmark in her system of alliances without the consent 
of Sweden. This treaty showed that Sweden weighed more in 
the French balances than Denmark. In June 1672 a French 
army invaded the Netherlands; whereupon the elector of 
Brandenburg contracted an alliance with the emperor Leopold, 
to which Denmark was invited to accede; almost simultaneously 



36 



DENMARK 



[HISTORY 



the States-General began to negotiate for a renewal of the recently- 
expired Dano-Dutch alliance. 

In these circumstances it was as difficult for Denmark to 
remain neutral as it was dangerous for her to make a choice. 
Denmark ^ n a ' uance with France would subordinate her to 
in the Sweden ; an alliance with the Netnerlands would expose 

Oreat her to an attack from Sweden. The Franco-Swedish 

Northern a uj ance left Griffenfeldt no choice but to accede to the 
opposite league, for he saw at once that the ruin of the 
Netherlands would disturb the balance of power in the north by 
giving an undue preponderance to England and Sweden. But 
Denmark's experience of Dutch promises in the past was not 
reassuring; so, while negotiating at the Hague for a renewal of 
the Dutch alliance, he at the same time felt his way at Stockholm 
towards a commercial treaty with Sweden. His Swedish mission 
proved abortive, but, as he had anticipated, it effectually acceler- 
ated the negotiations at the Hague, and frightened the Dutch 
into unwonted liberality. In May 1673 a treaty of alliance was 
signed by the ambassador of the States-General at Copenhagen, 
whereby the Netherlands pledged themselves to pay Denmark 
large subsidies in return for the services of 10,000 men and 
twenty warships, which were to be held in readiness in case the 
United Provinces were attacked by another enemy besides 
France. Thus, very dexterously, Griffenfeldt had succeeded in 
gaining his subsidies without sacrificing his neutrality. 

His next move was to attempt to detach Sweden from France; 
but, Sweden showing not the slightest inclination for a rapproche- 
ment, Denmark was compelled to accede to the anti-French 
league, which she did by the treaty of Copenhagen, of January 
1674, thereby engaging to place an army of 20,000 in the field 
when required; but here again Griffenfeldt safeguarded himself 
to some extent by stipulating that this provision was not to be 
operative till the allies were attacked by a fresh enemy. When, 
in December 1674, a Swedish army invaded Prussian Pomerania, 
Denmark was bound to intervene as a belligerent, but Griffen- 
feldt endeavoured to postpone this intervention as long as 
possible; and Sweden's anxiety to avoid hostilities with her 
southern neighbour materially assisted him to postpone the evil 
day. He only wanted to gain time, and he gained it. To the last 
he endeavoured to avoid a rupture with France even if he broke 
with Sweden; but he could not restrain for ever the foolish 
impetuosity of his own sovereign, Christian V., and his fall in 
the beginning of 1676 not only, as he had foreseen, involved 
Denmark in an unprofitable war, but, as his friend and disciple, 
Jens Juel, well observed, relegated her henceforth to the humiliat- 
ing position of an international catspaw. Thus at the peace of 
Fontainebleau (September 2, 1679) Denmark, which had borne 
the brunt of the struggle in the Baltic, was compelled by the 
inexorable French king to make full restitution to Sweden, the 
treaty between the two northern powers being signed at Lund 
on the 26th of September. Freely had she spent her blood and 
her treasure, only to emerge from the five years' contest exhausted 
and empty-handed. 

By the peace of Fontainebleau Denmark had been sacrificed 
to the interests of France and Sweden; forty-one years later she 
was sacrificed to the interests of Hanover and Prussia by the 
peace of Copenhagen (1720), which ended the Northern War so 
far as the German powers were concerned. But it would not 
have terminated advantageously for them at all, had not the 
powerful and highly efficient Danish fleet effectually prevented 
the Swedish government from succouring its distressed German 
provinces, and finally swept the Swedish fleets out of the northern 
waters. Yet all the compensation Denmark received for her 
inestimable services during a whole decade was 600,000 rix- 
dollars! The bishoprics of Bremen and Verden, the province of 
Farther Pomerania and the isle of Riigen which her armies had 
actually conquered, and which had been guaranteed to her by a 
whole catena of treaties, went partly to the upstart electorate 
of Hanover and partly to the upstart kingdom of Prussia, both of 
which states had been of no political importance whatever at the 
beginning of the war of spoliation by which they were, ultimately, 
to profit so largely and so cheaply. 



The last ten years of the reign of Christian V.'s successor, 
Frederick IV. (1699-1730), were devoted to the nursing and 
development of the resources of the country, which had 
suffered only less severely than Sweden from the effects ^fYiw- 
of the Great Northern War. The court, seriously pious, 1730. 
did much for education. A wise economy also contri- 
buted to reduce the national debt within manageable limits, and 
in the welfare of the peasantry Frederick IV. took a deep interest. 
In 1722 serfdom was abolished in the case of all peasants in the 
royal estates born after his accession. 

The first act of Frederick's successor, Christian VI. (1730-1746), 
was to abolish the national militia, which had been an intoler- 
able burden upon the peasantry; yet the more pressing 
agrarian difficulties were not thereby surmounted, ^! r/ ^ff 
as had been hoped. The price of corn continued i 7 '^ 6i 
to fall; the migration of the peasantry assumed 
alarming proportions; and at last, " to preserve the land " as 
well as to increase the defensive capacity of the country, the 
national militia was re-established by the decree of the 4th of 
February 1733, which at the same time bound to the soil all 
peasants between the age of nine and forty. Reactionary as the 
measure was it enabled the agricultural interest, on which the 
prosperity of Denmark mainly depended, to tide over one of the 
most dangerous crises in its history; but certainly the position 
of the Danish peasantry was never worse than during the reign 
of the religious and benevolent Christian VI. 

Under the peaceful reign of Christian's son and successor, 
Frederick V. (1746-1766), still more was done for commerce, 
industry and agriculture. To promote Denmark's 
carrying trade, treaties were made with the Barbary y ,?^. 
States, Genoa and Naples; and the East Indian ij'^e. 
Trading Company flourished exceedingly. On the 
other hand the condition of the peasantry was even worse under 
Frederick V. than it had been under Christian VI., the Stavns- 
baand, or regulation which bound all males to the soil, being 
made operative from the age of four. Yet signs of a coming 
amelioration were not wanting. The theory of the physiocrats 
now found powerful advocates in Denmark; and after 1755, when 
the press censorship was abolished so far as regarded political 
economy and agriculture, a thorough discussion of the whole 
agrarian question became possible. A commission appointed 
in 1757 worked zealously for the repeal of many agricultural 
abuses; and several great landed proprietors introduced heredi- 
tary leaseholds, and abolished the servile tenure. 

Foreign affairs during the reigns of Frederick V. and Christian 
VI. were left in the capable hands of J. H. E. Bernstorff, who 
aimed at steering clear of all foreign complications and preserving 
inviolable the neutrality of Denmark. This he succeeded in 
doing, in spite of the Seven Years' War and of the difficulties 
attending the thorny Gottorp question in which Sweden and 
Russia were equally interested. The same policy was victori- 
ously pursued by his nephew and pupil Andreas Bernstorff, an 
even greater man than the elder Bernstorff, who controlled the 
foreign policy of Denmark from 1773 to 1778, and again from 
1784 till his death in 1797. The period of the younger 



Bernstorff synchronizes with the greater part of the 



Christian 

long reign of Christian VII. (1766-1808), one of the jgos. 
most eventful periods of modern Danish history. The 
king himself was indeed a semi-idiot, scarce responsible for his 
actions, yet his was the era of such striking personalities as 
the brilliant charlatan Struensee, the great philanthropist and 
reformer C. D. F. Reventlow, the ultra-conservative Ove 
Hoegh-Guldberg, whose mission it was to repair.tlie damage done 
by Struensee, and that generation of alert and progressive spirits 
which surrounded the young crown prince Frederick, whose first 
act, on taking his seat in the council of state, at the age of 
sixteen, on the 4th of April 1784, was to dismiss Guldberg. 

A fresh and fruitful period of reform now began, lasting till 
nearly the end of the century, and interrupted only by the brief 
but costly war with Sweden in 1788. The emancipation of 
the peasantry was now the burning question of the day, and 
the whole matter was thoroughly ventilated. Bernstorff and the 



HISTORY] 



DENMARK 



37 



crown prince were the most zealous advocates of the peasantry 
in the council of state; but the honour of bringing the whole 
peasant question within the range of practical politics un- 
doubtedly belongs to C. D. F. Reventlow (q.v.). Nor was the 
reforming principle limited to the abolition of serfdom. In 1788 
the corn trade was declared free; the Jews received civil rights; 
and the negro slave trade was forbidden. In 1796 a special 
ordinance reformed the whole system of judicial procedure, 
making it cheaper and more expeditious; while the toll ordinance 
of the 1st of February 1797 still further extended the principle 
of free trade. Moreover, until two years after Bernstorff's death 
in 1797, the Danish press enjoyed a larger freedom of speech than 
the press of any other absolute monarchy in Europe, so much so 
that at last Denmark became suspected of favouring Jacobin 
views. But in September 1799 under strong pressure from 
the Russian emperor Paul, the Danish government forbade 
anonymity, and introduced a limited censorship. 

It was Denmark's obsequiousness to Russia which led to the 
first of her unfortunate collisions with Great Britain. In 1800 
_ . the Danish government was persuaded by the tsar 

and Great to accede to the second Armed Neutrality League, 
Britain la which Russia had just concluded with Prussia and 
theNapo' Sweden. Great Britain retaliated by laying an 
Wars. embargo on the vessels of the three neutral powers, 
and by sending a considerable fleet to the Baltic under 
the command of Parker and Nelson. Surprised and unprepared 
though they were, the Danes, nevertheless, on the 2nd of April 
1801, offered a gallant resistance; but their fleet was destroyed, 
their capital bombarded, and, abandoned by Russia, they were 
compelled to submit to a disadvantageous peace. 

The same vain endeavour of Denmark to preserve her neutrality 
led to the second breach with England. After the peace of Tilsit 
there could be no further question of neutrality. Napoleon had 
determined that if Great Britain refused to accept Russia's 
mediation, Denmark, Sweden and Portugal were to be forced to 
close their harbours to her ships and declare war against her. 
It was the intention of the Danish government to preserve its 
neutrality to the last, although, on the whole, it preferred an 
alliance with Great Britain to a league with Napoleon, and was 
even prepared for a breach with the French emperor if he pressed 
her too hardly. The army had therefore been assembled in 
Holstein, and the crown prince regent was with it. But the 
British government did not consider Denmark strong enough to 
resist France, and Canning had private trustworthy information 
of the designs of Napoleon, upon which he was bound to act. He 
sent accordingly a fleet, with 30,000 men on board, to the Sound 
to compel Denmark, by way of security for her future conduct, 
to unite her fleet with the British fleet. Denmark was offered 
an alliance, the complete restitution of her fleet after the war, a 
guarantee of all her possessions, compensation for all expenses, 
and even territorial aggrandizement. 

Dictatorially presented as they were, these terms were liberal 
and even generous; and if a great statesman like Bernstorfl 
had been at the head of affairs in Copenhagen, he would, no 
doubt, have accepted them, even if with a wry face. But the 
prince regent, if a good patriot, was a poor politician, and 
invincibly obstinate. When, therefore, in August 1807, Gambier 
arrived in the Sound, and the English plenipotentiary Francis 
James Jackson, not perhaps the most tactful person that could 
have been chosen, hastened to Kiel to place the British demands 
before the crown prince, Frederick not only refused to negotiate, 
but ordered the Copenhagen authorities to put. the city in the best 
state of defence possible. Taking this to be tantamount to a 
declaration of war, on the 16th of August the British army 
landed at Vedback; and shortly afterwards the Danish capital 
was invested. Anything like an adequate defence was hopeless; 
Loss of a bombardment began which lasted from the 2nd of 
Norway. September till the 5th of September, and ended with 
ktT'm/^ ^ e ca Pitulation of the city and the surrender of the 
fleet intact, the prince regent having neglected to give 
orders for its destruction. After this Denmark, unwisely, but 
not unnaturally, threw herself into the arms of Napoleon and 



continued to be his faithful ally till the end of the war. She was 
punished for her obstinacy by being deprived of Norway, which 
she was compelled to surrender to Sweden by the terms of the 
treaty of Kiel (1814), on the 14th of January, receiving by way 
of compensation a sum of money and Swedish Pomerania, with 
Rttgen, which were subsequently transferred to Prussia in ex- 
change for the duchy of Lauenburg and 2,000,000 rix-dollars. 

On the establishment of the German Confederation in 1815, 
Frederick VI. acceded thereto as duke of Holstein, but refused 
to allow Schleswig to enter it, on the ground that Schleswig was 
an integral part of the Danish realm. 

The position of Denmark from 1815 to 1830 was one of great 
difficulty and distress. The loss of Norway necessitated consider- 
able reductions of expenditure, but the economies 
actually practised fell far short of the requirements of atte"%is 
the diminished kingdom and its depleted exchequer; 
while the agricultural depression induced by the enormous fall in 
the price of corn all over Europe caused fresh demands upon 
the state, and added 10,000,000 rix-dollars to the national debt 
before 1835. The last two years of the reign of Frederick VI. 
(1838-1839) were also remarkable for the revival of political life, 
provincial consultative assemblies being established for Jutland, 
the Islands, Schleswig and Holstein, by the ordinance of the 28th 
of May 1831. But these consultative assemblies were regarded 
as insufficient by the Danish Liberals, and during the last years 
of Frederick VI. and the whole reign of his successor, Christian 
VIII. (1839-1848), the agitation for a free constitution, 
both in Denmark and the duchies, continued to grow ^ ons '#«»" 
in strength, in spite of press prosecutions and other agitation. 
repressive measures. The rising national feeling in Beginnings 
Germany also stimulated the separatist tendencies of the 
of the duchies; and " Schleswig-Holsteinism," as ^""J*" 
it now began to be called, evoked in Denmark the Question. 
counter-movement known as Eiderdansk-politik, 
i.e. the policy of extending Denmark to the Eider and 
obliterating German Schleswig, in order to save Schleswig 
from being absorbed by Germany. This division of national 
sentiment within the monarchy, complicated by the ap- 
proaching extinction of the Oldenburg line of the house of 
Denmark, by which, in the normal course under the Salic law, 
the succession to Holstein would have passed away from the 
Danish crown, opened up the whole complicated Schleswig- 
Holstein Question with all its momentous consequences. (See 
Schleswig-Holstein Qdestion.) Within the monarchy itself, 
during the following years, " Schleswig-Holsteinism " and 
" Eiderdanism " faced each other as rival, mutually exacerbating 
forces; and the efforts of succeeding governments to solve the 
insoluble problem broke down ever on the rock of nationalist 
passion and the interests of the German powers. The unionist 
constitution, devised by Christian VIIL, and pro- v . 
mulgated by his successor, Frederick VII. (1848-1863), Constita- 
on the 28th of January 1848, led to the armed inter- tionot 
vention of Prussia, at the instance of the new German ,848, "° d 
parliament at Frankfort; and, though with the help pru^i'a. 
of Russian and British diplomacy, the Danes were 
ultimately successful, they had to submit, in 1851, to the 
government of Holstein by an international commission consisting 
of three members, Prussian, Austrian and Danish respectively. 

Denmark, meanwhile, had been engaged in providing herself 
with a parliament on modern lines. The constitutional rescript 
of the 28th of January 1848 had been withdrawn in favour of an 
electoral law for a national assembly, of whose 152 members 
38 were to be nominated by the king and to form an Upper 
House (Landsting) , while the remainder were to be elected by 
the people and to form a popular chamber (Folketing). The 
Bondevenlige, or philo-peasant party, which objected to the king's 
right of nomination and preferred a one-chamber system, now 
separated from the National Liberals on this point. But the 
National Liberals triumphed at the general election; fear of 
reactionary tendencies finally induced the Radicals to accede to 
the wishes of the majority; and on the 5th of June 1849 the new 
constitution received the royal sanction. 



38 



DENMARK 



[HISTORY 



Danish 
duchies. 



At this stage Denmark's foreign relations prejudicially affected 
her domestic politics. The Liberal Eiderdansk party was for 
Germany dividing Schleswig into three distinct administrative 
and the belts, according as the various nationalities predomin- 
ated (language rescripts of i85i),but German sentiment 

was opposed to any such settlement and, still worse, 
the great continental powers looked askance on the new Danish 
constitution as far too democratic. The substance of the notes 
embodying the exchange of views, in 1851 and 1852, between the 
German great powers and Denmark, was promulgated, on the 
28th of January 1852, in the new constitutional decree which, 
together with the documents on which it was founded, was known 

as the Conventions of 1851 and 1852. Under this 
Conven- arran gement each part of the monarchy was to have 
1852. local autonomy, with a common constitution for 

common affairs. Holstein was now restored to 
Denmark, and Prussia and Austria consented to take part in the 
conference of London, by which the integrity of Denmark was 
upheld, and the succession to the whole monarchy settled on 
Prince Christian, youngest son of Duke William of Schleswig- 
Holstein-Sonderburg-Gliicksburg, and husband of Louise of 
Hesse, the niece of King Christian VIII. The " legitimate " 
heir to the duchies, under the Salic law, Duke Christian of 
Sonderburg-Augustenburg, accepted the decision of the London 
conference in consideration of the purchase by the Danish 
government of his estates in Schleswig. 

On the 2nd of October 1855 was promulgated the new common 
constitution, which for two years had been the occasion of a 

fierce contention between the Conservatives and the 
Constitu- Radicals. It proved no more final than its predecessors. 
I85S. The representatives of the duchies in the new common 

Rigsraad protested against it, as subversive of the Con- 
ventions of 1 85 1 and 1852; and their attitude had the support 
of the German powers. In 1857, Carl Christian Hall (q.v.) became 
prime minister. After putting off the German powers by seven 
years of astute diplomacy, he realized the impossibility of carrying 
out the idea of a common constitution and, on the 30th of March 
1862, a royal proclamation was issued detaching Holstein as far 
as possible from the common monarchy. Later in the year he 

introduced into the Rigsraad a common constitution 
Hon of ' f° r Denmark and Schleswig, which was carried through 
1863 and and confirmed by the council of state on the 13th of 
accession November 1863. It had not, however, received the 
tian IX.' r °y a l assent when the death of Frederick VII. brought 

the " Protocol King " Christian IX. to the throne. 
Placed between the necessity of offending his new subjects or 
embroiling himself with the German powers, Christian chose the 
remoter evil and, on the 18th of November, the new constitution 
became law. This once more opened up the whole question in an 
acute form. Frederick, son of Christian of Augustenburg, refus- 
ing to be bound by his father's engagements, entered Holstein 
and, supported by the Estates and the German diet, proclaimed 
himself duke. The events that followed: the occupation of the 

duchies by Austria and Prussia, the war of 1864, 
Danish gallantly fought by the Danes against overwhelming 
War of odds, and the astute diplomacy by which Bismarck 
1864, and succeeded in ultimately gaining for Prussia the seaboard 
cession of g0 esse ntial for her maritime power, are dealt with 
duchies. elsewhere (see Schleswig-Holstein Question). For 

Denmark the question was settled when, by the peace 
of Vienna (October 30, 1864), the duchies were irretrievably 
lost to her. At the peace of Prague, which terminated the 
Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Napoleon III. procured the in- 
sertion in the treaty of paragraph v., by which the northern 
districts of Schleswig were to be reunited to Denmark when the 
majority of the population by a free vote should so desire; but 
when Prussia at last thought fit to negotiate with Denmark 
on the subject, she laid down conditions which the Danish 
government could not accept. Finally, in 1878, by a separate 
agreement between Austria and -Prussia, paragraph v. was 
rescinded. 

The salient feature of Danish politics during subsequent years 



was the struggle between the two Tings, the Folketing or Lower 
House, and the Landsting, or Upper House of the 
Rigsdag. This contest began in 1872, when a com- ^"a/""" 
bination of all the Radical parties, known as the struggles 
" United Left," passed a vote of want of confidence ia Dea ' 
against the government and rejected the budget, ^£* s,ace 
Nevertheless, the ministry, supported by the Landsting, 
refused to resign; and the crisis became acute when, in 1875, 
J. B. Estrup became prime minister. Perceiving that the coming 
struggle would be essentially a financial one, he retained the 
ministry of finance in his own hands; and, strong in the support 
of the king, the Landsting, and a considerable minority in the 
country itself, he devoted himself to the double task of establish- 
ing the political parity of the Landsting with the Folketing and 
strengthening the national armaments, so that, in the event of 
a war between the European great powers, Denmark might be 
able to defend her neutrality. 

The Left was willing to vote 30,000,000 crowns for 
extraordinary military expenses, exclusive of the fortifications 
of Copenhagen, on condition that the amount should be raised 
by a property and income tax; and, as the elections of 1875 had 
given them a majority of three-fourths in the popular chamber, 
they spoke with no uncertain voice. But the Upper House 
steadily supported Estrup, who was disinclined to accept any 
such compromise. As an agreement between the two houses on 
the budget proved impossible, a provisional financial decree was 
issued on the 12th of April 1877, which the Left stigmatized as a 
breach of the constitution. But the difficulties of the ministry 
were somewhat relieved by a split in the Radical party, still 
further accentuated by the elections of 1879, which enabled 
Estrup to carry through the army and navy defence bill and 
the new military penal code by leaning alternately upon one or 
the other of the divided Radical groups. 

After the elections of 188 1, which brought about the reamalga- 
mation of the various Radical sections, the opposition presented • 
a united front to the government, so that, from 1882 onwards, 
legislation was almost at a standstill. The elections of 1884 
showed clearly that the nation was also now on the side of the 
Radicals, 83 out of the 102 members of the Folketing belonging 
to the opposition. Still Estrup remained at his post. He had 
underestimated the force of public opinion, but he was conscienti- 
ously convinced that a Conservative ministry was necessary to 
Denmark at this crisis. When therefore the Rigsdag rejected 
the budget, he advised the king to issue another provisional 
financial decree. Henceforth, so long as the Folketing refused to 
vote supplies, the ministry regularly adopted these makeshifts. 
In 1886 the Left, having no constitutional means of dismissing 
the Estrup ministry, resorted for the first time to negotiations; 
but it was not till the 1st of April 1894 that the majority of the 
Folketing could arrive at an agreement with the government and 
the Landsting as to a budget which should be retrospective and 
sanction the employment of the funds so irregularly obtained for 
military expenditure. The whole question of the provisional 
financial decrees was ultimately regularized by a special resolution 
of the Rigsdag; and the retirement of the Estrup ministry in 
August 1894 was the immediate result of the compromise. 

In spite of the composition of 1894, the animosity between 
Folketing and Landsting continues to characterize Danish politics, 
and the situation has been complicated by the division of both 
Right and Left into widely divergent groups. The elections of 
1895 resulted in an undeniable victory of the extreme Radicals; 
and the budget of 1895-1896 was passed only at the last moment 
by a compromise. The session of 1896-1897 was remarkable for 
a rapprochement between the ministry and the " Left Reform 
Party," caused by the secessions of the " Young Right," which led 
to an unprecedented event in Danish politics — the voting of the 
budget by the Radical Folketing and its rejection by the Conserva- 
tive Landsting in May 1897; whereupon the ministry resigned 
in favour of the moderate Conservative Horring cabinet, which 
induced the Upper House to pass the budget. The elections of 
i8g8 were a fresh defeat for the Conservatives, and in the autumn 
session of the same year, the Folketing, by a crushing majority of 



LITERATURE] 



DENMARK 



39 



85 to 12, rejected the military budget. The ministry was 
saved by a mere accident — the expulsion of Danish agitators 
from North Schleswig by the German government, which evoked 
a passion of patriotic protest throughout Denmark, and united 
all parties, the war minister declaring in the Folketing, during 
the debate on the military budget (January 1899), that the 
armaments of Denmark were so far advanced that any great 
power must think twice before venturing to attack her. The 
chief event of the year 1899 was the great strike of 40,000 
artisans, which cost Denmark 50,000,000 crowns, and brought 
about a reconstruction of the cabinet in order to bring in, as 
minister of the interior, Ludwig Ernest Bramsen, the great 
specialist in industrial matters, who succeeded (September 2-4) 
in bringing about an understanding between workmen and 
employers. The session 1900-1901 was remarkable for the 
further disintegration of the Conservative party still in office 
(the Sehested cabinet superseded the Horring cabinet on the 
27th of April 1900) and the almost total paralysis of parliament, 
caused by the interminable debates on the question of taxation 
reform. The crisis came in 1901. Deprived of nearly all its 
supporters in the Folketing, the Conservative ministry resigned, 
and King Christian was obliged to assent to the formation of 
a " cabinet of the Left " under Professor Deuntzer. Various 
reforms were carried, but the proposal to sell the Danish islands 
in the West Indies to the United States fell through. During 
these years the relations between Denmark and the German 
empire improved, and in the country itself the cause of social 
democracy made great progress. In January 1906 King Christian 
ended his long reign, and was succeeded by his son Frederick VIII. 
At the elections of 1906 the government lost its small absolute 
majority, but remained in power with support from the Moderates 
and Conservatives. It was severely shaken, however, when 
Herr A. Alberti, who had been minister of justice since 1901, 
and was admitted to be the strongest member of the cabinet, was 
openly accused of nepotism and abuse of the power of his position. 
These charges gathered weight until the minister was forced to 
resign in July 1908, and in September he was arrested on a charge 
of forgery in his capacity as director of the Zealand Peasants' 
Savings Bank. The ministry, of which Herr Jens Christian 
Christensen was head, was compelled to resign in October. The 
effect of these revelations was profound not only politically, but 
also economically; the important export trade in Danish butter, 
especially, was adversely affected, as Herr Alberti had been 
interested in numerous dairy companies. 

Bibliography. — I. General History. Danmarks Riges 
Historie (Copenhagen, 1897-1905); R. Nisbet Bain, Scandinavia 
(Cambridge, 1905); H. Weitemeyer, Denmark (London, 1901); 
Adolf Ditlev Jorgensen, Historishe Afhandlinger (Copenhagen, 1898) ; 
ib. Fortaellinger af Nordens Historie (Copenhagen, 1892). II. Early 
and Medieval History. Saxo, Gesta Danorum (Strassburg, 1886) ; 
Repertorium diplomaticum regni Danici mediaevalis (Copenhagen, 
1894); Ludvig Holberg, Konge og Danehof (Copenhagen, 1895); 
Poul Frederik Barford, Danmarks Historie 1319-1536 (Copenhagen, 
1885); ib. 1536-1670 (Copenhagen, 1891). III. i6th to 19TH 
Century. Philip P. Munch, Kobstadstyrelsen i Danmark (Copen- 
hagen, 1900) ; Peter Edvard Holm, Danmark Norges indre Historie, 
1660-1720 (Copenhagen, 1 885-1 886); ib. Danmark Norges Historie, 
1720-1814 (Copenhagen, 1891-1894); Soren Bloch Thrige, Dan- 
marks Historie i vort Aarhundrede (Copenhagen, 1888) ; Marcus 
Rubin, Frederick VI.' s Tid fra Kielerfreden (Copenhagen, 1895) ; 
Christian Frederick von Holten, Erinnerungen; Der deutsch-ddnische 
Krieg (Stuttgart, 1900) ; Niels Peter Jensen, Den anden slesvigske 
Krig (Copenhagen, 1900); S. N. Mouritsen, Vor Forfalnings Historic 
(Copenhagen, 1894) ; Carl Frederik Vilhelm Mathildus Rosenberg, 
Danmarkf i Aaret 1848 (Copenhagen, 1891). See also the special 
bibliographies appended to the biographies of the Danish kings 
and statesmen. (R. N. B.) 

Literature 
The present language of Denmark is derived directly from 
the same source as that of Sweden, and the parent of both is the 
old Scandinavian (see Scandinavian Languages). In Iceland 
this tongue, with some modifications, has remained in use, and 
until about 1100 it was the literary language of the whole of 
Scandinavia. The influence of Low German first, and High 
German afterwards, has had the effect of drawing modern Danish 
constantly farther from this early type. The difference began to 



show itself in the 12th century. R. K. Rask, and after him 
N. M. Petersen, have distinguished four periods in the develop- 
ment of the language, The first, which has been called Oldest 
Danish, dating from about 1100 and 1250, shows a slightly 
changed character, mainly depending on the system of inflections. 
In the second period, that of Old Danish, bringing us down to 
1400, the change of the system of vowels begins to be settled, 
and masculine and feminine are mingled in a common gender. 
An indefinite article has been formed, and in the conjugation of 
the verb a great simplicity sets in. In the third period, 1400- 
1 530, the influence of German upon the language is supreme, and 
culminates in the Reformation. The fourth period, from 1530 to 
about 1680, completes the work of development, and leaves the 
language as we at present find it. 

The earliest work known to have been written in Denmark was 
a Latin biography of Knud the Saint, written by an English monk 
^Elnoth, who was attached to the church of St Alban in Odense 
where King Knud was murdered. Denmark produced several 
Latin writers of merit. Anders Sunesen (d. 1228) wrote a long 
poem in hexameters, Hexaemeron, describing the creation. 
Under the auspices of Archbishop Absalon the monks of Soro 
began to compile the annals of Denmark, and at the end of the 
1 2 th century Svend Aagesen, a cleric of Lund, compiled from 
Icelandic sources and oral tradition his Compendiosa histbria 
regum Daniae. The great Saxo Grammaticus (q.v.) wrote his 
Historia Danica under the same patronage. 

It was not till the 16th century that literature began to be 
generally practised in the vernacular in Denmark. The oldest 
laws which are still preserved date from the beginning of the 13th 
century, and many different collections are in existence. 1 A 
single work detains us in the 13th century, a treatise en medicine 3 
by Henrik Harpestreng, who died in 1244. The first royal edict 
written in Danish is dated 1386; and the Act of Union at Kalmar, 
written in 1397, is the most important piece of the vernacular of 
the 14th century. Between 1300 and 1500, however, it is sup- 
posed that the Kjaempeviser, or Danish ballads, a large collection 
of about 500 epical and lyrical poems, were originally composed, 
and these form the most precious legacy of the Denmark of the 
middle ages, whether judged historically or poetically. We know 
nothing of the authors of these poems, which treat of the heroic 
adventures of the great warriors and lovely ladies of the chivalric 
age in strains of artless but often exquisite beauty. Some of the 
subjects are borrowed in altered form from the old mythology, 
while a few derive from Christian legend, and many deal with 
national history. The language in which we receive these ballads, 
however, is as late as the 16th or even the 17th century, but it 
is believed that they have become gradually modernized in the 
course of oral tradition. The first attempt to collect the ballads 
was made in 1591 by Anders Sorensen Vedel (1542-1616), who 
published 100 of them. Peder Syv printed 100 more in 1695. 
In i8i2-i8i4an elaborate collection in five volumes appeared 
at Christiania, edited by W. H. F. Abrahamson, R. Nyerup 
and K. M. Rahbek. Finally, Svend Grundtvig produced an 
exhaustive edition, Danmarks gamle Folkeviser (Copenhagen, 
1853-1883, 5 vols.), which was supplemented (1891) by A. Olrik. 

In 1490, the first printing press was set up at Copenhagen, by 
Gottfried of Gemen, who had brought it from Westphalia; and 
five years later the first Danish book was printed. This was the 
famous Rimkronike 3 ; a history of Denmark in rhymed Danish 
verse, attributed by its first editor to Niels (d. 1481), a monk of 
the monastery of Soro. It extends to the death of Christian I., 
in 1481, which may be supposed to be approximately the date 
of the poem. In 1479 the university of Copenhagen had been 
founded. In 1506 the same Gottfried of Gemen published a 
famous collection of proverbs, attributed to Peder Laaie. 
Mikkel, priest of St Alban's Church in Odense, wrote three sacred 
poems, The Rose-Garland of Maiden Mary, The Creation and 

1 Collected as Samling af gamle danske Love (5 vols., Copenhagen. 
1821-1827). 

2 Henrik Harpestraengs Laegebog (ed. C. Molbech, Copenhagen,, 
1826). 

3 Ed. C. Molbech (Copenhagen, 1825). 



4Q 



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[LITERATURE 



Human Life, which came out together in 1514, shortly before 
his death. The popular Lucidarius also appeared in the vulgar 
tongue. 

These few productions appeared along with innumerable works 
in Latin, and dimly heralded a Danish literature. It was the 
Reformation that first awoke the living spirit in the popular 
tongue. Christiern Pedersen (q.v.; 1480-1554) was the first man 
of letters produced in Denmark. He edited and published, at 
Paris in 15 14, the Latin text of the old chronicler, Saxo Gram- 
maticus ; he worked up in their present form the beautiful half- 
mythical stories of Karl Magnus (Charlemagne) and Holger 
Danske (Ogier the Dane). He further translated the 
Psalms of David and the New Testament, printed in 1529, and 
finally — in conjunction with Bishop Peder Palladius — the Bible, 
which appeared in 1550. Hans Tausen, the bishop of Ribe 
(1494-1561), continued Pedersen's work, but with far less 
literary talent. He may, however, be considered as the greatest 
orator and teacher of the Reformation movement. He wrote a 
number of popular hymns, partly original, partly translations; 
translated the Pentateuch from the Hebrew; and published 
(1536) a collection of sermons embodying the reformed doctrine 
and destined for the use of clergy and laity. 

The Catholic party produced one controversialist of striking 
ability, Povel Helgesen 1 (b. c. 1480), also known as Paulus 
Eliae. He had at first been inclined to the party of reform, 
but when Luther broke definitely with the papal authority he 
became a bitter opponent. His most important polemical work 
is an answer (1528) to twelve questions on the religious question 
propounded by Gustavus I. of Sweden. He is also supposed to be 
the author of the Skiby Chronicle, 2 in which he does not confine 
himself to the duties of a mere annalist, but records his personal 
opinion of people and events. Vedel, by the edition of the 
Kjaempeviser which is mentioned above, gave an immense 
stimulus to the progress of literature. He published an excellent 
translation of Saxo Grammaticus in 1575. The first edition of 
a Danish Reineke Fuchs, by Herman Weigere, appeared at 
Liibeck in 1555, and the first authorized Psalter in 1559. Arild 
Huitfeld wrote Chronicle of the Kingdom of Denmark, printed in 
ten volumes, between 1595 and 1604. 

There are few traces of dramatic effort in Denmark before 
the Reformation; and many of the plays of that period may be 
referred to the class of school comedies. Hans Sthen, a lyrical 
poet, wrote a morality entitled Kortvending (" Change of For- 
tune "), which is really a collection of monologues to be delivered 
by students. The anonymous Ludus de Sancto Kanuto 3 (c. 1 530) 
which in spite of its title, is written in Danish, is the earliest 
Danish national drama. The burlesque drama assigned to 
Christian Hansen, The Faithless Wife, is the only one of its 
kind that has survived. But the best of these old dramatic 
authors was a priest of Viborg, Justesen Ranch (1 539-1607), 
who wrote Kong Salomons Hylding (" The Crowning of King 
Solomon") (1585), Samsons Faengsel ("The Imprisonment of 
Samson "), which includes lyrical passages which have given it 
claims to be considered the first Danish opera, and a farce, Karrig 
Niding (" The Miserly Miscreant "). Beside these works Ranch 
wrote a famous moralizing poem, entitled " A new song, of the 
nature and song of certain birds, in which many vices are pun- 
ished, and many virtues praised." Peder Clausen 4 (1545-1614), 
a Norwegian by birth and education, wrote a Description of 
Norway, as well as an admirable translation of Snorri Sturlason's 
Heimskringla, published ten years after Clausen's death. The 
father of Danish poetry, Anders Kristensen Arrebo (1587-1637), 
was bishop of Trondhjem, but was deprived of his see for im- 
morality. He was a poet of considerable genius, which is most 
brilliantly shown in an imitation of Du Bartas's Divine Semaine, 

1 See Povel EHesens danske Skrifter (Copenhagen, 1855, &c), 
edited by C. E. Secher. 

2 See Monumenta hisloriae Danicae (ed. H. Rordam, vol. i., 1873). 

3 Ed. Sophus Birket Smith (Copenhagen, 1868), who also edited 
the comedies ascribed to Chr. Hansen as De tre aeldste danske 
Skuespil (1874), and the works of Ranch (1876). 

4 His works were edited by Gustav Storm (Christiania, 1877- 
1879)- 



the Hexaemeron, a poem on the creation, in six books, which did 
not appear till 1661. He also made a translation of the Psalms. 

He was followed by Anders Bording (1619-1677), a cheerful 
occasional versifier, and by Thoger Reenberg (1656-1742), a poet 
of somewhat higher gifts, who lived on into a later age. Among 
prose writers should be mentioned the grammarian Peder Syv, 6 
(1631-1702); Bishop Erik Pontoppidan (1616-1678), whose 
Grammatica Danica, published in 1668, is the first systematic 
analysis of the language; Birgitta Thott (1610-1662), a lady 
who translated Seneca (1658); and Leonora Christina Ulfeld, 
daughter of Christian IV., who has left a touching account of 
her long imprisonment in her Jammersminde. Ole Worm (1 588- 
1654), a learned pedagogue and antiquarian, preserved in his 
Danicorum monumentorum libri sex (Copenhagen, 1643) the 
descriptions of many antiquities which have since perished or 
been lost. 

In two spiritual poets the advancement of the literature of 
Denmark took a further step. Thomas Kingo 6 (1634-1703) was 
the first who wrote Danish with perfect ease and grace. He was 
a Scot by descent, and retained the vital energy of his ancestors 
as a birthright. In 1677 he became bishop in Fiinen, where 
he died in 1703. His Winter Psalter (1689), and the so-called 
Kingo's Psalter (1699), contained brilliant examples of lyrical 
writing, and an employment of language at once original and 
national. Kingo had a charming fancy, a clear sense of form and 
great rapidity and variety of utterance. Some of his very best 
hymns are in the little volume he published in 1681, and hence 
the old period of semi-articulate Danish may be said to close with 
this eventful decade, which also witnessed the birth of Holberg. 
The other great hymn- writer was Hans Adolf Brorson (1694- 
1764), who published in 1740 a great psalm-book at the king's 
command, in which he added his own to the best of Kingo's. 
Both these men held high posts in the church, one being bishop 
of Fiinen and the other of Ribe; but Brorson was much inferior 
to Kingo in genius. With these names the introductory period 
of Danish literature ends. The language was now formed, and 
was being employed for almost all the uses of science and philo- 
sophy. 

Ludvig Holberg (q.v.; 1684-1754) may be called the founder 
of modern Danish literature. His various works still retain their 
freshness and vital attraction. As an historian his style was terse 
and brilliant, his spirit philosophical, and his data singularly 
accurate. He united two unusual gifts, being at the same time 
the most cultured man of his day, and also in the highest degree 
a practical person, who clearly perceived what would most rapidly 
educate and interest the uncultivated. In his thirty-three 
dramas, sparkling comedies in prose, more or less in imitation of 
Moliere, he has left his most important positive legacy to litera- 
ture. Nor in any series of comedies in existence is decency so 
rarely sacrificed to a desire for popularity or a false sense of wit. 

Holberg founded no school of immediate imitators, but his 
stimulating influence was rapid and general. The university 
of Copenhagen, which had been destroyed by fire in 1728, was 
reopened in 1742, and under the auspices of the historian Hans 
Gram (1685-1748), who founded the Danish Royal Academy of 
Sciences, it inspired an active intellectual life. Gram laid the 
foundation of critical history in Denmark. He brought to bear 
on the subject a full knowledge of documents and sources. His 
best work lies in his annotated editions of the older chroniclers. 
In 1744 Jakob Langebek (17 10-1775) founded the Society for 
the Improvement of the Danish Language, which opened the field 
of philology. He began the great collection of Scriptores rerum 
Danicarum medii aevi (9 vols., Copenhagen, 1772-1878). In 
jurisprudence Andreas Hoier (1690-1739) represented the new 
impulse, and in zoology Erik Pontoppidan (q.v.), the younger. 
This last name represents a lifelong activity in many branches 
of. literature. From Holberg's college of Soro, two learned 
professors, Jens Schelderup Sneedorff (1724-1764) and Jens Kraft 
(1720-1765), disseminated the seeds of a wider culture. All 
these men were aided by the generous and enlightened patronage 

6 See Fr. W. Horn, Peder Syv (Copenhagen, 1878). 
6 See A. C. L. Heiberg, Thomas Kingo (Odense, 1852). 



LITERATURE] 



DENMARK 



4i 



of Frederick V. A little later on, the German poet Klopstock 
Settled in Copenhagen, bringing with him the prestige of his great 
reputation, and he had a strong influence in Germanizing 
Denmark. He founded, however, the Society for the Fine Arts, 
and had it richly endowed. The first prize offered was won by 
Christian Braumann Tullin (1728-1765) for his beautiful poem 
of May-day. Tullin, a Norwegian by birth, represents the first 
accession of a study of external nature in Danish poetry; he was 
an ardent disciple of the English poet Thomson. Christian 
Falster (1690-1752) wrote satires of some merit, but most of his 
work is in Latin. The New Hemic Poems of Jbrgen Sorterup are 
notable as imitations of the old folk-literature. Ambrosius Stub 1 
(1705-1758) was a lyrist of great sweetness, born before his due 
time, whose poems, not published till 177 1, belong to a later age 
than their author. 

The Lyrical Revival.— Between 1742 and 1749, that is to say, 
at the very climax of the personal activity of Holberg, several 
poets were born, who were destined to enrich the language with 
its first group of lyrical blossoms. Of these the two eldest, 
Wessel and Ewald, were men of extraordinary genius, and 
destined to fascinate the attention of posterity, not only by the 
brilliance of their productions, but by the suffering and brevity 
of their lives. Johannes Ewald (q.v.; 1 743-1 781) was not only 
the greatest Danish lyrist of the 18th century, but he had few 
rivals in the whole of Europe. As a dramatist, pure and simple, 
his bird-like instinct of song carried him too often into a sphere 
too exalted for the stage; but he has written nothing that is 
not stamped with the exquisite quality of distinction. Johan 
Herman Wessel 2 (1 742-1 785) excited even greater hopes in his 
contemporaries, but left less that is immortal behind him. After 
the death of Holberg, the affectation of Gallicism had reappeared 
in Denmark; and the tragedies of Voltaire, with their stilted 
rhetoric, were the most popular dramas of the day. Johan 
Nordahl Brun (1745-1816), a young writer who did better things 
later on, gave the finishing touch to the exotic absurdity by 
bringing out a wretched piece called Zarina, which was hailed by 
the press as the first original Danish tragedy, although Ewald's 
exquisite RolfKrage, which truly merited that title, had appeared 
two years before. Wessel, who up to that time had only been 
known as the president of a club of wits, immediately wrote 
Love without Stockings (1772), in which a plot of the most abject 
triviality is worked out in strict accordance with the rules of 
French tragedy, and in most pompous and pathetic Alexandrines. 
The effect of this piece was magical; the Royal Theatre ejected 
its cuckoo-brood of French plays, and even the Italian opera. 
It was now essential that every performance should be national, 
and in the Danish language. To supply the place of the opera, 
native musicians, and especially J. P. E. Hartmann, set the 
dramas of Ewald and others, and thus the Danish school of 
music originated. Johan Nordahl Brun's best work is to be 
found in his patriotic songs and his hymns. He became bishop 
of Bergen in 1803. 

Of the other poets of the revival the most important were born 
in Norway. Nordahl Brun, Claus Frimann (1746-1829), Claus 
Fasting (1746-1791), who edited a brilliant aesthetic journal, The 
Critical Observer, Christian H. Pram 3 (1756-1821), author of 
Staerkodder, a romantic epic, based on Scandinavian legend, and 
Edvb.rd Storm (1749-1794), were associates and mainly fellow- 
students at Copenhagen, where they introduced a style peculiar 
to themselves, and distinct from that of the true Danes. Their 
lyrics celebrated the mountains and rivers of the magnificent 
country they had left; and, while introducing images and 
scenery unfamiliar to the inhabitants of monotonous Denmark, 
they enriched the language with new words and phrases. This 
group of writers is now claimed by the Norwegians as the founders 
of a Norwegian literature; but their true place is certainly among 
the Danes, to whom they primarily appealed. They added 

1 His collected works were edited by Fr. Barford (Copenhagen, 
5th ed., 1879). 

2 Wessel's Digte (3rd ed., 1895) are edited by J. Levin, with a 
biographical introduction. 

3 A biography by his friend, K. L. Rahbek, is prefixed to a selection 
of his poetry (6 vols., 1824-1829). 



nothing to the development of the drama, except in the person 
of N. K. Bredal (1733-1778), who became director of the Royal 
Danish Theatre, and the writer of some mediocre plays. 

To the same period belong a few prose writers of eminence. 
Werner Abrahamson (1744-1812) was the first aesthetic critic 
Denmark produced. Johan Clemens Tode (1736-1806) was 
eminent in many branches of science, but especially as a medical 
writer. Ove Mailing (1746-1829) was an untiring collector of 
historical data, which he annotated in a lively style. Two 
historians of more definite claim on our attention are Peter 
Frederik Suhm (1728-1798), whose History of Denmark (n vols., 
Copenhagen, 1782-1812) contains a mass of original material, 
and Ove Guldberg (1731-1808). In theology Christian Bastholm 
(1740-1819) and Nicolai Edinger Balle (1744-1816), bishop of 
Zealand, a Norwegian by birth, demand a reference. But the 
only really great prose-writer of the period was the Norwegian, 
Niels Treschow (1751-1833), whose philosophical works are 
composed in an admirably lucid style, and are distinguished 
for their depth and originality. 

The poetical revival sank in the next generation to a more 
mechanical level. The number of writers of some talent was very 
great, but genius was wanting. Two intimate friends, Jonas 
Rein (1760-1821) and Jens Zetlitz (1761-1821), attempted, with 
indifferent success, to continue the tradition of the Norwegian 
group. Thomas Thaarup (1749-1821) Was a fluent and eloquent 
writer of occasional poems, and of homely dramatic idylls. The 
early death of Ole Samsoe (1759-1796) prevented the develop- 
ment of a dramatic talent that gave rare promise. But while 
poetry languished, prose, for the first time, began to flourish 
in Denmark. Knud Lyne Rahbek (1760-1830) was a pleasing 
novelist, a dramatist of some merit, a pathetic elegist, and a witty 
song- writer; he was also a man full of the literary instinct, and 
through a long life he never ceased to busy himself with editing 
the works of the older poets, and spreading among the people a 
knowledge of Danish literature through his magazine, Minerva, 
edited in conjunction with C. H. Pram. Peter Andreas Heiberg 
(1758-1841) was a political and aesthetic critic of note. Hewas 
exiled from Denmark in company with another sympathizer with 
the principles of the French Revolution, Malte Conrad Brunn 
(1775-1826), who settled in Paris, and attained a world-wide 
reputation as a geographer. O. C. Olufsen (1764-1827) was a 
writer on geography, zoology and political economy. Rasmus 
Nyerup (1759-1829) expended an immense energy in the compila- 
tion of admirable works on the history of language and literature. 
From 1 7 78 to his death he exercised a great power in the statistical 
and critical departments of letters. The best historian of this 
period, however, was Engelstoft (1774-1850), and the most 
brilliant theologian Bishop Mynster (1775-1854). In the annals 
of modern science Hans Christian Oersted (1777-1851) is a name 
universally honoured. He explained his inventions and described 
his discoveries in language so lucid and so characteristic that he 
claims an honoured place in the literature of the country of whose 
culture, in other branches, he is one of the most distinguished 
ornaments. 

On the threshold of the romantic movement occurs the name 
of Jens Baggesen (q.v.; 1764-1826), a man of great genius, 
whose work was entirely independent of the influences around 
him. Jens Baggesen is the greatest comic poet that Denmark 
has produced; and as a satirist and witty lyrist he has no rival 
among the Danes. In his hands the difficulties of the language 
disappear; he performs with the utmost ease extraordinary 
tours de force of style. His astonishing talents were wasted on 
trifling themes and in a fruitless resistance to the modern spirit 
in literature. 

Romanticism. — With the beginning of the 19th century the new 
light in philosophy and poetry, which radiated from Germany 
through all parts of Europe, found its way into Denmark also- 
In scarcely any country was the result so rapid or so brilliant. 
There arose in Denmark a school of poets who created for them- 
selves a reputation in all parts of Europe, and would have done 
honour to any nation or any age. The splendid cultivation of 
metrical art threw other branches into the shade; and the epoch 



42 



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[LITERATURE 



of which we are about to speak is eminent above all for mastery 
over verse. The swallow who heralded the summer was a 
German by birth, Adolph Wilhelm Schack von Staffeldt 1 (1769- 
1826), who came over to Copenhagen from Pomerania, and 
prepared the way for the new movement. Since Ewald no one 
had written Danish lyrical verse so exquisitely as Schack von 
Staffeldt, and the depth and scientific precision of his thought 
won him a title which he has preserved, of being the first philo- 
sophic poet of Denmark. The writings of this man are the 
deepest and most serious which Denmark had produced, and at 
his best he yields to no one in choice and skilful use of expression. 
This sweet song of Schack von Staffeldt's, however, was early 
silenced by the louder choir that one by one broke into music 
around him. It was Adam Gottlob Ohlenschlager (q.v.; 1779- 
1850), the greatest poet of Denmark, who was to bring about 
the new romantic movement. In 1802 he happened to meet the 
young Norwegian Henrik Steffens (1773-1845), who had just 
returned from a scientific tour in Germany, full of the doctrines 
of Schelling. Under the immediate direction of Steffens, 
Ohlenschlager began an entirely new poetic style, and destroyed 
all his earlier verses. A new epoch in the language began, and the 
rapidity and matchless facility of the new poetry was the wonder 
of Steffens himself. The old Scandinavian mythology lived in the 
hands of Ohlenschlager exactly as the classical Greek religion was 
born again in Keats. He aroused in his people the slumbering 
sense of their Scandinavian nationality. 

The retirement of Ohlenschlager comparatively early in life, 
left the way open for the development of his younger con- 
temporaries, among whom several had genius little inferior to 
his own. Steen Steensen Blicher (1 782-1848) was a Jutlander, 
and preserved all through life the characteristics of his sterile and 
sombre fatherland. After a struggling youth of great poverty, 
he published, in 1807-1809, a translation of Ossian; in 1814 a 
volume of lyrical poems; and in 181 7 he attracted considerable 
attention by his descriptive poem of The Tour in Jutland. His 
real genius, however, did not lie in the direction of verse; and 
his first signal success was with a story, A Village Sexton's Diary, 
in 1824, which was rapidly followed by other tales, descriptive of 
village life in Jutland, for the next twelve years. These were 
collected in five volumes (1833-1836). His masterpiece is a collec- 
tion of short stories, called The Spinning Room. He also produced 
many national lyrics of great beauty. But it was Blicher's use of 
patois which delighted his countrymen with a sense of freshness 
and strength. They felt as though they heard Danish for the first 
time spoken in its fulness. The poet Aarestrup (in 1848) declared 
that Blicher had raised the Danish language to the dignity of 
Icelandic. Blicher is a stern realist, in many points akin to 
Crabbe, and takes a singular position among the romantic 
idealists of the period, being like them, however, in the love of 
precise and choice language, and hatred of the mere common- 
places of imaginative writing. 2 

Nikolai Frederik Severin Grundtvig (q.v.; 1 783-1872), like 
Ohlenschlager, learned the principles of the German romanticism 
from the lips of Steffens. He adopted the idea of introducing the 
Old Scandinavian element into art, and even into life, still more 
earnestly than the older poet. Bernhard Severin Ingemann 
(q.v.; 1789-1862) contributed to Danish literature historical 
romances in the style of Sir Walter Scott. Johannes Carsten 
Hauch (q.v.; 1790-1872) first distinguished himself as a disciple 
of Ohlenschlager, and fought under him in the strife against the 
old school and Baggesen. But the master misunderstood the 
disciple; and the harsh repulse of Ohlenschlager silenced Hauch 
for many years. He possessed, however, a strong and fluent 
genius, which eventually made itself heard in a multitude of 
volumes, poems, dramas and novels. All that Hauch wrote is 
marked by great qualities, and by distinction; he had a native 
bias towards the mystical, which, however, he learned to keep 
in abeyance. 

'See F. L. Liebenberg, Schack Staffeldts samlede Digte (2 vols., 
Copenhagen, 1843), and Samlinger til Schack Staffeldts Levnet (4 vols., 
1846-1851). 

2 Blicher's Tales were edited by P. Hansen (3 vols., Copenhagen, 
1871), and his Poems in 1870. 



Johan Ludvig Heiberg (q.v.; 1701-1860) was a critic who 
ruled the world of Danish taste for many years. His mother, 
the Baroness Gyllembourg-Ehrensvard (q.v.; 1 773-1856), wrote 
a large number of anonymous novels. Her knowledge of life, 
her sparkling wit and her almost faultless style, make these 
short stories masterpieces of their kind. 

Christian Hviid Bredahl (1 784-1860) produced six volumes 
of Dramatic Scenes* (1819-1833) which, in spite of their many 
brilliant qualities, were little appreciated at the time. Bredahl 
gave up literature in despair to become a peasant farmer, and 
died in poverty. 

Ludvig Adolf Bodtcher (1 793-1874) wrote a single volume of 
lyrical poems, which he gradually enlarged in succeeding editions. 
He was a consummate artist in verse, and his impressions are 
given with the most delicate exactitude of phrase, and in a very 
fine strain of imagination. He was a quietist and an epicurean, 
and the closest parallel to Horner in the literature of the North. 
Most of Bodtcher's poems deal with Italian life, which he learned 
to know thoroughly during a long residence in Rome. He was 
secretary to Thorwaldsen for a considerable time. 

Christian Winther (q.v.; 1796-1876) made the island of 
Zealand his loving study, and that province of Denmark belongs 
to him no less thoroughly than the Cumberland lakes belong 
to Wordsworth. Between the latter poet and Winther there 
was much resemblance. He was, without compeer, the greatest 
pastoral lyrist of Denmark. His exquisite strains, in which pure 
imagination is blended with most accurate and realistic descrip- 
tions of scenery and rural life, have an extraordinary charm not 
easily described. 

The youngest of the great poets born during the last twenty 
years of the 18th century was Henrik Hertz (q.v.; 1797-1870). 
As a satirist and comic poet he followed Baggesen, and in all 
branches of the poetic art stood a little aside out of the main 
current of romanticism. He introduced into the Danish literature 
of his time inestimable elements of lucidity and purity. In his 
best pieces Hertz is the most modern and most cosmopolitan of 
the Danish writers of his time. 

It is noticeable that all the great poets of the romantic period 
lived to an advanced age. Their prolonged literary activity — 
for some of them, like Grundtvig, were busy to the last — had a 
slightly damping influence on their younger contemporaries, but 
certain names in the next generation have special prominence. 
Hans Christian Andersen (q.v.; 1805-1875) was the greatest of 
modern fabulists. In 1835 there appeared the first collection of 
his Fairy Tales, and won him a world-wide reputation. Almost ' 
every year from this time forward until near his death he published 
about Christmas time one or two of these unique stories, so delicate 
in their humour and pathos, and so masterly in their simplicity. 
Carl Christian Bagger (1807-1846) published volumes in 1834 
and 1836 which gave promise of a great future, — a promise 
broken by his early death. Frederik Paludan-Miiller (q.v.; 
1809-1876) developed, as a poet, a magnificent career, which 
contrasted in its abundance with his solitary and silent life as a 
man. His mythological or pastoral dramas, his great satiric 
epos of Adam Homo (1841-1848), his comedies, his lyrics, and 
above all his noble philosophic tragedy of Kalanus, prove the 
immense breadth of his compass, and the inexhaustible riches 
of his imagination. C. L. Emil Aarestrup (1800-1856) published 
in 1838 a volume of vivid erotic poetry, but its quality was 
only appreciated after his death. Edvard Lembcke (1815-1897) 
made himself famous as the admirable translator of Shakespeare, 
but the incidents of 1864 produced from him some volumes of 
direct and manly patriotic verse. 

The poets completely ruled the literature of Denmark during 
this period. There were, however, eminent men in other depart- 
ments of letters, and especially in philology. Rasmus Christian 
Rask (1 787-1832) was one of the most original and gifted linguists 
of his age. His grammars of Old Frisian, Icelandic and Anglo- 
Saxon were unapproached in his own time, and are still admirable. 
Niels Matthias Petersen (1791-1862), a disciple of Rask, was the 
author of an admirable History of Denmark in the Heathen 

3 Edited (3 vols., 2nd ed., 1855, Copenhagen) by F. L. Liebenberg. 



LITERATURE] 



DENMARK 



43 



Antiquity, and the translator of many of the sagas. Martin 
Frederik Arendt (1773-1823), the botanist and archaeologist, 
did much for the study of old Scandinavian records. Christian 
Molbech (1783-1857) was a laborious lexicographer, author of 
the first good Danish dictionary, published in 1833. In Joachim 
Frederik Schouw (1789-1852), Denmark produced a very eminent 
botanist, author of an exhaustive Geography of Plants. In later 
years he threw himself with zeal into politics. His botanical 
researches were carried on by Frederik Liebmann (1813-1856). 
The most famous zoologist contemporary with these men was 
Salomon Dreier (1813-1842). 

The romanticists found their philosopher in a most remarkable 
man, Soren Aaby Kierkegaard (1813-1855), one of the most 
subtle thinkers of Scandinavia, and the author of some brilliant 
philosophical and polemical works. A learned philosophical 
writer, not to be compared, however, for genius or originality to 
Kierkegaard, was Frederik Christian Sibbern (1785-1872). He 
wrote a dissertation On Poetry and Art (3 vols., 1853-1860) and 
The Contents' of a MS. from the Year 2135 (3 vols., 1858-1872). 

Among novelists who were not also poets was Andreas Nikolai 
de Saint-Aubain (1798-1865), who, under the pseudonym of 
Carl Bernhard, wrote a series of charming romances. Mention 
must also be made of two dramatists, Peter Thun Feorsom 
(1777-181 7) , who produced an excellent translation of Shakespeare 
(1807-1816), and Thomas Overskou (1 798-1873), author of a long 
series of successful comedies, and of a history of the Danish 
theatre (5 vols., Copenhagen, 1854-1864). 

Other writers whose names connect the age of romanticism 
with a later period were Meyer Aron Goldschmidt (1810-1887), 
author of novels and tales; Herman Frederik Ewald (1821-1908), 
who wrote a long series of historical novels; Jens Christian 
Hostrup (1818-1892), a writer of exquisite comedies; and the 
miscellaneous writer Erik Bogh (1822-1899). In zoology, 
J. J. S. Steenstrup (1813-1898); in philology, J. N. Madvig 
(1804-1886) and his disciple V. Thomsen (b. 1842); in anti- 
quarianism, C. J. Thomsen (1788-1865) and J. J. Asmussen 
Worsaae (1821-1885); and in philosophy, Rasmus Nielsen 
(1809-1884) and Hans Brochner (1820-1875), deserve mention. 

The development of imaginative literature in Denmark became 
very closely defined during the latter half of the 19th century. 
The romantic movement culminated in several poets of great 
eminence, whose deaths prepared the way for a new school. 
In 1874 Bodtcher passed away, in 1875 Hans Christian Andersen, 
in the last week of 1876 Winther, and the greatest of all, Frederik 
Paludan-Miiller. The field was therefore left open to the 
successors of those idealists, and in 1877 the reaction began to 
be felt. The eminent critic, Dr Georg Brandes (q.v.), had long 
foreseen the decline of pure romanticism, and had advocated a 
more objective and more exact treatment of literary phenomena. 
Accordingly, as soon as all the great planets had disappeared, 
a new constellation was perceived to have risen, and all the stars 
in it had been lighted by the enthusiasm of Brandes. The new 
writers were what he called Naturalists, and their sympathies 
were with the latest forms of exotic, but particularly of French 
literature. Among these fresh forces three immediately took 
place as leaders — Jacobsen, Drachmann and Schandorph. In 
J. P. Jacobsen (q.v.; 1847-1885) Denmark was now taught 
to welcome the greatest artist in prose which she has ever pos- 
sessed; his romance of Marie Grubbe led off the new school with 
a production of unexampled beauty. But Jacobsen died young, 
and the work was really carriedout by his two companions. Holger 
Drachmann (q.v.; 1846-1908) began life as a marine painter; 
and a first little volume of poems, which he published in 1872, 
attracted slight attention. In 1877 he came forward again with 
one volume of verse, another of fiction, a third of travel; in each 
he displayed great vigour and freshness of touch, and he rose at 
one leap to the highest position among men of promise. Drach- 
mann retained his place, without rival, as the leading imaginative 
writer in Denmark. For many years he made the aspects of 
life at sea his particular theme, and he contrived to rouse the 
patriotic enthusiasm of the Danish public as it had never been 
roused before. His variou? and unceasing productiveness, his 



freshness and vigour, and the inexhaustible richness of his lyric 
versatility, early brought Drachmann to the front and kept him 
there. Meanwhile prose imaginative literature was ably sup- 
ported by Sophus Schandorph (1836-1901), who had been entirely 
out of sympathy with the idealists, and had taken no step while 
that school was in the ascendant. In 1876, in his fortieth year, 
he was encouraged by the change in taste to publish a volume 
of realistic stories, Country Life, and in 1878 a novel, Without a 
Centre. He has some relation with Guy de Maupassant as a close 
analyst of modern types of character, but he has more humour. He 
has been compared with such Dutch painters of low life as Teniers. 
His talent reached its height in the novel called Little Folk (1880), 
a most admirable study of lower middle-class life in Copenhagen. 
He was for a while, without doubt, the leading living novelist, 
and he went on producing works of great force, in which, however, 
a certain monotony is apparent. The three leaders had meanwhile 
been joined by certain younger men who took a prominent 
position. Among these Karl Gjellerup and Erik Skram were the 
earliest. Gjellerup (b. 1857), whose first works of importance 
date from 1878, was long uncertain as to the direction of his 
powers; he was poet, novelist, moralist and biologist in one; 
at length he settled down into line with the new realistic school, 
and produced in 1882 a satirical novel of manners which had a 
great success, The Disciple of the Teutons. Erik Skram (b. 1847) 
had in 1879 written a solitary novel, Gertrude Coldbjornsen, 
which created a sensation, and was hailed by Brandes as ex- 
actly representing the " naturalism " which he desired to see 
encouraged; but Skram has written little else of importance. 
Other writers of reputation in the naturalistic school were 
Edvard Brandes (b. 1847), and Herman Bang (b. 1858). Peter 
Nansen (b. 1861) has come into wide notoriety as the author, 
in particularly beautiful Danish, of a series of stories of a 
pronouncedly sexual type, among which Maria (1894) has been 
the most successful. Meanwhile, several of the elder generation, 
unaffected by the movement of realism, continued to please the 
public. Three lyrical poets, -H. V. Kaalund (1818-1885), Carl 
Ploug (1813-1894) and Christian Richardt (1831-1892), of very 
great talent, were not yet silent, and among the veteran novelists 
were still active H. F. Ewald and Thomas Lange (1829-1887). 
Ewald's son Carl (1856-1908) achieved a great name as a novelist, 
but did his most characteristic work in a series of books for 
children, in which he used the fairy tale, in the manner of Hans 
Andersen, as a vehicle for satire and a theory of morals. During 
the whole of this period the most popular writer of Denmark was 
J. C. C. Brosboll (1816-1900), who wrote, under the pseudonym 
Carit Etlar, a vast number of tales. Another popular novelist 
was Vilhelm Bergsoe (b. 1835), author of In the Sabine Mountains 
( 187 1), and other romances. Sophus Bauditz (b. 1850) persevered 
in composing novels which attain a wide general popularity. 
Mention must be made also of the dramatist Christian Molbech 
(1821-1888). 

Between 1885 and 1892 there was a transitional period in 
Danish literature. Up to that time all the leaders had been 
united in accepting the naturalistic formula, which was combined 
with an individualist and a radical tendency. In 1885, however, 
Drachmann, already the recognized first poet of the country, 
threw off his allegiance to Brandes, denounced the exotic tradition, 
declared himself a Conservative, and took up a national and 
patriotic attitude. He was joined a little later by Gjellerup, while 
Schandorph remained stanchly by the side of Brandes. The camp 
was thus divided. New writers began to make their appearance, 
and, while some of these were stanch to Brandes, others were 
inclined to hold rather with Drachmann. Of the authors who 
came forward during this period of transition, the strongest 
novelist proved to be Hendrik Pontoppidan (b. 1857). In some 
of his books he reminds the reader of Turgeniev. Pontoppidan 
published in 1898 the first volume of a great novel entitled Lykke- 
Per, the biography of a typical Jutlander named Per Sidenius, 
a work to be completed in eight volumes. From 1893 to 1909 no 
great features of a fresh kind revealed themselves. The Danish 
public, grown tired of realism, and satiated with pathological 
phenomena, returned to a fresh study, of their own national 



44 



DENNERY— DENNIS 



characteristics. The cultivation of verse, which was greatly dis- 
couraged in the eighties, returned. Drachmann was supported by 
excellent younger poets of his school. J. J. Jorgensen (b. 1866), 
a Catholic decadent, was very prolific. Otto C. Fonss (b. 1853) 
published seven little volumes of graceful lyrical poems in praise 
of gardens and of farm-life. Andreas Dolleris (b. 1850), of Vejle, 
showed himself an occasional poet of merit. Alfred Ipsen (b. 1852) 
must also be mentioned as a poet and critic. Valdemar Rordam, 
whose The Danish Tongue was the lyrical success of 1001, may 
also be named. Some attempts were made to transplant 
the theories of the symbolists to Denmark, but without signal 
success. On the other hand, something of a revival of naturalism 
is to be observed in the powerful studies of low life admirably 
written by Karl Larsen (b. i860). 

The drama has long flourished in Denmark. The principal 
theatres are liberally open to fresh dramatic talent of every kind, 
and the great fondness of the Danes for this form of entertain- 
ment gives unusual scope for experiments in halls or private 
theatres; nothing is too eccentric to hope to obtain somewhere 
a fair hearing. Drachmann produced with very great success 
several romantic dramas founded on the national legends. Most 
of the novelists and poets already mentioned also essayed the 
stage, and to those names should be added these of Einar 
Christiansen (b. 1861), Ernst von der Recke (b. 1848), Oskar 
Benzon (b. 1856) and Gustav Wied (b. 1858). 

In theology no names were as eminent as in the preceding 
generation, in which such writers as H. N. Clausen (1793-1877), 
and still more Hans Lassen Martensen (1808-1884), lifted the 
prestige of Danish divinity to a high point. But in history the 
Danes have been very active. Karl Ferdinand Allen (181 1-1871) 
began a comprehensive history of the Scandinavian kingdoms 
(5 vols., 1864-1872). Jens Peter Trap (1810-1885) concluded 
his great statistical account of Denmark in 1879. The 16th 
century was made the subject of the investigations of Troels 
Lund (q.v.). About 1880 several of the younger historians 
formed the plan of combining to investigate and publish the 
sources of Danish history; in this the indefatigable Johannes 
Steenstrup (b. 1844) was prominent. The domestic history of 
the country began, about 1885, to occupy the attention of 
Edvard Holm (b. 1833), 0. Nielsen and the veteran P. Frederik 
Barfod (1811-1896). The naval histories of G. Liitken attracted 
much notice. Besides the names already mentioned, A. D. 
Jorgensen (1840-1897), J. Fredericia (b. 1849), Christian Erslev 
(b. 1852) and Vilhelm Mollerup have all distinguished them- 
selves in the excellent school of Danish historians. In 1896 an 
elaborate composite history of Denmark was undertaken by some 
leading historians (pub. 1897-1905). In philosophy nothing has 
recently been published of the highest value. Martensen's Jakob 
Bohme (1881) belongs to an earlier period. H. HSffding (b. 1843) 
has been the most prominent contributor to psychology. His 
Problems of Philosophy and his Philosophy of Religion were 
translated into English in 1906. Alfred Lehmann (b. 1858) has, 
since 1896, attracted a great deal of attention by his sceptical 
investigation of psychical phenomena. F. Ronning has written 
on the history of thought in Denmark. In the criticism of art, 
Julius Lange (1838-1896), and later Karl Madsen, have done 
excellent service. In literary criticism Dr Georg Brandes is 
notable for the long period during which he remained pre- 
dominant. His was a steady and stimulating presence, ever 
pointing to the best in art and thought, and his influence on 
his age was greater than that of any other Dane. 

Authorities. — R. Nyerup, Den danske Digtekunsts Historie 
(1800-1808), and Almindeligt Literaturlexikon (1818-1820); N. M. 
Petersen, Literaturhistorie (2nd ed., 1867-1871, 5 vols.); Overskou, 
Den danske Skueplads (1 854-1 866, 5 vols.), with a continuation 
(2 vols., 1873-1876) by E Collin; Chr. Bruun, Bibliotheca Danica 
(3 vols., 1872-1896) ; Bricka, Dansk biografisk Lex-ikon (1887-1901) ; 
J. Paludan, Danmarks Literatur i Middelalderen (Copenhagen, 1896) ; 
P. Hansen, Illustreret Dansk Literaturhistorie (3 vols., 1901-1902) ; 
F. W. Horn, History of the Scandinavian North from the most ancient 
times to the present (English translation by Rasmus B. Anderson 
(Chicago, 1884), with bibliographical appendix by Thorwald Solberg) ; 
Ph. Schweitzer, Geschichte der Skandinavischen Litteratur (3 pts., 
Leipzig, 1886-1889), forming vol. viii. of the Geschichte der Welt- 



litteratur. See also Brandes, Kritiker og Portraiter (1870) ; Brandes, 
Danske Ditgere (1877); Marie Herzfeld, Die Skandinavische 
Litteratur und ihre Tendenzen (Berlin and Leipzig, 1898) ; Hjalmar 
Hjorth Boyesen, Essays on Scandinavian Literature (London, 1895); 
Edmund Gosse, Studies in the Literature of Northern Europe (new ed., 
London, 1883) ; Vilhelm Andersen, Litteraturbilleder (Copenhagen, 
1903) ; A. P. J. Schener, Kortfattet Indledning til Romantikkus 
Periode i Danmarks Litteratur (Copenhagen, 1894). (E. G.) 



DENNERY, or D'Ennery, ADOLPHE (1811-1899), French 
dramatist and novelist, whose real surname was Philippe, was 
born in Paris on the 17 th of June 181 1. He obtained his first 
success in collaboration with Charles Desnoyer in Emile, ou le 
fils d'un pair de France (183 1), a drama which was the first of a 
series of some two hundred pieces written alone or in collaboration 
with other dramatists. Among the best of them may be 
mentioned Gaspard Hauser (1838) with Anicet Bourgeois; Les 
Bohemiens de Paris (1842) with Eugene Grange; with Mallian, 
Marie-Jeanne, ou la femme du peuple (1845), in which Madame 
Dorval obtained a great success; La Case d'Oncle Tom (1853); 
Les Deux Orphelines (1875), perhaps his best piece, with Eugene 
Cormon. He wrote the libretto^ for Gounod's Tribut de Zamora 
(1881); with Louis Gallet and Edouard Blan he composed the 
book of Massenet's Cid (1885); and, again in collaboration with 
Eugene Cormon, the books of Auber's operas, Le Premier Jour de 
bonheur (1868) and Reve d'amour (1869). He prepared for the 
stage Balzac's posthumous comedy Mer cadet ou le faiseur, 
presented at the Gymnase theatre in 1851. Reversing the usual 
order of procedure, Dennery adapted some of his plays to the form 
of novels. He died in Paris in 1899. 

DENNEWITZ, a village of Germany, in the Prussian province 
of Brandenburg, near Jiiterbog, 40 m. S.W. from Berlin. It is 
memorable as the scene of a decisive battle on the 6th of 
September 1813, in which Marshal Ney, with an army of 58,000 
French, Saxons and Poles, was defeated with great loss by 50,000 
Prussians under Generals Bulow (afterwards Count Biilow of 
Dennewitz) and Tauentzien. The site of the battle is marked by 
an iron obelisk. 

DENNIS, JOHN (1657-1734), English critic and dramatist, the 
son of a saddler, was born in London in 1657. He was educated 
at Harrow School and Caius College, Cambridge, where he took 
his B.A. degree in 1679. In the next year he was fined and dis- 
missed from his college for having wounded a fellow-student with 
a sword. He was, however, received at Trinity Hall, where he 
took his M.A. degree in 1683. After travelling in France and 
Italy, he settled in London, where he became acquainted with 
Dryden, Wycherley and others; and being made temporarily 
independent by inheriting a small fortune, he devoted himself to 
literature. The duke of Marlborough procured him a place as one 
of the queen's waiters in the customs with a salary of £1 20 a year. 
This he afterwards disposed of for a small sum, retaining, at the 
suggestion of Lord Halifax, a yearly charge upon it for a long 
term of years. Neither the poems nor the plays of Dennis are of 
any account, although one of his tragedies, a violent attack on 
the French in harmony with popular prejudice, entitled Liberty 
Asserted, was produced with great success at Lincoln's Inn 
Fields in 1704. His sense of his own importance approached 
mania, and he is said to have desired the duke of Marlborough to 
have a special clause inserted in the treaty of Utrecht to secure 
him from French vengeance. Marlborough pointed out that 
although he had been a still greater enemy of the French nation, 
he had no fear for his own security. This tale and others of a 
similar nature may well be exaggerations prompted by his 
enemies, but the infirmities of character and temper indicated in 
them were real. Dennis is best remembered as a critic, and Isaac 
D'Israeli, who took a by no means favourable view of Dennis, 
said that some of his criticisms attain classical rank. The 
earlier ones, which have nothing of the rancour that afterwards 
gained him the nickname of " Furius," are the best. They are 
Remarks. . .(1696), on Blackmore's epic of Prince Arthur; 
Letters upon Several Occasions written by and between Mr Dryden, 
Mr Wycherley, Mr Moyle, Mr Congreve and Mr Dennis, published 
by Mr Dennis (1696); two pamphlets in reply to Jeremy 
Collier's Short View; The Advancement and Reformation of 



DENOMINATION—DENOTATION 



45 



Modem Poetry (1701), perhaps his most important work ; 

The Grounds of Criticism in Poetry (1704), in which he argued that 
the ancients owed their superiority over the moderns in poetry 
to their religious attitude; an Essay upon Publick Spirit . . . 
(1711), in which he inveighs against luxury, and servile imitation 
of foreign fashions and customs; and Essay on the Genius and 
Writings of Shakespeare in three Letters (17 12). 

Dennis had been offended by a humorous quotation made 
from his works by Addison, and published in 1713 Remarks upon 
Cato. Much of this criticism was acute and sensible, and it is 
quoted at considerable length by Johnson in his Life of Addison, 
but there is no doubt that Dennis was actuated by personal 
jealousy of Addison's success. Pope replied in The Narrative 
of Br Robert Norris, concerning the strange and deplorable frenzy 
of John Dennis . . . (1713). This pamphlet was full of personal 
abuse, exposing Dennis's foibles, but offering no defence of Cato. 
Addison repudiated any connivance in this attack, and in- 
directly notified Dennis that when he did answer his objections, 
it would be without personalities. Pope had already assailed 
Dennis in 171 1 in the Essay on Criticism, as Appius. Dennis 
retorted by Reflections, Critical and Satirical . . . , a scurrilous 
production in which he taunted Pope with his deformity, saying 
among other things that he was " as stupid and as venomous as 
a hunch-backed toad." He also wrote in 17 17* Remarks upon 
Mr Pope's Translation of Homer . . . and A True Character of 
Mr Pope. He accordingly figures in the Dunciad, and in a 
scathing note in the edition of 1729 (bk. i. 1. 106) Pope quotes 
his more outrageous attacks, and adds an insulting epigram 
attributed to Richard Savage, but now generally ascribed to 
Pope. More pamphlets followed, but Dennis's day was over. He 
outlived his annuity from the customs, and his last years were 
spent in great poverty. Bishop Atterbury sent him money, and 
he received a small sum annually from Sir Robert' Walpole. 
A benefit performance was organized at the Haymarket 
(December 18, 1733) on his behalf. Pope wrotefor the occasion 
an ill-natured prologue which Cibber recited. Dennis died within 
three weeks of this performance, on the 6th of January 1734. 

His other works include several plays, for one of which, Appius 
and Virginia (1709), he invented a new kind of thunder. He wrote 
a curious Essay on the Operas after the Italian Manner (1706), main- 
taining that opera was the outgrowth of effeminate manners, and 
should, as such, be suppressed. His Works were published in 1702, 
Select Works . . . (2 vols.) in 17 18, and Miscellaneous Tracts, the first 
volume only of which appeared, in 1727. For accounts of Dennis 
see Cibber's Lives of the Poets, vol. iv. ; Isaac D'Israeli's essays on 
Pope and Addison in the Quarrels of Authors, and " On the Influence 
of a Bad Temper in Criticism " in Calamities of Authors; and 
numerous references in Pope's Works. 

DENOMINATION (Lat. denominare, to give a specific name 
to), the giving of a specific name to anything, hence the name or 
designation of a person or thing, and more particularly of a class 
of persons or things; thus, in arithmetic, it is applied to a unit 
in a system of weights and measures, currency or numbers. The 
most general use of " denomination " is for a body of persons 
holding specific opinions and having a common name, especially 
with reference to the religious opinions of such a body. More 
particularly the word is used of the various " sects " into which 
members of a common religious faith may be divided. The term 
" denominationalism " is thus given to the principle of emphasiz- 
ing the distinctions, rather than the common ground, in the faith 
held by different bodies professing one sort of religious belief. 
This use is particularly applied to that system of religious 
education which lays stress on the principle that children 
belonging to a particular religious sect should be publicly taught 
in the tenets of their belief by members belonging to it and under 
the general control of the ministers of the denomination. 

DENON, DOMINIQUE VIVANT, Baeon de (i 747-1 8 25), 
French artist and archaeologist, was born at Chalon-sur-Saone 
on the 4th of January 1747. He was sent to Paris to study law, 
but he showed a decided preference for art and literature, and 
soon gave up his profession. In his twenty-third year he pro- 
duced a comedy, L.e Bon Pere, which obtained a succes d'estime, as 
he had already won a position in society by his agreeable manners 
and exceptional conversational powers. He became a favourite 



of Louis XV., who entrusted him with the collection and arrange- 
ment of a cabinet of medals and antique gems for Madame de 
Pompadour, and subsequently appointed him attache to the 
French embassy at St Petersburg. On the accession of Louis 
XVI. Denon was transferred to Sweden; but he returned, after 
a brief interval, to Paris with the ambassador M. de Vergennes, 
who had been appointed foreign minister. In 1775 Denon was 
sent on a special mission to Switzerland, and took the oppor- 
tunity of visiting Voltaire at Ferney. He made a portrait of the 
philosopher, which was engraved and published on his return to 
Paris. His next diplomatic appointment was to Naples, where 
he spent seven years, first as secretary to the embassy and after- 
wards as charge d'affaires. He devoted this period to a careful 
study of the monuments of ancient art, collecting many specimens 
and making drawings of others. He also perfected himself in 
etching and mezzotinto engraving. The death of his patron, 
M. de Vergennes, in 1787, led to his recall, and the rest of his life 
was given mainly to artistic pursuits. On his return to Paris 
he was admitted a member of the Academy of Painting. After 
a brief interval he returned to Italy, living chiefly at Venice. 
He also visited Florence arid Bologna, and afterwards went to 
Switzerland. While there he heard that his property had been 
confiscated, and his name placed on the list of the proscribed, and 
with characteristic courage he resolved at once to return to Paris. 
His situation was critical, but he was spared, thanks to the 
friendship of the painter David, who obtained for him a com- 
mission to furnish designs for republican costumes. When the 
Revolution was over, Denon was one of the band of eminent men 
who frequented the house of Madame de Beauharnais. Here he 
met Bonaparte, to whose fortunes he wisely attached himself. 
At Bonaparte's invitation he joined the expedition to Egypt, and 
thus found the opportunity of gathering the materials for his most 
important literary and artistic work. He accompanied General 
Desaix to Upper Egypt, and made numerous sketches of the 
monuments of ancient art, sometimes under the very fire of the 
enemy. The results were published in his Voyage dans la basse 
el la haute Egypte (2 vols, fol., with 141 plates, Paris, 1802), a 
work which crowned his reputation both as an archaeologist 
and as an artist. In 1804 he was appointed by Napoleon to the 
important office of director-general of museums, which he filled 
until the restoration in 181 5, when he had to retire. He was a 
devoted friend of Napoleon, whom he accompanied in his ex- 
peditions to Austria, Spain and Poland, taking sketches with his 
wonted fearlessness on the various battlefields, and advising the 
conqueror in his choice of spoils of art from the various cities 
pillaged. After his retirement he began an illustrated history of 
ancient and modern art, in which he had the co-operation of 
several skilful engravers. He died at Paris on the 27th of April 
1825, leaving the work unfinished. It was published posthu- 
mously, with an explanatory text by Amaury Duval, under the 
title Monuments des arts du dessin chez les peuples tant anciens 
que modernes ,recueillis par Vivant Denon (4 vols, fol., Paris, 1829). 
Denon was the author of a novel, Point de lendemain (1777), of 
which further editions were printed in 181 2, 1876 and 1879. 

See J. Renouvier, Histoire de Vart pendant la Revolution; A. de la 
Fizeliere, L'CEuvre originate de Vivant-Denon (2 vols., Paris, 1872- 
1873); Roger Portallis, Les Dessinateurs a" illustrations au XVIII 
siecle; D. H. Beraldi, Les Graveurs d' illustrations au XVIII' siecle. 

DENOTATION (from Lat. denotare, to mark out, specify), in 
logic, a technical term used strictly as the correlative of Con- 
notation, to describe one of the two functions of a concrete term. 
The concrete term " connotes " attributes and " denotes " all 
the individuals which, as possessing these attributes, constitute 
the genus or species described by the term. Thus " cricketer " 
denotes the individuals who play cricket, and connotes the 
qualities or characteristics by which these individuals are marked. 
In this sense, in which it was first used by J. S. Mill, Denotation 
is equivalent to Extension, and Connotation to Intension. It is 
clear that when the given term is qualified by a limiting adjective 
the Denotation or Extension diminishes, while the Connotation 
or Intension increases; e.g. a generic term like "flower" has a 
larger Extension, and a smaller Intension than " rose "• " rose " 



+6 



DENS— DENSITY 



than " moss-rose." In more general language Denotation 
is used loosely for that which is meant or indicated by a word, 
phrase, sentence or even an action. Thus a proper name or 
even an abstract term is said to have Denotation. (See 
Connotation.) 

DENS, PETER (1690-1775), Belgian Roman Catholic theo- 
logian, was born at Boom near Antwerp. Most of his life was 
spent in the archiepiscopal college of Malines, where he was for 
twelve years reader in theology and for forty president. His 
great work was the Theologia moralis et dogmatica, a compendium 
in catechetical form of Roman Catholic doctrine and ethics 
which has been much used as a students' text-book. Dens died 
on the 15th of February 1775. 

DENSITY (Lat. densus, thick), in physics, the mass or quantity 
of matter contained in unit volume of any substance: this is the 
absolute density; the term relative density or specific gravity 
denotes the ratio of the mass of a certain volume of a substance 
to the mass of the same volume of some standard substance. 
Since the weights used in conjunction with a balance are really 
standard masses, the word " weight " may be substituted for 
the word " mass " in the preceding definitions; and we may 
symbolically express the relations thus: — If M be the weight of 
substance occupying a volume V, then the absolute density 
A = M/V; and if m, mi be the weights of the substance and 
of the standard substance which occupy the same volume, the 
relative density or specific gravity S = mj-mi ; or more generally 
if oti be the weight of a volume v of the substance, and tn\ the 
weight of a volume Vi of the standard, then S = mvi/miv. In the 
numerical expression of absolute densities it is necessary to 
specify the units of mass and volume employed; while in the case 
of relative densities, it is only necessary to specify the standard 
substance, since the result is a mere number. Absolute densities 
are generally stated in the C.G.S. system, i.e. as grammes per 
cubic centimetre. In commerce, however, other expressions are 
met with, as, for example, " pounds per cubic foot " (used for 
woods, metals, &c), " pounds per gallon," &c. The standard 
substances employed to determine relative densities are: water 
for liquids and solids, and hydrogen or atmospheric air for gases; 
oxygen (as 16) is sometimes used in this last case. Other 
standards of reference may be used in special connexions; for 
example, the Earth is the usual unit for expressing the relative 
density of the other members of the solar system. Reference 
should be made to the article Gravitation for an account of the 
methods employed to determine the " mean density of the earth." 

In expressing the absolute or relative density of any substance, 
it is necessary to specify the conditions for which the relation 
holds: in the case of gases, the temperature and pressure of the 
experimental gas (and of the standard, in the case of relative 
density) ; and in the case of solids and liquids, the temperature. 
The reason for this is readily seen; if a mass M of any gas 
occupies a volume V at a temperature T (on the absolute scale) 
and a pressure P, then its absolute density under these conditions 
is A = M/V; if now the temperature and pressure be changed to 
Ti and Pi, the volume Vi under these conditions is VPT/P1T1, 
and the absolute density is MP1T/VPT1. It is customary to re- 
duce gases to the so-called " normal temperature and pressure," 
abbreviated to N.T.P., which is o° C. and 760 mm. 

The relative densities of gases are usually expressed in terms 
of the standard gas under the same conditions. The density 
gives very important information as to the molecular weight, 
since by the law of Avogadro it is seen that the relative density 
is the ratio of the molecular weights of the experimental and 
standard gases. In the case of liquids and solids, comparison 
with water at 4 C, the temperature of the maximum density of 
water; at o° C, the zero of the Centigrade scale and the freezing- 
point of water; at 15° and 18°, ordinary room-temperatures; 
and at 25°, the temperature at which a thermostat may be 
conveniently maintained, are common in laboratory practice. 
The temperature of the experimental substance may or may not 
be the temperature of the standard. In such cases a bracketed 
fraction is appended to the specific gravity, of which the numer- 
ator and denominator are respectively the temperatures of the 







M 



substance and of the standard; thus 1-093 (o°/4°) means that 
the ratio of the weight of a definite volume of a substance at o° 
to the weight of the same volume of water 4 is 1-093. It may 
be noted that if comparison be made with water at 4°, the relative 
density is the same as the absolute density, since the unit of mass 
in the C.G.S. system is the weight of a cubic centimetre of water 
at this temperature. In British units, especially in connexion 
with the statement of relative densities of alcoholic liquors for 
Inland Revenue purposes, comparison is made with water at 
62° F, (16-6 C); a reason for this is that the gallon of water 
is defined by statute as weighing 10 ft> at 62° F., and hence the 
densities so expressed admit of the ready conversion of volumes 
to weights. Thus if d be the relative density, then lod represents 
the weight of a gallon in lb. The brewer has gone a step further 
in simplifying his expressions by multiplying the density by 1000, 
and speaking of the difference between the density so expressed 
and 1000 as " degrees of gravity " (see Beer). 

Practical Determination of Densities 

The methods for determining densities may be divided into two 
groups according as hydrostatic principles are employed or not. In 
the group where the principles of hydrostatics are not employed the 
method consists in determining the weight and volume of a certain 
quantity of the substance, or the weights of equal 
volumes of the smbstance and of the standard. In " 

the case of solids we may determine the volume in 
some cases by direct measurement — this gives at the 
best a very rough and ready value ; a better method 
is to immerse the body in a fluid (in which it must 
sink and be insoluble) contained in a graduated 
glass, and to deduce its volume from the height to 
which the liquid rises. The weight may be directly 
determined by the balance. The ratio " weight to 
volume " is the absolute density. The separate 
determination of the volume and mass of such 
substances as gunpowder, cotton- wool, soluble sub- 
stances, &c., supplies the only means of determining 
their densities. The stereometer of Say, which was 
greatly improved by Regnault and further modified 
by Kopp, permits an accurate determination of the 
volume of a given mass of any such substance. In 
its simplest form the instrument consists of a glass 
tube PC (fig. 1), of uniform bore, terminating in a 
cup PE, the mouth of which can be rendered air- 
tight by the plate of glass E. The substance whose 
volume is to be determined is placed in the cup PE, 
and the tube PC is immersed in the vessel of mercury 
D, until the mercury reaches the mark P. The plate 
E is then placed on the cup, and the tube PC raised 
until the surface of the mercury in the tube stands 
at M, that in the vessel D being at C, and the 
height MC is measured. Let k denote this height, 
and let PM be denoted by /. Let u represent the 
volume of air in the cup before the body was inserted, 

v the volume of the body, a the area of the horizontal Pi G- t _ Say's 

section of the tube PC, and h the height of the Stereometer. 
mercurial barometer. Then, by Boyle's law 
(u—v+al) (h — k) — {u—v)h, and therefore v = u—al{h—k)lk. 

The volume u may be determined by repeating the experiment 
when only air is in the cup. In this case v = o, and the equation 
becomes (u+al l ) (h — k 1 )=uh, whence u = aP (h — k 1 ) Ik 1 . Substituting 
this value in the expression for v, the volume of the body inserted in 
the cup becomes known. The chief errors to which the stereometer 
is liable are (1) variation of temperature and atmospheric pressure 
during the experiment, and (2) the presence of moisture which dis- 
turbs Boyle's law. 

The method of weighing equal volumes is particularly applicable 
to the determination of the relative densities of liquids. It consists 
in weighing a glass vessel (1) empty, (2) filled with the liquid, (3) 
filled with the standard substance. Calling the weight of the empty 
vessel w, when filled with the liquid W, and when filled with the 
standard substance Wi, it is obvious that W — w, and Wi — to, 
are the weights of equal volumes of the liquid and standard, 
and hence the relative density is (W— w)l(Wi— to). 

Many forms of vessels have been devised. The com 
moner type of " specific gravity bottle " consists of a thin 
glass bottle (fig. 2) of a capacity varying from 10 to 100 cc. 
fitted with an accurately ground stopper, which is vertically/ 
perforated by a fine hole. The bottle is carefully cleansed! 
by washing with soda, hydrochloric acid and distilled 
water, and then dried by heating in an air bath or by blow- 
ing in warm air. It is allowed to cool and then weighed. 
The bottle is then filled with distilled water, and brought 
to a definite temperature by immersion in a thermostat, and the 
stopper inserted. It is removed from the thermostat, and carefully 



l£j 




Fig. 2. 



DENSITY 



47 



Fig. 3. 



wiped. After cooling it is weighed. The bottle is again cleaned and 
dried, and the operations repeated with the liquid under examina- 
tion instead of water. Numerous modifications of this bottle are in 
use. For volatile liquids, a flask provided with a long neck which 
carries a graduation and is fitted with a well-ground stopper is 
recommended. The bringing of the liquid to the mark is effected 
by removing the excess by means of a capillary. In many forms a 
thermometer forms part of the apparatus. 

Another type of vessel, named the Sprengel tube or pycnometer 
(Gr. ttvkvos, dense), is shown in fig. 3. It consists of a cylindrical 
tube of a capacity ranging from 10 to 50 cc, provided at the upper 
end with a thick-walled capillary bent as shown on the left of the 
figure. From the bottom there leads 
another fine tube, bent upwards, and 
then at right angles so as to be at the 
same level as the capillary branch. This 
tube bears a graduation. A loop of plati- 
num wire passed under these tubes serves 
to suspend the vessel from the balance 
arm. The manner of cleansing, &c, is 
the same as in the ordinary form. The 
vessel is filled by placing the capillary 
in a vessel containing the liquid and 
gently aspirating. Care must be taken 
that no air bubbles are enclosed. The 
liquid is adjusted to the mark by 
withdrawing any excess from the capillary end by a strip of 
bibulous paper or by a capillary tube. Many variations of this 
apparatus are in use; in one of the commonest there are two 
cylindrical chambers, joined at the bottom, and each provided 
at the top with fine tubes bent at right angles ; sometimes the inlet 
and outlet tubes are provided with caps. 

The specific gravity bottle may be used to determine the relative 
density of a solid which is available in small fragments, and is insoluble 
in the standard liquid. The method involves three operations: — 
(1) weighing the solid'in air (W), (2) weighing the specific gravity 
bottle full of liquid (Wi), (3) weighing the bottle containing the solid 
and filled up with liquid (W 2 ). It is readily seen that W+W1-W2 is 
the weight of the liquid displaced by the solid, and therefore is the 
weight of an equal volume of liquid; hence the relative density is 
W/(W+W X -W 2 ). 

The determination of the absolute densities of gases can only be 
effected with any high degree of accuracy by a development of this 
method. As originated by Regnault, it consisted in filling a large 
glass globe with the gas by alternately exhausting with an air-pump 
and admitting the pure and dry gas. The flask was then brought to 
0° by immersion in melting ice, the pressure of the gas taken, and 
the stop-cock closed. The flask is removed from the ice, allowed to 
attain the temperature of the room, and then weighed. The flask 
is now partially exhausted, transferred to the cooling bath, and after 
standing the pressure of the residual gas is taken by a manometer. 
The flask is again brought to room-temperature, and re-weighed. 
The difference in the weights corresponds to the volume of gas at a 
pressure equal to the difference of the recorded pressures. The 
volume of the flask is determined by weighing empty and filled with 
water. This method has been refined by many experimenters, 
among whom we may notice Morley and Lord Rayleigh. Morley 
determined the densities of hydrogen and oxygen in the course of 
his classical investigation of the composition of water. The method 
differed from Regnault's inasmuch as the flask was exhausted to an 
almost complete vacuum, a performance rendered possible by the high 
efficiency of the modern air-pump. The actual experiment necessi- 
tates the most elaborate precautions, for which reference must be 
made to Morley 's original papers in the Smithsonian Contributions 
to Knowledge (1895), or to M. Travers, The Study of Gases. Lord 
Rayleigh has made many investigations of the absolute densities of 
gases, one of which, namely on atmospheric and artificial nitrogen, 
undertaken in conjunction with Sir William Ramsay, culminated in 
the discovery of argon (q.v.). He pointed out in 1888 (Proc. Roy. 
Soc. 43, p. 361) an important correction which had been overlooked 
by previous experimenters with Regnault's method, viz. the change 
in volume of theexperimental globe duetoshrinkage under diminished 
pressure; this may be experimentally determined and amounts to 
between 0-04 and 0-16 % of the volume of the globe. 

Related to the determination of the density of a gas is the deter- 
mination of the density of a vapour, i.e. matter which at ordinary 
temperatures exists as a solid or liquid. This subject owes its 
importance in modern chemistry to the fact that the vapour density, 
when hydrogen is taken as the standard, gives perfectly definite 
information as to the molecular condition of the compound, since 
twice the vapour density equals the molecular weight of the 
compound. Many methods have been devised. In historical order 
we may briefly enumerate the following: — in 1811, Gay-Lussac 
volatilized a weighed quantity of liquid, which must be readily 
volatile, by letting it rise up a short tube containing mercury and 
standing inverted in a vessel holding the same metal. This method 
was developed by Hofmann in 1868, who replaced the short tube 
of Gay-Lussac by an ordinary barometer tube, thus effecting the 
volatilization in a Torricellian vacuum. In 1826 Dumas devised a 
method suitable for substances of high boiling-point ; this consisted 



A 



in its essential point in vaporizing the substance in a flask made of 
suitable material, sealing it when full of vapour, and weighing. This 
method is very tedious in detail. H. Sainte-Claire Deville and 
L. Tro'ost made it available for specially high temperatures by 
employing porcelain vessels, sealing them with the oxyhydrogen 
blow-pipe, and maintaining a constant temperature by a vapour 
bath of mercury (350°), sulphur (440 ), cadmium (86o°) and zinc 
(1040 ). In 1878 Victor Meyer devised his air-expulsion method. 

Before discussing the methods now used in detail, a summary of 
the conclusions reached by Victor Meyer in his classical investiga- 
tions in this field as to the applicability of the different methods will 
be given : 

(1) For substances which do not boil higher than 260 and have 
vapours stable for 30° above the boiling-point and which do not 
react on mercury, use Victor Meyer's "mercury expulsion method." 

(2) For substances boiling between 260 and 420 , and which do 
not react on metals, use Meyer's " Wood's alloy expulsion method." 

(3) For substances boiling at higher temperatures, or for any 
substance which reacts on mercury, Meyer's "air expulsion method " 
must be used. It is to be noted, however, that this method is 
applicable to substances of any boiling-point (see below). 

(4) For substances which can be vaporized only under diminished 
pressure, several methods may be used, (a) Hofmann's is the best 
if the substance volatilizes at below 310°, and does not react on 
mercury; otherwise (6) Demuth and Meyer's, Eykman's, Schall's, or 
other methods may be used. 

1. Meyer's " Mercury Expulsion " Method. — A small quantity of 
the substance is weighed into a tube, of the form shown in fig. 4, 
which has a capacity of about 35 cc, provided with a capillary tube 
at the top, and a bent tube about 6 mm. in diameter at the bottom. 
The vessel is completely filled with mercury, the capillary 
sealed, and the vessel weighed. The vessel is then lowered 
into a jacket containing vapour at a known temperature 
which is sufficient to volatilize the substance. Mercury is 
expelled, and when this expulsion ceases, the vessel is 
removed, allowed to cool, and weighed. It is necessary to 
determine the pressure exerted on the vapour by the 
mercury in the narrow limb; this is effected by opening 
the capillary and inclining the tube until the mercury just 
reaches the top of the narrow tube; the difference between Fig. 4. 
the height of the mercury in the wide tube and the top of 

the narrow tube represents the pressure due to the mercury column, 
and this must be added to the barometric pressure in order to 
deduce the total pressure on the vapour. 

The result is calculated by means of the formula: 

n= W(i +0^X7,980,000 

(P+pi-rS^mll+^t-t^-m^l+yit-tomi+yty 
in which W = weight of substance taken; t = temperature of vapour 
bath; a = 0-00366 = temperature coefficient of gases; p = baro- 
metric pressure; p\= height of mercury column in vessel; 5 = 
vapour tension of mercury at t° ; m = weight of mercury contained in 
the vessel; mi= weight of mercury left in vessel after heating ; 
/J = coefficient of expansion of glass = -0000303 ; 7 = coefficient of 
expansion of mercury = o-oooi 8 (0-00019 above 240 °) (see Ber. 1877, 
10, p. 2068; 1886, 19, p. 1862). 

2. Meyer's Wood's Alloy Expulsion Method. — This method is a 
modification of the one just described. The alloy used is composed 
of 15 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead, 4 of tin and 3 of cadmium; it 
melts at 70 , and can be experimented with as readily as mercury. 
The cylindrical vessel is replaced by a globular one, and the pressure 
on the vapour due to the column of alloy in the side tube is readily 
reduced to millimetres of mercury since the specific gravity of the 
alloy at the temperature of boiling sulphur, 444° (at which the 
apparatus is most frequently used), is two-thirds of 

that of mercury (see Ber. 1876, 9, p. 1220). 

3. Meyer's Air Expulsion Method. — The simplicity, 
moderate accuracy, and adaptability of this method 
to every class of substance which can be vaporized 
entitles it to rank as one of the most potent methods 
in analytical chemistry; its invention is indissolubly 
connected with the name of Victor Meyer, being termed 
" Meyer's method " to the exclusion of his other 
original methods. It consists in determining the 
air expelled from a vessel by the vapour of a given 
quantity of the substance. The apparatus is shown 
in fig. 5. A long tube (a) terminates at the bottom in 
a cylindrical chamber of about 100-150 cc. capacity. 
The top is fitted with a rubber stopper, or in some 
forms with a stop-cock, while a little way down there 
is a bent delivery tube (6). To use the apparatus, the 
long tube is placed in a vapour bath (c) of the requisite 
temperature, and after the air within the tube is in 
equilibrium, the delivery tube is placed beneath the 
surface of the water in a pneumatic trough, the rubber 
stopper pushed home, and observation made as to 
whether any more air is being expelled. If this be not 
so, a graduated tube (d) is filled with water, and inverted over the 
delivery tube. The rubber stopper is removed and the experimental 
substance introduced, and the stopper quickly replaced to the same 
extent as before. Bubbles are quickly disengaged and collect in the 





Fig. 5. 



4 8 



DENSITY 




graduated tube. Solids may be directly admitted to the tube from 
a weighing bottle, while liquids are conveniently introduced by 
means of small stoppered bottles, or, in the case of exceptionally 
volatile liquids, by means of a bulb blown on a piece of thin 
capillary tube, the tube being sealed during the weighing operation, 
and the capillary broken just before transference to the ap- 
paratus. To prevent the bottom of the apparatus being knocked 
out by the impact of the substance, a layer of sand, asbestos or 
sometimes mercury is placed in the tube. To complete the experi- 
ment, the graduated tube containing the expelled air is brought 
to a constant and determinate temperature and pressure, and this 
volume is the volume which the given weight of the substance 
would occupy if it were a gas under the same temperature and 
pressure. The vapour density is calculated by the following formula: 
^ W(i+aQX587,78o 

in which W = weight of substance taken, V = volume of air expelled, 
a = 1/273 = -003665, ' an d P = temperature and pressure at which 
expelled air is measured, and s = vapour pressure of water at t". 

By varying the material of the bulb, this apparatus is rendered 
available for exceptionally high temperatures. Vapour baths of iron 
are used in connexion with boiling anthracene (335°), anthraquinone 
(368 °) .sulphur (444 ) ,phosphoruspentasulphide(5 1 8°) ; 
molten lead may also be used. For higher tempera- 
tures the bulb of the vapour density tube is made of 
porcelain or platinum, and is heated in a gas furnace. 

(4a) Hof matin's Method. — Both the modus operandi 
and apparatus employed in this method particularly 
recommend its use for substances which do not react 
on mercury and which boil in a vacuum at below 310°. 
The apparatus (fig. 6) consists of a barometer tube, 
containing mercury and standing in a bath of the same 
metal, surrounded by a vapour jacket. The vapour is 
circulated through the jacket, and the height of the 
mercury read by a cathetometer or otherwise. The sub- 
stance is weighed into a small stoppered bottle, which 
is then placed beneath the mouth of the barometer tube. 
It ascends the tube, the substance is rapidly volatilized, 
and the mercury column is depressed; .this depression 
is read off. It is necessary to know the volume of the 
tube above the second level ; this may most efficiently 
be determined by calibrating the tube prior to its use. 
Sir T. E. Thorpe employed a barometer tube 96 cm. 
long, and determined the volume from the closed end 
for a distance of about 35 mm. by weighing in mercury ; 
below this mark it was calibrated in the ordinary way so that a scale 
reading gave the volume at once. The calculation is effected by the 
following formulae : — 

76ow(i +0-0036650 
o-ooi2934XVXB ; 

b= h .-( h h. +s \ 

1+0-000184 \i+o-oooi8fe 1+0-00018/ ' /' 
in which w = weight of substance taken; / = temperature of vapour 
jacket; V = volume of vapour at /; & = height of barometer reduced 
too"; h = temperature of air; hi = height of mercury column below 
vapour jacket; fc = temperature of mercury column not heated by 
vapour; hi = height of mercury column within vapour jacket; 5 = 
vapour tension of mercury at t°. The vapour tension of mercury 
need not be taken into account when water is used in the jacket. 

(46) Demuth and Meyer's Method. — The principle of this method 
is as follows: — In the ordinary air expulsion method, the vapour 
always mixes to some extent with the air in the tube, and this in- 
volves a reduction of the pressure of the vapour. It is obvious that 
this reduction may be increased by accelerating the diffusion of the 
vapour. This may be accomplished by using a vessel with a some- 
what wide bottom, and inserting the substance so that it may be 
volatilized very rapidly, as, for example, in tubes of Wood's alloy, 
and by filling the tube with hydrogen. (For further 
details see Ber. 23, p. 311.) 

We may here notice a modification of Meyer's 
process in which the increase of pressure due to the 
volatilization of the substance, and not the volume 
of the expelled air, is measured. This method has 
been developed by J. S. Lumsden (Journ. Chetn. 
Soc. 1903, 83, p. 342), whose apparatus is shown 
diagrammatically in fig. 7. The vaporizing bulb 
A has fused about it a jacket B, provided with a 
condenser c. Two side tubes are fused on to the 
neck of A : the lower one leads to a mercury mano- 
meter M, and to the air by means of a cock C ; the 
upper tube is provided with a rubber stopper 
through which a glass rod passes — this rod serves 
to support the tube containing the substance to be 
experimented upon, and so avoids the objection to 
the practice of withdrawing the stopper of the tube, dropping the 
substance in, and reinserting the stopper. To use the apparatus, a 
liquid of suitable boiling-point is placed in the jacket and brought 
to the boiling-point. All parts of the apparatus are open to the air, 
and the mercury in the manometer is adjusted so as to come to a 



D = 



BD 




Fig. 7. 



fixed mark a. The substance is now placed on the support already 
mentioned, and the apparatus closed to the air by inserting the 
cork at D and turning the cock C. By turning or withdrawing 
the support the substance enters the bulb ; and during its vapori- 
zation the free limb of the manometer is raised so as to maintain 
the mercury at a. When the volatilization is quite complete, the 
level is accurately adjusted, and the difference of the levels of the 
mercury gives the pressure exerted by the vapour. To calculate the 
result it is necessary to know the capacity of the apparatus to the 
mark o, and the temperature of the jacket. 

Methods depending on the Principles of Hydrostatics. — Hydro- 
statical principles can be applied to density determinations in four 
typical ways : (1) depending upon the fact that the heights of liquid 
columns supported by the same pressure vary inversely as the 
densities of the liquids ; (2) depending upon the fact that a body which 
sinks in a liquid loses a weight equal to the weight of liquid which 
it displaces; (3) depending on the fact that a body remains sus- 
pended, neither floating nor sinking, in a liquid of exactly the same 
density; (4) depending on the fact that a floating body is immersed 
to such an extent that the weight of the fluid displaced equals the 
weight of the body. 

1. The method of balancing columns is of limited use. Two forms 
are recognized. In one, applicable only to liquids which do not mix, 
the two liquids are poured into the limbs of a U tube. The heights 
of the columns above the surface of junction of the liquids are in- 
versely proportional to the densities of the liquids. In the second 
form, named after Robert Hare (1781-1858), professor of chemistry 
at the university of Pennsylvania, the liquids are drawn or aspirated 
up vertical tubes which have their lower ends placed in reservoirs 
containing the different liquids, and their upper ends connected to a 
common tube which is in communication with an aspirator for 
decreasing the pressure within the vertical tubes. The heights to 
which the liquids rise, measured in each case by the distance between 
the surfaces in the reservoirs and in the tubes, are inversely pro- 
portional to the densities. 

2. The method of " hydrostatic weighing*" is one of the most 
important. The principle may be thus stated : the solid is weighed 
in air, and then in water. If W be the weight in air, and Wi the 
weight in water, then Wi is always less than W, the difference W-Wi 
representing the weight of the water displaced, i.e. the weight of a 
volume of water equal to that of the solid. Hence W/(W-Wi) is the 
relative density or specific gravity of the body. The principle is 
readily adapted to the determination of the relative densities of two 
liquids, for it is obvious that if W be the weight of a solid body in air, 
Wi and W 2 its weights when immersed in the liquids, then W-Wi 
and W-W 2 are the weights of equal volumes of the liquids, and 
therefore the relative density is the quotient (W-W 1 )/(W-W 2 ). 
The determination in the case of solids lighter than water is effected 
by the introduction of a sinker, i.e. a body which when affixed to the 
light solid causes it to sink. If W be the weight of the experimental 
solid in air, w the weight of the sinker in water, and Wi the weight of 
the solid plus sinker in water, then the relative density is given by 
W/(W+w-Wi). In practice the solid or plummet is suspended 
from the balance arm by a fibre — silk, platinum, &c— and carefully 
weighed. A small stool is then placed over the balance pan, and on 
this is placed a beaker of distilled water so that the solid is totally 
immersed. Some balances are provided with a " specific gravity 
pan," i.e. a pan with short suspending arms, provided with a hook 
at the bottom to which the fibre may be attached ; when this is so, 
the stool is unnecessary. Any air bubbles are removed from the 
surface of the body by brushing with a camel-hair brush; if the 
solid be of a porous nature it is desirable to boil it for some time in 
water, thus expelling the air from its interstices. The weighing is 
conducted in the usual way by vibrations, except when the weight 
be small ; it is then advisable to bring the pointer to zero, an opera- 
tion rendered necessary by the damping due to the adhesion of water 
to the fibre. The temperature and pressure of the air and water 
must also be taken. 

There are several corrections of the formula A=W/(W-Wi) 
necessary to the accurate expression of the density. Here we can 
only summarize the points of the investigation. It may be assumed 
that the weighing is made with brass weights in air at t° and p mm. 
pressure. To determine the true weight in vacuo at 0°, account 
must be taken of the different buoyancies, or losses of true weight, 
due to the different volumes of the solids and weights. Similarly 
in the case of the weighing in water, account must be taken of the 
buoyancy of the weights, and also, if absolute densities be required, 
of the density of water at the temperature of the experiment. In a 
form of great accuracy the absolute density A(o°/4°) is given by 

• _ A(o7 4 °) = ( P aW-3W 1 )/(W-Wi), 
in which W is the weight of the body in air at t° and p mm. pressure, 
Wi the weight in water, atmospheric conditions remaining very 
nearly the same ; p is the density of the water in which the body is 
weighed, a is (i+at°) in which a is the coefficient of cubical 
expansion of the body, and 8 is the density of the air at t", p mm. 
Less accurate formulae are A = p W/(W-Wi), the factor involving 
the density of the air, and the coefficient of the expansion of the 
solid being disregarded, and A = W/(W-Wj), in which the density 
of water is taken as unity. Reference may be made to J. Wade and 
R. W. Merriman, Journ. Chem. Soc. 1909, 95, p. 2174. 



DENTATUS 



49 




Fig. 8. 



The determination of the density of a liquid by weighing a 
plummet in air, and in the standard and experimental liquids, 

has been put into a very 
convenient laboratory form 
by means of the apparatus 
known as a Westphal balance 
(fig. 8). It consists of a steel- 
yard mounted on a fulcrum; 
one arm carries at its extrem- 
ity a heavy bob and pointer, 
the latter moving along a scale 
affixed to the stand and serv- 
ing to indicate when the beam 
is in its standard position. 
The other arm is graduated 
in ten divisions and carries 
riders — bent pieces of wire of 
determined weights — and at 
its extremity a hook from 
which the glass plummet is 
suspended. To complete the 
apparatus there is a glass jar which serves to hold the liquid 
experimented with. The apparatus is so designed that when the 
plummet is suspended in air, the index of the beam is at the zero 
of the scale; if this be not so,' then it is adjusted by a levelling 
screw. The plummet is now placed in distilled water at 15°, and the 
beam brought to equilibrium by means of a rider, which we shall call 
I, hung on a hook; other riders are provided, t\>th and f ^ 5 th respec- 
tively of I. To determine the density of any liquid it is only neces- 
sary to suspend the plummet in the liquid, and to bring the beam 
to its normal position by means of the riders ; the relative density is 
read off directly from the riders. 

3. Methods depending on the free suspension of the solid in a 
liquid of the same density have been especially studied by Retgers 
and Gossner in view of their applicability to density determinations 
of crystals. Two typical forms are in use; in one a liquid is pre- 
pared in which the crystal freely swims, the density of the liquid 
being ascertained by the pycnometer or other methods; in the other 
a liquid of variable density, the so-called " diffusion column," is 
prepared, and observation is made of the level at which the particle 
comes to rest. The first type is in commonest use; since both 
necessitate the use of dense liquids, a summary of the media of most 
value, with their essential properties, will be given. 

Acetylene tetrabromide, C 2 H 2 Br4, which is very conveniently 
prepared by passing acetylene into cooled bromine, has a density 
of 3-001 at 6° C. It is highly convenient, since it is colourless, 
odourless, very stable and easily mobile. It may be diluted with 
benzene or toluene. 

Methylene iodide, CH 2 I 2 , has a density of 3-33, and may be diluted 
with benzene. Introduced by Brauns in 1886, it was recommended 
by Retgers. Its advantages rest on its high density and mobility; 
its main disadvantages are its liability to decomposition, the 
originally colourless liquid becoming dark owing to the separation of 
iodine, and its high coefficient of expansion. Its density may be 
raised to 3-65 by dissolving iodoform and iodine in it. 

Thoulet's solution, an aqueous solution of potassium and mercuric 
iodides (potassium iodo-mercurate), introduced by Thoulet and 
subsequently investigated by V. Goldschmidt, has a density of 
3-196 at 22-9°. It is almost colourless and has a small coefficient of 
expansion; its hygroscopic properties, its viscous character, and 
its action on the skin, however, militate against its use. A. Duboin 
(Compt. rend., 1905, p. 141) has investigated the solutions of mercuric 
iodide in other alkaline iodides; sodium iodo-mercurate solution has 
a density of 3-46 at 26 , and gives with an excess of water a dense 
precipitate of mercuric iodide, which dissolves without decomposition 
in alcohol; lithium iodo-mercurate solution has a density of 3-28 
at 25-6°; and ammonium iodo-mercurate solution a density of 
2-98 at 26 . 

Rohrbach's solution, an aqueous solution of barium and mercuric 
iodides, introduced by Carl Rohrbach, has a density of 3-588. 

Klein's solution, an aqueous solution of cadmium borotungstate, 
2Cd(OH) 2 -B 2 Gv9WGvi6H 2 0, introduced by D. Klein, has a 
density up to 3-28. The salt melts in its water of crystallization at 
75°, and the liquid thus obtained goes up to a density of 3-6. 

Silver-thallium nitrate, TIAg(N0 3 ) 2 , introduced by Retgers, melts 
at 75° to form a clear liquid of density 4-8; it may be diluted with 
water. 

The method of using these liquids is in all cases the same; a 
particle is dropped in ; if it floats a diluent is added and the mixture 
well stirred. This is continued until the particle freely swims, 
and then the density of the mixture is determined by the ordinary 
methods (see Mineralogy). 

In the " diffusion column " method, a liquid column uniformly 
varying in density from about 3-3 to 1 is prepared by pouring a little 
methylene iodide into a long test tube and adding five times as much 
benzene. The tube is tightly corked to prevent evaporation, and 
allowed to stand for some hours. The density of the column at any 
level is determined by means of the areometrical beads proposed by 
Alexander Wilson (1714-1786), professor of astronomy at Glasgow 
University. These are hollow glass beads of variable density; 



Fig. 9. 



they may be prepared by melting off pieces of very thin capillary 
tubing, and determining the density in each case by the method just 
previously described. To use the column, the experimental fragment 
is introduced, when it takes up a definite position. By successive 
trials two beads, of known density, say di, di, are obtained, one of 
which floats above, and the other below, the test crystal; the 
distances separating the beads from the crystal are determined by 
means of a scale placed behind the tube. If the bead of density di 
be at the distance h above the crystal, and that of <k at Z 2 below, 
it is obvious that if the density of the column varies uniformly, then 
the density of the test crystal is {ddz-\-d4i)l{h+h). 

Acting on a principle quite different from any previously dis- 
cussed is the capillary hydrometer or staktometer of Brewster, 
which is based upon the difference in the surface tension and 
density of pure water, and of mixtures of alcohol and water in varying 
proportions. 

If a drop of water be allowed to form at the extremity of a fine 
tube, it will go on increasing until its weight overcomes the surface 
tension by which it clings to the tube, and then it will 
fall. _ Hence any impurity which diminishes the surface 
tension of the water will diminish the size of the drop 
(unless_ the density is proportionately diminished). 
According to Quincke, the surface tension of pure water 
in contact with air at 20° C. is 81 dynes per linear centi- 
metre, while that of alcohol is only 25-5 dynes; and a 
small percentage of alcohol produces much more than a 
proportional decrease in the surface tension when added 
to pure water. The capillary hydrometer consists simply 
of a small pipette with a bulb in the middle of the stem, 
the pipette terminating in a very fine capillary point. 
The instrument being filled with distilled water, the 
number of drops required to empty the bulb and 
portions of the stem between two marks m and n (fig. 9) 
on the latter is carefully counted, and the experiments 
repeated at different temperatures. The pipette having 
been carefully dried, the process is repeated with pure 
alcohol or with proof spirits, and the strength of any 
admixture of water and spirits is determined from the 
corresponding number of drops, but the formula generally x . 
given is not based upon sound data. Sir David Brewster Brewster's 
found with one of these instruments that the number Stakto- 
of drops of pure water was 734, while of proof spirit, me t er 
sp. gr. 920, the number was 2 117. 

References. — Density and density determinationsarediscussed in 
all works on practical physics; reference may be made to B. Stewart 
and W. W. Haldane Gee, Practical Physics, vol. i. (1901); Kohl- 
rausch, Practical Physics; Ostwald, Physico-Chemical Measure- 
ments. The density of gases is treated in M. W. Travers, The Ex- 
perimental Study of Gases (1901) ; and vapour density determinations 
in Lassar-Cohn's Arbeitsmelhoden fur organisch-chemische Labora- 
torien (1901), and Manual of Organic Chemistry (1896), and in 
H. Biltz, Practical Methods for determining Molecular Weights 
(1899)- ' (C. E.*) 

DENTATUS, MANIUS CURIUS, Roman general, conqueror of 
the Samnites and Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, was born of humble 
parents, and was possibly of Sabine origin. He is said to have 
been called Dentatus because he was born with his teeth already 
grown (Pliny, Nat. Hist. vii. 15). Except that he was tribune of 
the people, nothing certain is known of him until his first consul- 
ship in 290 B.C. when, in conjunction with his colleague 
P. Cornelius Rufinus, he gained a decisive victory over the 
Samnites, which put an end to a war that had lasted fifty years. 
He also reduced the revolted Sabines to submission; a large 
portion of their territory was distributed among the Roman 
citizens, and the most important towns received the citizenship 
without the right of voting for magistrates {civitas sine suffragio). 
With .the proceeds of the spoils of the war Dentatus cut an 
artificial channel to carry off the waters of Lake Velinus, so as tp 
drain the valley of Reate. In 275, after Pyrrhus had returned 
from Sicily to Italy, Dentatus (again consul) took the field 
against him. The decisive engagement took place near Bene- 
ventum in the Campi Arusini, and resulted in the total defeat of 
Pyrrhus. Dentatus celebrated a magnificent triumph, in which 
for the first time a number of captured elephants were exhibited. 
Dentatus was consul for the third time in 274, when he finally 
crushed the Lucanians and Samnites, and censor in 272. In the 
latter capacity he began to build an aqueduct to carry the waters 
of the Anio into the city, but died (270) before its completion. 
Dentatus was looked upon as a model of old Roman simplicity 
and frugality. According to the well-known anecdote, when the 
Samnites sent ambassadors with costly presents to induce him 
to exercise his influence on their behalf in the senate, they found 



5° 



DENTIL— DENTISTRY 



him sitting on the hearth and preparing his simple meal of roasted 
turnips. He refused their gifts, saying that earthen dishes were 
good enough for him, adding that he preferred ruling those who 
possessed gold to possessing it himself. It is also said that he 
died so poor that the state was obliged to provide dowries for his 
daughters. But these and similar anecdotes must be received 
with caution, and it should be remembered that what was a 
competence in his day would have been considered poverty by 
the Romans of later times. 

Livy, epitome, 11-14; Polybius ii. 19; Eutropius ii. 9, 14; 
Florus i. 18 ; Val. Max. iv. 3, 5, vi. 3, 4 ; Cicero, De senectute, 16 ; 
Juvenal xi. 78 ; Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 25. 

DENTIL (from Lat. dens, a tooth), in architecture, a small 
tooth-shaped block used as a repeating ornament in the bed- 
mould of a cornice. Vitruvius (iv. 2) states that the dentil 
represents the end of a rafter {asser) ; and since it occurs in its 
most pronounced form in the Ionic temples of Asia Minor, the 
Lycian tombs and the porticoes and tombs of Persia, where 
it represents distinctly the reproduction in stone of timber 
construction, there is but little doubt as to its origin. The earliest 
example is that found on the tomb of Darius, c. 500 B.C., cut in the 
rock in which the portico of his palace is reproduced. Its first 
employment in Athens is in the cornice of the caryatid portico 
or tribune of the Erechtheum (480 B.C.). When subsequently 
introduced into the bed-mould of the cornice of the choragic 
monument of Lysicrates it is much smaller in its dimensions. 
In the later temples of Ionia, as in the temple of Priene, the larger 
scale of the dentil is still retained. As a general rule the pro- 
jection of the dentil is equal to its width, and the intervals 
between to half the width. In some cases the projecting band 
has never had the sinkings cut into it to divide up the dentils, 
as in the Pantheon at Rome, and it is then called a dentil-band. 
The dentil was the chief decorative feature employed in the bed- 
mould by the Romans and the Italian Revivalists. In the porch 
of the church of St John Studius at Constantinople, the dentil 
and the interval between are equal in width, and the interval 
is splayed back from top to bottom; this is the form it takes in 
what is known as the" Venetian dentil," which was copied from 
the Byzantine dentil in Santa Sophia, Constantinople. There, 
however, it no longer formed part of a bed-mould: its use at 
Santa Sophia was to decorate the projecting moulding enclosing 
the encrusted marbles, and the dentils were cut alternately on 
both sides of the moulding. The Venetian dentil was also intro- 
duced as a label round arches and as a string course. 

DENTISTRY (from Lat. dens, a tooth), a special department 
of medical science, embracing the structure, function and 

therapeutics of the mouth and its contained organs, 
sketch. specifically the teeth, together with their surgical and 

prosthetic treatment. (For the anatomy of the teeth 
see Teeth.) As a distinct vocation it is first alluded to by 
Herodotus (500 B.C.). There are evidences that at an earlier 
date the Egyptians and Hindus attempted to replace lost teeth 
by attaching wood or ivory substitutes to adjacent sound teeth 
by means of threads or wires, but the gold fillings reputed to 
have been found in the teeth of Egyptian mummies have upon 
investigation been shown to be superficial applications of gold 
leaf for ornamental purposes. The impetus given to medical 
study in the Grecian schools by the followers of Aesculapius 
and especially Hippocrates (500 to 400 B.C.) developed among the 
practitioners of medicine and surgery considerable knowledge of 
dentistry. Galen (a.d. 131) taught that the teeth were true bones 
existing before birth, and to him is credited the belief that the 
upper canine teeth receive branches from the nerve which supplies 
the eye, and hence should be called " eye-teeth." Abulcasis 
(10th cent, a.d.) describes the operation by which artificial crowns 
are attached to adjacent sound teeth. Vesalius (1514), Ambroise 
Pare, J. J. Scaliger, T. Kerckring, M. Malpighi, and lesser 
anatomists of the same period contributed dissertations which 
threw some small amount of light upon the structure and 
functions of the teeth. The operation of transplanting teeth is 
usually attributed to John Hunter (17 28-1 793), who practised it 
extensively, and gave to it additional prominence by transplanting 



a human tooth to the comb of a cock, but the operation was 
alluded to by Ambroise Pare (1509-1590), and there is evidence 
to show that it was practised even earlier. A. von Leeuwenhoek 
in 1678 described with much accuracy the tubular structure of 
the dentine, thus making the most important contribution to 
the subject which had appeared up to that time. Until the latter 
part of the 18th century extraction was practically the only 
operation for the cure of toothache. 

The early contributions of France exerted a controlling influ- 
ence upon the development of dental practice. Urbain Hemard, 
surgeon to the cardinal Georges of Arm^gnac, whom Dr Blake 
(1801) calls an ingenious surgeon and a great man, published in 
1582 his Researches upon the Anatomy of the Teeth, their Nature 
and Properties. Of H6mard, M. Fauchard says: " This surgeon 
had read Greek and Latin authors, whose writings he has judici- 
ously incorporated in his own works." In 1728 Fauchard, who 
has been called the father of modern dentistry, published his 
celebrated work, entitled Le Chirurgien Dentiste ou traits des 
dents. The preface contains the following statement as to the 
existing status of dental art and science in France, which might 
have been applied with equal truth to any other European 
country: — " The most celebrated surgeons having abandoned 
this branch of surgery, or having but little cultivated it, their 
negligence gave rise to a class of persons who, without theoretic 
knowledge or experience, and without being qualified, practised 
it at hazard, having neither principles nor system. It was only 
since the year 1700 that the intelligent in Paris opened their eyes 
to these abuses, when it was provided that those who intended 
practising dental surgery should submit to an examination by 
men learned in all the branches of medical science, who should 
decide upon their merits." After the publication of Fauchard's 
work the practice of dentistry became more specialized and 
distinctly separated from medical practice, the best exponents 
of the art being trained as apprentices by practitioners of ability, 
who had acquired their training in the same way from their 
predecessors. Fauchard suggested porcelain as an improvement 
upon bone and ivory for the manufacture of artificial teeth, a 
suggestion which he obtained from R. A. F. de Reaumur, the 
French savant and physicist, who was a contributor to the royal 
porcelain manufactory at Sevres. Later, Duchateau, an apothe- 
cary of St Germain, made porcelain teeth, and communicated his 
discovery to the Academy of Surgery in 1 776, but kept the process 
secret. Du Bois Chemant carried the art to England, and the 
process was finally made public by M. Du Bois Foucou. M. Fonzi 
improved the art to such an extent that the Athenaeum of Arts 
in Paris awarded him a medal and crown (March 14, 1808). 

In Great Britain the 19th century brought the dawning of 
dental science. The work of Dr Blake in 1801 on the anatomy 
of the teeth was distinctly in advance of anything previously 
written on the subject. Joseph Fox was one of the first members 
of the medical profession to devote himself exclusively to dentistry, 
and his work is a repository of the best practice of his time. 
The processes described, though comparatively crude, involve 
principles in use at the present time. Thomas Bell, the successor 
of Fox as lecturer on the structure and disease of the teeth at 
Guy's Hospital, published his well-known work in 1829. About 
this period numerous publications on dentistry made their appear- 
ance, notably those of Koecker, Johnson and Waite, followed 
somewhat later by the admirable work of Alexander Nasmyth 
(1839). By this time Cuvier, Serres, Rousseau, Bertin, Herissant 
and others in France had added to the knowledge of human 
and comparative dental anatomy, while M. G. Retzius, of Sweden, 
and E. H. Weber, J. C. Rosenmuller, Schreger, J. E. von Purkinje, 
B. Fraenkel and J. Miiller in Germany were carrying forward the 
same lines of research. The sympathetic nervous relationships 
of the teeth with other parts of the body, and the interaction of 
diseases of the teeth with general pathological conditions, were 
clearly established. Thus a scientific foundation was laid, and 
dentistry came to be practised as a specialty of medicine. Certain 
minor operations, however, such as the extraction of teeth and 
the stopping of caries in an imperfect way, were still practised by 
barbers, and the empirical practice of dentistry, especially of 



DENTISTRY 



5 1 



those operations which were almost wholly mechanical, had 
developed a considerable body of dental artisans who, though 
without medical education in many cases, possessed a high 
degree of manipulative skill. Thus there came to be two classes 
of practitioners, the first regarding dentistry as a specialty of 
medicine, the latter as a distinct and separate calling. 

In America representatives of both classes of dentists began 
to arrive from England and France about the time of the Revolu- 
tion. Among these were John Wooffendale (1766), a student of 
Robert Berdmore of Liverpool, surgeon-dentist to George III.; 
James Gardette (1778), a French physician and surgeon; and 
Joseph Lemaire (1781), a French dentist who went out with the 
army of Count Rochambeau. During the winter of 1781-1782, 
while the Continental army was in winter quarters at Providence, 
Rhode Island, Lemaire found time and opportunity to practise 
his calling, and also to instruct one or two persons, notably 
Josiah Flagg, probably the first American dentist. Dental 
practice was thus established upon American soil, where it has 
produced such fertile results. 

Until well into the 19th century apprenticeship afforded the 
only means of acquiring a knowledge of dentistry. The profits 
derived from the* apprenticeship system fostered secrecy and 
quackery among many of the early practitioners; but the more 
liberal minded and better educated of the craft developed an 
increasing opposition to these narrow methods. In 1837 a local 
association of dentists was formed in New York, and in 
training J ^ 4 ° a nat i° na l association, The American Society of 
Dental Surgeons, the object of which was " to advance 
the science by free communication and interchange of senti- 
ments." The first dental periodical in the world, The American 
Journal of Dental Science, was issued in June 1839, and in 
November 1840 was established the Baltimore College of Dental 
Surgery, the first college in the world for the systematic education 
of dentists. Thus the year 1830-1840 marks the birth of the 
three factors essential to professional growth in dentistry. All 
this, combined with the refusal of the medical schools to furnish 
the desired facilities for dental instruction, placed dentistry for 
the time being upon a footing entirely separate from general 
medicine. Since then the curriculum of study preparatory to 
dental practice has been systematically increased both as to its 
content and length, until in all fundamental principles it is 
practically equal to that required for the training of medical 
specialists, and in addition includes the technical subjects 
peculiar to dentistry. In England, and to some extent upon 
the continent, the old apprenticeship system is retained as an 
adjunct to the college course, but it is rapidly dying out, as it has 
already done in America. Owing to the regulation by law of the 
educational requirements, the increase of institutions devoted 
to the professional training of dentists has been rapid in all 
civilized countries, and during the past twenty years especially 
so in the United States. Great Britain possesses upwards of 
twelve institutions for dental instruction, France two, Germany 
and Switzerland six, all being based upon the conception that 
dentistry is a department of general medicine. In the United 
States there were in 1878 twelve dental schools, with about 
700 students; in 1907 there were fifty-seven schools, with 6919 
students. Of these fifty-seven schools, thirty-seven are depart- 
ments of universities or of medical institutions, and there is a 
growing tendency to regard dentistry fromits educational aspect as 
a special department of the general medical and surgical practice. 

Recent studies have shown that besides being an important 
part of the digestive system, the mouth sustains intimate re- 
lationship with the general nervous system, and is important as 
the portal of entrance for the majority of the bacteria that cause 
specific diseases. This fact has rendered more intimate the 
relations between dentistry and the general practice of medicine, 
and has given a powerful impetus to scientific studies in dentistry. 
Through the researches of Sir J. Tomes, Mummery, 
Hopewell Smith, Williams and others in England, 
O. Hertwig, Weil and Rose in Germany, Andrews, Sudduth 
and Black in America, the minute anatomy and embryology of 
the dental tissues have been worked out with great fulness and 



precision. In particular, it has been demonstrated that certain 
general systemic diseases have a distinct oral expression. Through 
their extensive nervous connexions with the largest of the cranial 
nerves and with the sympathetic nervous system, the teeth 
frequently cause irritation resulting in profound reflex nervous 
phenomena, which are curable only by removal of the local tooth 
disorder. Gout, lithaemia, scurvy, rickets, lead and mercurial 
poisoning, and certain forms of chronic nephritis, produce dental 
and oral lesions which are either pathognomonic or strongly 
indicative of their several constitutional causes, and are thus of 
great importance in diagnosis. The most important dental re- 
search of modern times is that which was carried out by Professor 
W. D. Miller of Berlin (1884) upon the cause of caries of the teeth, 
a disease said to affect the human race more extensively than any 
other. Miller demonstrated that, as previous observers had 
suspected, caries is of bacterial origin, and that acids play an 
important r61e in the process. The disease is brought about by 
a group of bacteria which develop in the mouth, growing natur- 
ally upon the debris of starchy or carbohydrate food, producing 
fermentation of the mass, with lactic acid as the end product. 
The lactic acid dissolves the mineral constituent of the tooth 
structure, calcium phosphate, leaving the organic matrix of the 
tooth exposed. Another class of germs, the peptonising and 
putrefactive bacteria, then convert the organic matter into liquid 
or gaseous end products. The accuracy of the conclusions ob- 
tained from his analytic research was synthetically proved, after 
the manner of Koch, by producing the disease artificially. Caries 
of the teeth has been shown to bear highly important relation to 
more remote or systemic diseases. Exposure and death of the 
dental pulp furnishes an avenue of entrance for disease-producing 
bacteria, by which invasion of the deeper tissues may readily 
take place, causing necrosis, tuberculosis, actinomycosis, 
phlegmon and other destructive inflammations, certain of which, 
affecting the various sinuses of the head, have been found to 
cause meningitis, chronic empyema, metastatic abscesses in 
remote parts of the body, paralysis, epilepsy and insanity. 

Operative Dentistry. — The art of dentistry is usually divided 
arbitrarily into operative dentistry, the purpose of which is to 
preserve as far as possible the teeth and associated tissues, and 
prosthetic dentistry, the purpose of which is to supply the loss of 
teeth by artificial substitutes. The filling of carious 
cavities was probably first performed with lead, sug- ™ lB S or 
gested apparently by an operation recorded by Celsus S oppmg ' 
(100 B.C.), who recommended that frail or decayed teeth be 
stuffed with lead previous to extraction, in order that they might 
not break under the forceps. The use of lead as a filling was 
sufficiently prevalent in France during the 17 th century to bring 
into use the word plombage, which is still occasionally applied in 
that country to the operation of filling. Gold as a filling material 
came into general use about the beginning of the 19th century. 1 
The earlier preparations of gold were so impure as to be virtually 
without cohesion, so that they were of use only in cavities which 
had sound walls for its retention. In the form of rolls or tape it 
was forced into the previously cleaned and prepared cavity, con- 
densed with instruments under heavy hand pressure, smoothed 
with files, and finally burnished. Tin foil was also used to a 
limited extent and by the same method. Improvements in the 
refining of gold for dental use brought the product to a fair degree 
of purity, and, about 1855, led to the invention by Dr Robert 
Arthur of Baltimore of a method by which it could be welded 
firmly within the cavity. The cohesive properties of the foil 
were developed by passing it through an alcohol flame, which 
dispelled its surface contaminations. The gold was then welded 
piece by piece into a homogeneous mass by plugging instruments 
with serrated points. In this process of cold-welding, the mallet, 
hitherto in only limited use, was found more efficient than hand 
pressure, and was rapidly developed. The primitive mallet of 
wood, ivory, lead or steel, was supplanted by a mallet in which 

1 The filling of teeth with gold foil is recorded in the oldest known 
book on dentistry, Artzney Buchlein, published anonymously in 1530, 
in which the operation is quoted from Mesue (a.d. 857), physician to 
the caliph Haroun al-Raschid. 



52 



DENTISTRY 



a hammer was released automatically by a spring condensed by 
pressure of the operator's hand. Then followed mallets operated 
by pneumatic pressure, by the dental engine, and finally by the 
electro-magnet, as utilized in 1867 by Bonwill. These devices 
greatly facilitated the operation, and made possible a partial 
or entire restoration of the tooth-crown in conformity with 
anatomical lines. 

The dental engine in its several forms is the outgrowth of the 
simple drill worked by the hand of the operator. It is used in 
removing decayed structure and for shaping the cavity for 
inserting the filling. From time to time its usefulness has been 
extended, so that it is now used for finishing fillings and polishing 
them, for polishing the teeth, removing deposits from them and 
changing their shapes. Its latest development, the dento-surgical 
engine, is of heavier construction and is adapted to operations 
upon all of the bones, a recent addition to its equipment being the 
spiral osteotome of Cryer, by which, with a minimum shock to 
the patient, fenestrae of any size or shape in the brain-case may 
be made, from a simple trepanning operation to the more ex- 
tensive openings reqtiired in intra-cranial operations. The rotary 
power may be supplied by the foot of the operator, or by 
hydraulic or electric motors. The rubber dam invented by 
S. C. Barnum of New York (1864) provided a means for protecting 
the field of operations from the oral fluids, and extended the scope 
of operations even to the entire restoration of tooth-crowns with 
cohesive gold foil. Its value has been found to be even greater 
than was at first anticipated. In aE operations involving the 
exposed dental pulp or the pulp-chamber and root-canals, it is 
the only efficient method of mechanically protecting the field of 
operation from invasion by disease-producing bacteria. 

The difficulty and annoyance attending the insertion of gold, 
its high thermal conductivity, and its objectionable colour have 
led to an increasing use of amalgam, guttapercha, and cements 
of zinc oxide mixed with zinc chloride or phosphoric acid. 
Recently much attention has been devoted to restorations with 
porcelain. A piece of platinum foil of -ooi inch thickness is 
burnished and pressed into the cavity, so that a matrix is pro- 
duced exactly fitting the cavity. Into this matrix is placed a 
mixture of powdered porcelain and water or alcohol, of the colour 
to match the tooth. The mass is carefully dried and then fused 
until homogeneous. Shrinkage is counteracted by additions of 
porcelain powder, which are repeatedly fused until the whole 
exactly fills the matrix. After cooling, the matrix is stripped 
away and the porcelain is cemented into the cavity. When the 
cement has hardened, the surface of the porcelain is ground 
and polished to proper contour. If successfully made, porcelain 
fillings are scarcely noticeable. Their durability remains to be 
tested. 

Until recent times the exposure of the dental pulp inevitably 
led to its death and disintegration, and, by invasion of bacteria 
via the pulp canal, set up an inflammatory process 
Dental which eventually caused the loss of the entire tooth. 
pJutlcs. A rational system of therapeutics, in conjunction with 
proper antiseptic measures, has made possible both 
the conservative treatment of the dental pulp when exposed, and 
the successful treatment of pulp-canals when the pulp has been 
devitalized either by design or disease. The conservation of the 
exposed pulp is affected by the operation of capping. In capping 
a pulp, irritation is allayed by antiseptic and sedative treatment, 
and a metallic cap, lined with a non-irritant sedative paste, is 
applied under aseptic conditions immediately over the point 
of pulp exposure. A filling of cement is superimposed, and this, 
after it has hardened, is covered with a metallic or other suitable 
fiDing. The utility of arsenious acid for devitalizing the dental 
pulp was discovered by J. R. Spooner of Montreal, and first 
published in 1836 by his brother Shearjashub in his Guide to 
Sound Teeth. The painful action of arsenic upon the pulp was 
avoided by the addition of various sedative drugs, — morphia, 
atropia, iodoform, &c, — and its use soon became universal. Of 
late years it is being gradually supplanted by immediate surgical 
extirpation under the benumbing effect of cocaine salts. By the 
use of cocaine also the pain incident to excavating and shaping 



of cavities in tooth structure may be controlled, especially when 
the cocaine is driven into the dentine by means of an electric 
current. To fill the pulp-chamber and canals of teeth after loss 
of the pulp, all organic remains of pulp tissue should be removed 
by sterilization, and then, in order to prevent the entrance of 
bacteria, and consequent infection, the canals should be perfectly 
filled. Upon the exclusion of infection depends the- future 
integrity and comfort of the tooth. Numberless methods have 
been invented for the operation. Pulpless teeth are thus pre- 
served through long periods of usefulness, and even those remains 
of teeth in which the crowns have been lost are rendered com- 
fortable and useful as supports for artificial crowns, and as 
abutments for assemblages of crowns, known as bridge- work. 

The discoloration of the pulpless tooth through putrefactive 
changes in its organic matter were first overcome by bleaching 
it with chlorine. Small quantities of calcium hypochlorite are 
packed into the pulp-chamber and moistened with dilute acetic 
acid; the decomposition of the calcium salt liberates chlorine in 
situ, which restores the tooth to normal colour in a short time. 
The cavity is afterwards washed out, carefully dried, lined with a 
light-coloured cement and filled. More efficient bleaching agents 
of recent introduction are hydrogen dioxide in a 25% solution 
or a saturated solution of sodium peroxide; they are less irritating 
and much more convenient in application. Unlike chlorine, 
these do not form soluble metallic salts which may subsequently 
discolour the tooth. Hydrogen dioxide may be carried into the 
tooth structure by the electric current. In which case a current 
of not less than forty volts controlled by a suitable graduated 
resistance is applied with the patient in circuit, the anode being a 
platinum-pointed electrode in contact with the dioxide solution 
in the tooth cavity, and the cathode a sponge or plate electrode 
in contact with the hand or arm of the patient. The current is 
gradually turned on until two or three milliamperes are indicated 
by a suitable ammeter. The operation requires usually twenty to 
thirty minutes. 

Malposed teeth are not only unsightly but prone to disease, and 
may be the cause of disease in other teeth, or of the associated 
tissues. The impairment of function which their abnormal 
position causes has been found to be the primary cause of 
disturbances of the general bodily health; for example, enlarged 
tonsils, chronic pharyngitis and nasal catarrh, indigestion 
and malnutrition. By the use of springs, screws, vulcanized 
caoutchouc bands, elastic ligatures, &c, as the case may require, 
practically all forms of dental irregularity may be Corrected, even 
such protrusions and retrusions of the front teeth as cause great 
disfigurement of the facial contour. 

The extraction of teeth, an operation which until quite recent 
times was one of the crudest procedures in minor surgery, has 
been reduced to exactitude by improved instruments, 
designed with reference to the anatomical relations of 
the teeth and their alveoli, and therefore adapted to the 
several classes of teeth. The operation has been rendered painless 
by the use of anaesthetics. The anaesthetic generally employed 
is nitrous oxide, or laughing-gas, the use of which was discovered 
in 1844 by Horace Wells, a dentist of Hartford, Conn., U.S.A. 
Chloroform and ether, as well as other general anaesthetics, have 
been employed in extensive operations because of their more pro- 
longed effect; but chloroform, especially, is dangerous, owing to 
its effect upon the heart, which in many instances has suddenly 
failed during the operation. Ether, while less manageable than 
nitrous oxide, has been found to be practically devoid of danger. 
The local injection of solutions of cocaine and allied anaesthetics 
into the gum-tissue is extensively practised ; but is attended with 
danger, from the toxic effects of an overdose upon the heart, and 
the local poisonous effect upon the tissues, which lead in numerous 
cases to necrosis and extensive sloughing. 

Dental Prosthesis. — The fastening of natural teeth or carved 
substitutes to adjoining sound teeth by means of thread or wire 
preceded their attachment to base-plates of carved 
wood, bone or ivory, which latter method was practised t ee th. 
until the introduction of swaged metallic plates. Where 
the crown only of a tooth or those of several teeth were lost, the 



Extrac- 
tion. 



DENTISTRY 



53 



restoration was effected by engrafting upon the prepared root a 
suitable crown by means of a wooden or metallic pivot. When 
possible, the new crown was that of a corresponding sound tooth 
taken from the mouth of another individual; otherwise an 
artificial crown carved from bone or ivory, or sometimes from the 
tooth of an ox, was used. To replace entire dentures a base-plate 
of carved hippopotamus ivory was constructed, upon which were 
mounted the crowns of natural teeth, or later those of porcelain. 
The manufacture of a denture of this character was tedious and 
uncertain, and required much skill. The denture was kept in 
place by spiral springs attached to the buccal sides of the appliance 
above and below, which caused pressure upon both jaws, necessi- 
tating a constant effort upon the part of the unfortunate wearer 
to keep it in place. Metallic swaged plates were introduced in 
the latter part of the 18th century. An impression of the gums 
was taken in wax, from which a cast was made in plaster of 
Paris. With this as a model, a metallic die of brass or zinc was 
prepared, upon which the plate of gold or silver was formed, and 
then swaged into contact with the die by means of a female die or 
counter-die of lead. The process is essentially the same to-day, 
with the addition of numerous improvements in detail, which 
have brought it to a high degree of perfection. The discovery, by 
Gardette of Philadelphia in 1800, of the utility of atmospheric 
pressure in keeping artificial dentures in place led to the abandon- 
ment of spiral springs. A later device for enhancing the stability 
is the vacuum chamber, a central depression in the upper surface 
of the plate, which, when exhausted of air by the wearer, materi- 
ally increases the adhesion. The metallic base-plate is used also 
for supporting one or more artificial teeth, being kept in place 
by metallic clasps fitting to, and' partially surrounding, adjacent 
sound natural teeth, the plate merely covering the edentulous 
portion of the alveolar ridge. It may also be kept in place by 
atmospheric adhesion, in which case the palatal vault is included, 
and the vacuum chamber is utilized in the palatal portion to 
increase the adhesion. 

In the construction usually practised, porcelain teeth are 
attached to a gold base-olate by means of stay-pieces of gold, 
perforated to receive the platinum pins baked in the body of the 
tooth. The stay-pieces or backings are then soldered to the pins 
and to the plate by means of high-fusing gold solder. The teeth 
used may be single or in sections, and may be with or without 
an extension designed in form and colour to imitate the gum of 
the aveolar border. Even when skillfully executed, the process is 
imperfect in that the jointing of the teeth to each other, and 
their adaptation to the base-plate, leaves crevices and recesses, 
in which food debris and oral secretions accumulate. To obviate 
these defects the enamelled platinum denture was devised. 
Porcelain teeth are first attached to a swaged base-plate of pure 
platinum by a stay-piece of the same metal soldered with pure 
gold, after which the interstices between the teeth are filled, and 
the entire surface of the plate, excepting that in contact with the 
palate and alveolar border, is covered with a porcelain paste 
called the body, which is modelled to the normal contour of the 
gums, and baked in a muffle furnace until vitrified. It is then 
enamelled with a vitreous enamel coloured in imitation of the 
colour of the natural gum, which is applied and fired as before, 
the result being the most artistic and hygienic denture known. 
This is commonly known as the continuous gum method. Origin- 
ating in France in the early part of the 19th century, and variously 
improved by several experimenters, it was brought to its present 
perfection by Dr John Allen of New York about 1846-1847. 
Dentures supported upon cast bases of metallic alloys and of 
aluminium have been employed as substitutes for the more 
expensive dentures of gold and platinum, but have had only a 
limited use, and are less satisfactory. 

Metallic bases were used exclusively as supports for artificial 
dentures until in 1855-1856 Charles Goodyear, jun., patented in 
England a process for constructing a denture upon vulcanized 
caoutchouc as a base. Several modifications followed, each the 
subject of patented improvements. Though the cheapness and 
simplicity of the vulcanite base has led to its abuse in incom- 
petent hands, it has on the whole been productive of much 



benefit. It has been used with great success as a means of 
attaching porcelain teeth to metallic bases of gold, silver and 
aluminium. It is extensively used also in correcting irregular 
positions of the teeth, and for making interdental splints in the 
treatment of fractures of the jaws. For the mechanical correction 
of palatal defects causing imperfection of deglutition and speech, 
which comes distinctly within the province of the prosthetic 
dentist, the vulcanite base produces the best-known apparatus. 
Two classes of palatal mechanism are recognized — the obturator, 
a palatal plate, the function of which is to close perforations 
or clefts in the hard palate, and the artificial velum, a movable 
attachment to the obturator or palatal plate, which closes the 
opening in the divided natural velum and, moving with it, 
enables the wearer to close off the nasopharynx from the oral 
cavity in the production of the guttural sounds. Vulcanite is 
also used for extensive restorations of the jaws after surgical 
operations or loss by disease, and in the majority of instances 
wholly corrects the deformity. 

For a time vulcanite almost supplanted gold and silver as 
a base for artificial denture, and developed a generation of 
practitioners deficient in that high degree of skill necessary 
to the construction of dentures upon metallic bases. 
The recent development of crown-and-bridge work methods. 
has brought about a renaissance, so that a thorough 
training is more than ever necessary to successful practice in 
mechanical dentistry. The simplest crown is of porcelain, and is 
engrafted upon a sound natural tooth-root by means of a metallic 
pin of gold or platinum, extending into the previously enlarged 
root-canal and cemented in place. In another type of crown the 
point between the root-end and the abutting crown-surface is 
encircled with a metallic collar or band, which gives additional 
security to the attachment and protects the joints from fluids 
or bacteria. Crowns of this character are constructed with a 
porcelain facing attached by a stay-piece or backing of gold to a 
plate and collar, which has been previously fitted to the root-end 
like a ferrule, and soldered to a pin which projects through the 
ferrule into the root-canal. The contour of the lingual surface of 
the crown is made of gold, which is shaped to conform to the 
anatomical lines of the tooth. The shell-crown consists of a 
reproduction of the crown entirely of gold plate, filled with 
cement, and driven over the root-end, which it closely encircles. 
The two latter kinds of crowns may be used as abutments for 
the support of intervening crowns in constructing bridge-work. 
When artificial crowns are supported not by natural tooth-roots 
but by soldering them to abutments, they are termed dummies. 
The number of dummies which may be supported upon a given 
number of roots depends upon the position and character of the 
abutments, the character of the alveolar tissues, the age, sex and 
health of the patient, the character of the occlusion or bite, and 
the force exerted in mastication. In some cases a root will not 
properly support more than one additional crown; in others 
an entire bridge denture has been successfully supported upon 
four well-placed roots. Two general classes of bridge-work are 
recognized, namely, the fixed and the removable. Removable 
bridge-work, though more difficult to construct, is preferable, as 
it can be more thoroughly and easily cleansed. When properly 
made and applied to judiciously selected cases, the bridge 
denture is the most artistic and functionally perfect restoration 
of prosthetic dentistry. 

The entire development of modern dentistry dates from the 
19th century, and mainly from its latter half. Beginning with a 
few practitioners and no organized professional basis, educational 
system or literature, its practitioners are to be found in all 
civilized communities, those in Great Britain numbering about 
5000; in the United States, 27,000; France, 1600, of whom 
376 are graduates; German Empire, qualified practitioners 
{Zahnarzte) , 1400; practitioners without official qualification, 
4100. Its educational institutions are numerous and well 
equipped. It possesses a large periodical and standard litera- 
ture in all languages. Its practice is regulated by legislative 
enactment in all countries the same as is medical practice. 
The business of manufacturing and selling dentists' supplies 



54 



DENTON— DENVER 



represents an enormous industry, in which millions of capital 
are invested. 

Authorities. — W. F. Litch, American System of Dentistry; 
Julius Scheff, jun., Handbuch der Zahnheilkunde; Charles J. Essig, 
American Text-Book of Prosthetic Dentistry; Tomes, Dental Anatomy 
and Dental Surgery; W. D, Miller, Microorganisms of the Human 
Mouth; Hopewell Smith, Dental Microscopy; H. H. Burchard, 
Dental Pathology, Therapeutics and Pharmacology; F. J. S. Gorgas, 
Dental Medicine; E. H. Angle, Treatment of Malocclusion of the 
Teeth and Fractures of the Maxillae ; G. Evans, A Practical Treatise 
on Artificial Crown-and-Bridge Work and Porcelain Dental Art; 
C. N. Johnson, Principles and Practice of Filling Teeth, American 
Text-Book of Operative Dentistry (3rd ed., 1905) ; Edward C. Kirk, 
Principles and Practice of Operative Dentistry (2nd ed., 1905) ; 
J. S. Marshall, American Text-Book of Prosthetic Dentistry (edited by 
C. R. Turner; 31-ded., 1907). (E. C. K.) 

DENTON, an urban district in the Gorton parliamentary 
division of Lancashire, England, 45 m. N.E. from Stockport, on 
the London & North-Western railway. Pop. (1901) 14,934. In 
the township are reservoirs for the water supply of Manchester, 
with a capacity of 1,860,000,000 gallons. The manufacture of 
felt hats is the leading industry. Coal is extensively mined in 
the district. 

DENVER, the capital of Colorado, U.S.A., the county-seat 
of Denver county, and the largest city between Kansas City, 
Missouri, and the Pacific coast, sometimes called the " Queen 
City of the Plains." Pop. (1870) 4759; (1880) 35,629; (1890) 
106,713; (1900), 133,859, of whom 25,301 were foreign-born 
and 3923 were negroes; (1510 census) 213,381. Of the 
25,301 foreign-born in 1900, 5114 were Germans; 3485, Irish; 
3376, Swedes; 3344, English; 2623, English-Canadian; 
1338, Russians; and 1033, Scots. Denver is an important 
railway centre, being served by nine railways, of which the 
chief are the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe; ' the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy; the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific; 
the Denver & Rio Grande; the Union Pacific; and the 
Denver, North-Western & Pacific. 

Denver lies on the South Platte river, at an altitude exactly 
1 m. above the sea, about 15 m. from the E. base of the Rocky 
mountains, which stretch along the W. horizon from N. to S. 
in an unbroken chain of some 175 m. Excursions may be made 
in all directions into the mountains, affording beautiful scenery 
and interesting views of the mining camps. Various peaks are 
readily accessible from Denver: Long's Peak (14,271 ft.), Gray's 
Peak (14,341 ft.), Torrey Peak (14,336ft.), Mt. Evans (14,330 ft.), 
Pike's Peak (14,108 ft.), and many others of only slightly less 
altitudes. The streets are excellent, broad and regular. The 
parks are a fine feature of the city; by its charter a fixed 
percentage of all expenditures for public improvements must be 
used to purchase park land. Architectural variety and solidity 
are favoured in the buildings of the city by a wealth of beautiful 
building stones of varied colours (limestones, sandstones, lavas, 
granites and marbles), in addition to which bricks and Roman 
tiles are employed. The State Capitol, built of native granite and 
marble (1887-1895, cost $2,500,000), is an imposing building. 
Noteworthy also are the Denver county court house; the hand- 
some East Denver high school; the Federal building, containing 
the United States custom house and post office; the United 
States mint; the large Auditorium, in which the Democratic 
National convention met in 1908; a Carnegie library (1908) 
and the Mining Exchange; and there are various excellent 
business blocks, theatres, clubs and churches. Denver has an 
art museum and a zoological museum. The libraries of the city 
contain an aggregate of some 300,000 volumes. Denver is the 
seat of the Jesuit college of the Sacred Heart (1888; in the 
suburbs); and the university of Denver (Methodist, 1889), a 
co-educational institution, succeeding the Colorado Seminary 
(founded in 1864 by John Evans), and consisting of a college 
of liberal arts, a graduate school, Chamberlin astronomical 
observatory and a preparatory school — these have buildings 
in University Park — and (near the centre of the city) the 
Denver and Gross College of Medicine, the Denver law school, a 
college of music in the building of the old Colorado Seminary, and 
a Saturday college (with classes specially for professional men). 



The prosperity of the city depends on that of the rich mining 
country about it, on a very extensive wholesale trade, for which 
its situation and railway facilities admirably fit it, and on its 
large manufacturing and farming interests. The value of 
manufactures produced in 1900 was $41,368,698 (increase 
1890-1900, 41-5 %). The value of the factory product for 1905, 
however, was 3-3% less than that for 1900, though it represented 
36-6 % of the product of the state as a whole. The principal 
industry is the smelting and refining of lead, and the smelting 
works are among the most interesting sights of the city. The 
value of the ore reduced annually is about $10,000,000. Denver 
has also large foundries and machine shops, flour and grist mills, 
and slaughtering and meat-packing establishments. Denver is 
the central live-stock market of the Rocky Mountain states. The 
beet sugar, fruit and other agricultural products of the sur- 
rounding and tributary section were valued in 1906 at about 
$20,000,000. The assessed valuation of property in the city in 
1905 was $115,338,920 (about the true value), and the bonded 
debt $1,079,595. 

At Denver the South Platte is joined by Cherry Creek, and 
here in October 1858 were established on opposite sides of the 
creek two bitterly rival settlements, St Charles and Auraria; the 
former was renamed almost immediately Denver, after General 
J. W. Denver (1818-1892), ex-governor of Kansas (which then 
included Colorado), and Auraria was absorbed. Denver had 
already been incorporated by a provisional local (extra legal) 
" legislature," and the Kansas legislature gave a charter to a 
rival company which the Denver people bought out. A city 
government was organized in December 1859; and continued 
under a reincorporation effected by the first territorial legislature 
of 1861. This body adjourned from Colorado City, nominally 
the capital, to Denver, and in 1862 Golden was made the seat of 
government. In 1868 Denver became the capital, but feeling in 
the southern counties was then so strong against Denver that 
provision was made for a popular vote on the situation of the 
capital five years after Colorado should become a state. This 
popular vote confirmed Denver in 1881. Until 1870, when it 
secured a branch railway from the Union Pacific line at Cheyenne 
(Wyoming), the city was on one side of the transcontinental travel- 
routes. The first road was quickly followed by the Kansas 
Pacific from Kansas City (1870, now also part of the Union 
Pacific), the Denver & Rio Grande (1871), the Burlington system 
(1882), the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe (1887), and other roads 
which have made Denver's fortune. In April 1859 appeared the 
first number of The Rocky Mountain News. The same year a 
postal express to Leavenworth, Kansas (10 days, letters 25 cents 
an ounce) was established; and telegraph connexion with Boston 
and New York ($9 for 10 words) in 1863. A private mint was 
established in i860. In the 'seventies all the facilities of a modern 
city — gas, street-cars, water-works, telephones — were intro- 
duced. Much the same might be said of a score of cities in the 
new West, but none is a more striking example than Denver of 
marvellous growth. The city throve on the freighting trade of 
the mines. In 1864 a tremendous flood almost ruined it, and 
another flood in 1878, and a famous strike in Denver and 
Leadville in 1879-1880 were further, but only momentary, 
checks to its prosperity. As in every western city, particularly 
those in mining regions whose sites attained speculative values, 
Denver had grave problems with " squatters " or " land- 
jumpers "in her early years; and there was the usual gambling 
and outlawry, sometimes extra-legally repressed by vigilantes. 
Settled social conditions, however, soon established themselves. 
In 1880 there was a memorable election riot under the guise of 
an anti-Chinese demonstration. In the decade 1870-1880 the 
population increased 648-7%. The 'eighties were notable 
for great real estate activity, and the population of the city 
increased 199-5% f rom l88 ° to 1890. In 1882-1884 three 
successive annual exhibits of a National Mining and Industrial 
Exposition were held. After 1890 growth was slower but 
continuous. In 1902 a city-and-county of Denver was created 
with extensive powers of framing its own charter, and in 
1904 a charter was adopted. The constitution of the state was 



DEODAND— DEPARTMENT 



55 



framed by a convention that sat at Denver from December 1875 
to March 1876; various territorial conventions met here; and 
here W. J. Bryan was nominated in 1908 for the presidency. 

DEODAND (Lat. Deo dandum, that which is to be given to God), 
in English law, was a personal chattel (any animal or thing) 
which, on account of its having caused the death of a human 
being, was forfeited to the king for pious uses. Blackstone, while 
tracing in the custom an expiatory design, alludes to analogous 
Jewish and Greek laws, 1 which required that what occasions a 
man's death should be destroyed. In such usages the notion of 
the punishment of an animal or thing, or of its being morally 
affected from having caused the death of a man, seems to be 
implied. The forfeiture of the offending instrument in no way 
depends on the guilt of the owner. This imputation of guilt to 
inanimate objects or to the lower animals is not inconsistent with 
what we know of the ideas of uncivilized races. In English law, 
deodands came to be regarded as mere forfeitures to the king, and 
the rules on which they depended were not easily explained by 
any key in the possession of the old commentators. The law 
distinguished, for instance, between a thing in motion and a thing 
standing still. If a horse or other animal in motion killed a 
person, whether infant or adult, or if a cart ran over him, it was 
forfeited as a deodand. On the other hand, if death were caused 
by falling from a cart or a horse at rest, the law made the chattel 
a deodand if the person killed were an adult, but not if he 
were below the years of discretion. Blackstone accounts for the 
greater severity against things in motion by saying that in such 
cases the owner is more usually at fault, an explanation which 
is doubtful in point of fact, and would certainly not account 
for other instances of the same tendency. Thus, where a man's 
death is caused by a thing not in motion, that part only which is 
the immediate cause is forfeited, as " if a man be climbing up the 
wheel of a cart, and is killed by falling from it, the wheel alone is 
a deodand"; whereas, if the cart were in motion, not only the 
wheel but all that moves along with it (as the cart and the 
loading) are forfeited. A similar distinction is to be found in 
Britton. Where a man is killed by a vessel at rest the cargo is not 
deodand; where the vessel is under sail, hull and cargo are both 
deodand. For the distinction between the death of a child and the 
death of an adult Blackstone accounts by suggesting that the child 
" was presumed incapable of actual sin, and therefore needed no 
deodand to purchase propitiatory masses; but every adult who 
died in actual sin stood in need of such atonement, according to 
the humane superstition of the founders of the English law." Sir 
Matthew Hale's explanation was that the child could not take 
care of himself, whereon Blackstone asks why the owner should 
save his forfeiture on account of the imbecility of the child, which 
ought to have been an additional reason for caution. The 
finding of a jury was necessary to constitute a deodand, and the 
investigation of the value of the instrument by which death was 
caused occupied an important place among the provisions of 
early English criminal law. It became a necessary part of an 
indictment to state the nature and value of the weapon employed 
— as, that the stroke was given by a certain penknife, of the value 
of sixpence — so that the king might have his deodand. Accidents 
on the high seas did not cause forfeiture, being beyond the domain 
of the common law; but it would appear that in the case of 
ships in fresh water the law held good. The king might grant his 
right to deodands to another. In later times these forfeitures 
became extremely unpopular; and juries, with the connivance 
of judges, found deodands of trifling value, so as to defeat the 
inequitable claim. At last, by an act of 1846 they were abolished, 
the date noticeably coinciding with the introduction of railways 
and modern steam-engines. 

DEOGARH, the name of several towns of British India. (1) A 
town in the Santal Parganas district of Bengal. Pop. (1901) 
8838. It is famous for a group of twenty-two temples dedicated 
to Siva, the resort of numerous pilgrims. It is connected with 
the East Indian railway by a steam tramway, 5 m. in length. 

'"Compare also the rule of the Twelve Tables, by which an animal 
which had inflicted mischief might be surrendered in lieu of com- 
pensation. 



(2) The headquarters of the Bamra feudatory state in Bengal; 
58 m. by road from the Bamra Road station on the Bengal- 
Nagpur railway. Pop. (1901) 5702. The town, which is well 
laid out, with parks and gardens, and pleasantly situated in a 
hollow among hills, rapidly increased in population under the 
enlightened administration of the raja, Sir Sudhal Rao, K.C.I.E. 
(b. i860). It has a state-supported high school affiliated to 
Calcutta University, with a chemical and physical laboratory. 

(3) The chief town of the Deogarh estate in the state of Udaipur, 
Rajputana, about 68 m. N.N.E. of the city of Udaipur. It is 
walled, and contains a fine palace. Pop. (1901) 5384. The 
holder of the estate is styled rawat, and is one of the first-class 
nobles of Mewar. (4) Deogarh Fort, the ancient Devagiri or 
Deogiri (see Daulatabad). 

DEOLS, a suburb of the French town of Chateauroux, in the 
department of Indre. Pop. (1906) 2337. Deols lies to the 
north of Chateauroux, from which it is separated by the Indre. 
It preserves a fine Romanesque tower and other remains of the 
church of a famous Benedictine abbey, the most important in 
Berry, founded in 917 by Ebbes the Noble, lord of Deols. A 
gateway flanked by towers survives from the old ramparts of 
the town. The parish church of St Stephen (15th and 16th 
centuries) has a Romanesque facade and a crypt containing the 
ancient Christian tomb of St Ludre and his father St Leocade, who 
according to tradition were lords of the town in the 4th century. 
There are also interesting old paintings of the 10th century 
representing the ancient abbey. The pilgrimage to the tomb of 
St Ludre gave importance to Deols, which under the name of 
Vicus Dolensis was in existence in the Roman period. In 468 
the Visigoths defeated the Gauls there, the victory carrying with 
it the supremacy over the district of Berry. In the middle ages 
the head of the family of D6ols enjoyed the title of prince and 
held sway over nearly all Lower Berry, of which the town itself 
was the capital. In the 10th century Raoul of Deols gave his ' 
castle to the monks of the abbey and transferred his residence 
to Chateauroux. For centuries this change did not affect the 
prosperity of the place, which was maintained by the prestige 
of its abbey. But the burning of the abbey church by the 
Protestants during the religious wars and in 1622 the suppression 
of the abbey by the agency of Henry II., prince of Conde and of 
Deols, owing to the corruption of the monks, led to its decadence. 

DEPARTMENT (Fr. departement, from departir, to separate 
into parts) , a division. The word is used of the branches of the 
administration in a state or municipality; in Great Britain it 
is applied to the subordinate divisions only of the great offices 
and boards of state, such as the bankruptcy department of the 
Board of Trade, but in the United States these subordinate 
divisions are known as " bureaus," while " department " is used 
of the eight chief branches of the executive. 

A particular use of the word is that for a territorial division 
of France, corresponding loosely to an English county. Previous 
to the French Revolution, the local unit in France was the 
province, but this division was too closely bound up with the 
administrative mismanagement of the old regime. Accordingly, 
at the suggestion of Mirabeau, France was redivided on entirely 
new lines, the thirty-four provinces being broken up into eighty- 
three departments (see French Revolution). The idea was 
to render them as nearly as possible equal to a certain average 
of size and population, though this was not always adhered to. 
They derived their names principally from rivers, mountains 
or other prominent geographical features. Under Napoleon the 
number was increased to one hundred and thirty, but in 181 5 it 
was reduced to eighty-six. In i860 three new departments were 
created out of the newly annexed territory of Savoy and Nice. In 
187 1 three departments (Bas-Rhin, Haut-Rhin and Moselle) 
were lost after the German war. Of the remains of the Haut- 
Rhin was formed the territory of Belfort, and the fragments of 
the Moselle were incorporated in the department of Meurthe, 
which was renamed Meurthe-et-Moselle, making the number 
at present eighty-seven. For a complete list of the departments 
see France. Each department is presided over by an officer 
called a prefect, appointed by the government, and assisted by a 



5& 



DE PERE— DEPORTATION 



prefectorial council (conseil de prefecture). The departments are 
subdivided into arrondissements, each in charge of a sub-prefect. 
Arrondissements are again subdivided into cantons, and these 
into communes, somewhat equivalent to the English parish 
(see France: Local Government). 

DE PERE, a city of Brown county, Wisconsin, U.S.A., on both 
sides of the Fox river, 6 m. above its mouth, and 109 m. N. of 
Milwaukee. Pop. (1890) 3625; (1900) 4038, of whom. 1025 
were foreign-born; (1905, state census) 4523. It is served by 
the Chicago & North-Western and Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul 
railways, by interurban electric lines and by lake and river 
steamboat lines, it being the head of lake navigation on the Fox 
river. Two bridges here span the Fox, which is from \ m. to J m. 
in width. It is a shipping and transfer point and has paper 
mills, machine shops, flour mills, sash, door and blind factories, 
a launch and pleasure-boat factory, and knitting works, cheese 
factories and dairies, brick yards and grain elevators. There is 
an excellent water-power. De Pere is the seat of St Norbert's 
college (Roman Catholic, 1902) and has a public library. North 
of the city is located the state reformatory. On the coming 
of the first European, Jean Nicolet, who visited the place in 
1634-1635, De Pere was the site of a polyglot Indian settlement 
of several thousand attracted by the fishing at the first rapids of 
the Fox river. Here in 1670 Father Claude Allouez established 
the mission of St Francis Xavier, the second in what is now 
Wisconsin. From the name Rapides des Peres, which the French 
applied to the place, was derived the name De Pere. Here 
Nicolas Perrot, the first French commandant in the North- West, 
established his headquarters, and Father Jacques Marquette 
wrote the journal of his journey to the Mississippi. A few 
miles south of the city lived for many years Eleazer Williams 
{c. 1787-1857), the alleged " lost dauphin " Louis XVII. of France 
and an authority on Indians, especially Iroquois. De Pere was 
incorporated as a village in 1857, and was chartered as a city 
in 1883. 

DEPEW, CHAUNCEY MITCHELL (1834- ), American 
lawyer and politician, was born in Peekskill, New York, on the 
23rd of April 1834, of a Huguenot family (originally Du Puis or 
De Puy). He graduated at Yale in 1856, entered politics as a 
Whig — his father had been a Democrat — was admitted to the 
bar in 1858, was a member of the New York Assembly in 
1861-1862, and was secretary of state of New York state in 
1864-1865. He refused a nomination to be United States 
minister to Japan, and through his friendship with Cornelius and 
William H. Vanderbilt in 1866 became attorney for the New York 
& Harlem railway, in 1869 was appointed attorney of the newly 
consolidated New York Central & Hudson river railway, of which 
he soon became. a director, and in 1875 was made general counsel 
for the entire Vanderbilt system of railways. He became second 
vice-president of the New York Central & Hudson river in 1869 
and was its president in 1885-1898, and in 1898 was made 
chairman of the board of directors of the Vanderbilt system. In 
1872 he joined the Liberal- Republican movement, and was 
nominated and defeated for the office of lieutenant-governor of 
New York. In 1888 in the National Republican convention he 
was a candidate for the presidential nomination, but withdrew 
his name in favour of Benjamin Harrison, whose offer to him in 
1889 of the portfolio of state he refused. In 1899 he was elected 
United States senator from New York state, and in 1904 was 
re-elected for the term ending in 191 1. His great personal 
popularity, augmented by his ability as an orator, suffered 
considerably after 1905, the inquiry into life insurance company 
methods by a committee of the state legislature resulting in 
acute criticism of his actions as a director of the Equitable Life 
Assurance Society and as counsel to Henry B. Hyde and his 
son. Among his best-known orations are that delivered at 
the unveiling of the Bartholdi statue of Liberty enlightening 
the World (1886), an address at the Washington Centennial in 
New York (1889), and the Columbian oration at the dedication 
ceremonies of the Chicago World's Fair (1892). 

DEPILATORY (from Lat. depilare, to pull out the pilus or" 
hair), any substance, preparation or process which will remove 



superfluous hair. For this purpose caustic alkalis, alkaline earths 
and also orpiment (trisulphide of arsenic) are used, the last being 
somewhat dangerous. No application is permanent in its effect, 
as the hair always grows again. The only permanent method, 
which is, however, painful, slow in operation and likely to leave 
small scars, is by the use of an electric current for the destruction 
of the follicles by electrolysis. 

DEPORTATION, or Transportation, a system of punishment 
for crime, of which the essential factor is the removal of the 
criminal to a penal settlement outside his own country. It is to 
be distinguished from mere expulsion (g.v.) from a country, 
though the term " deportation " is now used in that sense in 
English law under the Aliens Act 1905 (see Alien). Strictly, 
the deportation or transportation system has ceased to exist in 
England, though the removal or exclusion of undesirable persons 
from British territory, under various Orders in Council, is possible 
in places subject to the Foreign Jurisdiction Acts, and in the case 
of criminals under the Extradition Acts. 

Earlier British Transportation System. — At a time when the 
British statute-book bristled with capital felonies, when the pick- 
pocket or sheep-stealer was hanged out of hand, when Sir Samuel 
Romilly, to whose strenuous exertions the amelioration of the 
penal code is in a great measure due, declared that the laws 
of England were written in blood, another and less sanguinary 
penalty came into great favour. The deportation of criminals 
beyond the seas grew naturally out of the laws which prescribed 
banishment for certain offences. The Vagrancy Act of Elizabeth's 
reign contained in it the germ of transportation, by empowering 
justices in quarter sessions to banish offenders and order 
them to be conveyed into such parts beyond the seas as should 
be assigned by the privy council. Full effect was given to this 
statute in the next reign, as is proved by a letter of James I. 
dated 161 9, in which the king directs " a hundred 
dissolute persons " to be sent to Virginia. Another American 
act of similar tenor was passed in the reign of ti ons . * 
Charles II., in which the term " transportation " 
appears to have been first used. A further and more systematic 
development of the system of transportation took place in 
161 7, when an act was passed by which offenders who had 
escaped the death penalty were handed over to contractors, 
who engaged to transport them to the American colonies. 
These contractors were vested with a property in the 
labour of the convicts for a certain term, generally from 
seven to fourteen years, and this right they frequently sold. 
Labour in those early days was scarce in the new settlements; 
and before the general adoption of negro slavery there was a 
keen competition for felon hands. An organized system 
of kidnapping prevailed along the British coasts; young lads 
were seized and sold into what was practically white slavery in 
the American plantations. These malpractices were checked, but 
the legitimate traffic in convict labour continued, until it was 
ended peremptorily by the revolt of the American colonies and 
the achievement of their independence in 1776. 1 

The British legislature, making a virtue of necessity, discovered 
that transportation to the colonies was bound to be attended by 
various inconveniences, particularly by depriving the kingdom of 
many subjects whose labour might be useful to the community; 
and an act was accordingly passed which provides that convicts 
sentenced to transportation might be employed at hard labour 
at home. At the same time the consideration of some scheme 
for their disposal was entrusted to three eminent public men — 
Sir William Blackstone, Mr Eden (afterwards Lord Auckland) 
and John Howard. The result of their labours was an act for the 
establishment of penitentiary houses, dated 1778. This act is of 
peculiar importance. It contains the first public enunciation of a 
general principle of prison treatment, and shows that even at that 
early date the system since nearly universally adopted was fully 
understood. The object in view was thus stated. It was hoped 
" by sobriety, cleanliness and medical assistance, by a regular 
series of labour, by solitary confinement during the intervals of 
work and by due religious instruction to preserve and amend 

1 See J. C. Ballagh, wtite Servitude in Virginia (Baltimore, 1895.) 



DEPORTATION 



the health of the unhappy offenders, to inure them to habits of 
industry, to guard them from pernicious company, to accustom 
them to serious reflection and to teach them both the principles 
and practice of every Christian and moral duty." The experience 
of succeeding years has added little to these the true principles 
of penal discipline; they form the basis of every species of prison 
system carried out since the passing of an act of 1779. 

No immediate action was taken by the committee appointed. 
Its members were not in accord as to the choice of site. One was 
for Islington, another for Limehouse; Howard only stipulated 
for some healthy place well supplied with water and conveniently 
situated for supervision. He was strongly of opinion that the 
penitentiary should be built by convict labour. Howard withdrew 
from the commission, and new members were appointed, who 
were on the eve of beginning the first penitentiary when the 
discoveries of Captain Cook in the South Seas turned the attention 
of the government towards these new lands. The vast territories 
Australian °^ Australasia promised an unlimited field for convict 
penal colonization, and for the moment the scheme for 
settle- penitentiary houses fell to the ground. Public opinion 
generally preferred the idea of establishing penal 
settlements at a distance from home. " There was general 
confidence," says Merivale in his work on colonization, " in the 
favourite theory that the best mode of punishing offenders was 
that which removed them from the scene of offence and tempta- 
tion, cut them off by a great gulf of space from all their former 
connexions, and gave them the opportunity of redeeming past 
crimes by becoming useful members of society." These views so 
far prevailed that an expedition consisting of nine transports 
and two men-of-war, the " first fleet " of Australian annals, sailed 
in March 1787 for New South Wales. This first fleet reached 
Botany Bay in January 1788, but passed on and landed at Port 
Jackson, where it entered and occupied Sydney harbour. From 
that time forward convicts were sent in constantly increasing 
numbers from England to the Antipodes. Yet the early settle- 
ment at Sydney had not greatly prospered. The infant colony 
had had a bitter struggle for existence. It had been hoped that 
the community would raise its own produce and speedily become 
self-supporting. But the soil was unfruitful; the convicts knew 
nothing of farming. All lived upon rations sent out from home; 
and when convoys with relief lingered by the way famine stared 
all in the face. The colony was long a penal settlement and 
nothing more, peopled only by two classes, convicts and their 
masters; criminal bondsmen on the one hand who had forfeited 
their independence and were bound to labour without wages for the 
state, on the other officials to guard and exact the due perform- 
ance of tasks. A few free families were encouraged to emigrate, 
but they were lost in the mass they were intended to leaven, 
swamped and outnumbered by the convicts, shiploads of whom 
continued to pour in year after year. When the influx increased, 
difficulties as to their employment arose. Free settlers were too 
few to give work to more than a small proportion. Moreover, a 
new policy was in the ascendant, initiated by Governor Macquarie, 
who considered the convicts and their rehabilitation his chief 
care, and steadily discouraged the immigration of any but those 
who " came out for their country's good." The great bulk of the 
convict labour thus remained in government hands. 

This period marked the first phase in the history of transporta- 
tion. The penal colony, having triumphed over early dangers 
and difficulties, was crowded with convicts in a state of semi- 
freedom, maintained at the public expense and utilized in the 
development of the latent resources of the country. The methods 
employed by Governor Macquarie were not, perhaps, invariably 
the best; the time was hardly ripe as yet for the erection of 
palatial buildings in Sydney, while the congregation of the work- 
men in large bodies tended greatly to their demoralization. But 
some of the works undertaken and carried out were of incalculable 
service to the young colony; and its early advance in wealth and 
prosperity was greatly due to the magnificent roads, bridges and 
other facilities of inter-communication for which it was indebted 
to Governor Macquarie. As time passed the criminal sewage 
flowing from the Old World to the New greatly increased in 



5^ 
J ; 

volume under milder and more humane laws. Many now escaped 
the gallows, and much of the overcrowding of the gaols at home 
was caused by the gangs of convicts awaiting transhipment to 
the Antipodes. They were packed off, however, with all con- 
venient despatch, and the numbers on government hands in the 
colonies multiplied exceedingly, causing increasing embarrass- 
ment as to their disposal. Moreover, the expense of the Australian 
convict establishments was enormous. 

Some change in system was inevitable, and the plan of " assign- 
ment" was introduced; in other words, that of freely lending the 
convicts to any who would relieve the authorities of the burden- 
some charge. By this time free settlers were arriving 
in greater number, invited by a different and more Ass te»" 
liberal policy than that of Governor Macquarie. system. 
Inducements were especially offered to persons 
possessed of capital to assist in the development of the country. 
Assignment developed rapidly; soon eager competition arose for 
the convict hands that had been at first so reluctantly taken. 
Great facilities existed for utilizing them on the wide areas of 
grazing land and on the new stations in the interior. A pastoral 
life, without temptations and contaminating influences, was well 
suited for convicts. As the colony grew richer and more populous, 
other than agricultural employers became assignees, and numer- 
ous enterprises were set on foot. The trades and callings which 
minister to the needs of all civilized communities were more and 
more largely pursued. There was plenty of work for skilled 
convicts in the towns, and the services of the more intelligent 
were highly prized. It was a great boon to secure gratis the 
assistance of men specially trained as clerks, book-keepers or 
handicraftsmen. Hence all manner of intrigues and manoeuvres 
were afoot on the arrival of drafts and there was a scramble for 
the best hands. Here at once was a palpable flaw in the system 
of assignment. The lot of the convict was altogether unequal. 
Some, the dull, unlettered and unskilled, were drafted up country 
to heavy manual labour at which they remained, while clever 
expert rogues found pleasant, congenial and often profitable 
employment in the towns. The contrast was very marked from 
the first, but it became the more apparent when in due course it 
was seen that some were still engaged in irksome toil, while others 
who had come out by the same ship had already attained to 
affluence and ease. For the latter transportation was no punish- 
ment, but often the reverse. It meant too often transfer to a new 
world under conditions more favourable to success, removed from 
the keener competition of the old. By adroit management, too, 
convicts often obtained the command of funds, the product of 
nefarious transactions at home, which wives or near relatives or 
unconvicted accomplices presently brought out to them. It was 
easy for the free new-comers to secure the assignment of their 
convict friends; and the latter, although still nominally servants 
and in the background, at once assumed the real control. 
Another system productive of much evil was the employment of 
convict clerks in positions of trust in various government offices; 
convicts did much of the legal work of the colony; a convict was 
clerk to the attorney general; others were schoolmasters and 
were entrusted with the education of youth. 

Under a system so anomalous and uncertain the main object 
of transportation as a method of penal discipline and repression 
was in danger of being quite overlooked. Yet the state 
could not entirely abdicate its functions, although it Evils of 
surrendered to a great extent the care of criminals to system. 
private persons. It had established a code of penalties 
for the coercion of the ill-conducted, while it kept the 
worst perforce in its own hands. The master was always at 
liberty to appeal to the strong arm of the law. A message carried 
to a neighbouring magistrate, often by the culprit himself, brought 
down the prompt retribution of the lash. Convicts might be 
flogged for petty offences, for idleness, drunkenness, turbulence, 
absconding and so forth. At the out-stations some show of 
decorum and regularity was observed, although the work done 
was generally scanty and the convicts were secretly given to all 
manner of evil courses. The town convicts were worse, because 
they were far less controlled. They were nominally under the 



58 



DEPORTATION 



surveillance and supervision of the police, which amounted to 
nothing at all. They came and went, and amused themselves 
after working hours, so that Sydney and all the large towns were 
hotbeds of vice and immorality. The masters as a rule made 
no attempt to watch over their charges; many of them were 
absolutely unfitted to do so, being themselves of low character, 
" emancipists " frequently, old convicts conditionally pardoned 
or who had finished their terms. No effort was made to prevent 
the assignment of convicts to improper persons; every applicant 
got what he wanted, even though his own character would not 
bear inspection. All whom the masters could not manage — the 
incorrigible upon whom the lash and bread and water had been 
tried in vain — were returned to government charge. These, in 
short, comprised the whole of the refuse of colonial convictdom. 
Every man who could not agree with his master, or who was 
to undergo a penalty greater than flogging or less than capital 
punishment, came back to government and was disposed of in 
one of three ways, (i) the road parties, (2) the chain gang, or (3) the 
penal settlements. (1) In the first case, the convicts might be 
kept in the vicinity of the towns or marched about the country 
according to the work in hand; the labour was severe, but, owing 
to inefficient supervision, never intolerable; the diet was ample 
and there was no great restraint upon independence within 
certain wide limits. To the slackness of control over the road 
parties was directly traceable the frequent escape of desperadoes, 
who, defying recapture, recruited the gangs of bushrangers 
which were a constant terror to the whole country. In (2) the 
chain or iron gangs, as they were sometimes styled, discipline was 
far more rigorous. It was maintained by the constant presence 
of a military guard, and when most efficiently organized the gang 
was governed by a military officer who was also a magistrate. 
The work was really hard, the custody close — in hulk, stockaded 
barrack or caravan; the first was at Sydney, the second in the 
interior, the last when the undertaking required constant change 
of place. All were locked up from sunset to sunrise; all wore 
heavy leg irons; and all were liable to immediate flagellation. 
The convict " scourger " was one of the regular officials attached 
to every chain gang. (3) The third and ultimate receptacle was 
the penal settlement, to which no offenders were transferred till 
all other methods of treatment had failed. These were terrible 
cesspools of iniquity, so bad that it seemed, to use the words of 
one who knew them well, that " the heart of a man who went to 
them was taken from him and he was given that of a beast." 
The horrors accumulated at Norfolk Island, Moreton Bay, Port 
Arthur and Tasman's Peninsula are almost beyond description. 
The convicts herded together in them were soon utterly degraded 
and brutalized; no wonder that reckless despair took possession 
of them, that death on the gallows for murder purposely com- 
mitted, or the slow terror from starvation following escape into 
surrounding wilds was often welcomed as a relief. 

The stage which transportation was now reaching and the 
actual condition of affairs in the Australian colonies about this 
period do not appear to have been much understood in England. 
Earnest and thoughtful men might busy themselves with prison 
discipline at home, and the legislature might watch with peculiar 
interest the results obtained from the special treatment of a 
limited number of selected offenders in Millbank penitentiary. 
But for the great mass of criminality deported to a distant shore 
no very active concern was shown. The country for a long time 
seemed satisfied with transportation. Portions of the system 
might be open to criticism. Thus the Commons committee of 
1832 freely condemned the hulks at Woolwich and other arsenals 
in which a large number of convicts were kept while waiting 
embarkation. It was reported that the indiscriminate associa- 
tion of prisoners in them produced more vice, profaneness and 
demoralization than in the ordinary prisons. After dark the 
wildest orgies went on unchecked — dancing, fighting, gambling, 
singing and so forth; it was easy to get drink and tobacco and 
to see friends from outside. Trie labour hours were short and 
the tasks light; " altogether the situation of the convict in 
the hulks," says the report, " cannot be considered penal; it is 
a state of restriction, but hardly of punishment." 



But no objection was raised to transportation. It was con- 
sidered by this same committee " a most valuable expedient 
in the system of secondary punishment." They only thought it 
necessary to suggest that exile should be preceded by a period 
of severe probationary punishment in England, a proposal 
which was reiterated later on and actually adopted. It was in 
the country most closely affected that dissatisfaction first began 
to find voice. Already in 1832 the most reputable sections of 
Australian society were beginning to murmur grievously. Trans- 
portation had fostered the growth of a strong party — that 
representing convict views — and these were advocated boldly in 
unprincipled prints. This party, constantly recruited 
from the emancipists and ticket-of-leave holders, A "f tra,,an 
gradually grew very numerous, and threatened soon tioas. 
to swamp the honest and untainted parts of the 
community. As years passed the prevalence of crime, and the 
universally low tone of morality due to the convict element, 
became more and more in the ascendant. At length in 1835 
Judge Burton made a loud protest, and in a charge to the grand 
jury of Sydney plainly intimated that transportation must cease. 
While it existed, he said, the colonies could never rise to their 
proper position; they could not claim free institutions. This 
bold but forcible language commanded attention. It was speedily 
echoed in England, and particularly by Archbishop Whately, 
who argued that transportation failed in all the leading requisites 
pf any system of secondary punishment. Transportation 
exercised no salutary terror in offenders; it was no longer exile to 
an unknown inhospitable region, but to one flowing with milk and 
honey, whither innumerable friends and associates had gone 
already. The most glowing descriptions came back of the wealth 
which any clever fellow might easily amass; stories were told 
and names mentioned of those who had made ample fortunes in 
Australia in a few years. As a matter of fact the convicts, or at 
least large numbers of them, had prospered exceedingly. Some 
had incomes of twenty, thirty, even forty thousand pounds a year. 
The deteriorating effects of the system were plainly manifest on 
the surface from the condition of the colony, — the profligacy of 
the towns, the scant reprobation of crimes and those who had 
committed them. Down below, in the openly sanctioned slavery 
called assignment, in the demoralizing chain gangs and in the 
inexpressibly horrible penal settlements, were more abundant 
and more awful proofs of the general wickedness and corruption. 
Moreover these appalling results were accompanied by colossal 
expenditure. The cost of the colonial convict establishments, 
with the passages out, amounted annually to upwards of 
£300,000; another £100,000 was expended on the military 
garrisons; and various items brought the whole outlay to about 
half a million per annum. It may be argued that this was not a 
heavy price to pay for peopling a continent and laying the founda- 
tions of a vast Australasian empire. But that empire could never 
have expanded to its present dimensions if it had depended on 
convict immigration alone. There was a point, too, at which 
all development, all progress, would have come to a full stop 
had it not been relieved of its stigma as a penal colony. 

That point was reached between 1835 and 1840, when a 
powerful party came into existence in New South Wales, pledged 
to bring about the abandonment of transportation. A strongly 
hostile feeling was also gaining ground in England. In 1837 
a new committee of the House of Commons had 
made a patient and searching investigation into the Reform 
merits and demerits of the system and freely condemned meat. 
it. The government had no choice but to give way; 
it could not ignore the protests of the colonists, backed up by 
such an authoritative expression of opinion. In 1840 orders were 
issued to suspend the deportation of criminals to New South 
Wales. But what was to become of the convicts? It was 
impossible to keep them at home. The hulks which might have 
served had also failed; the faultiness of their internal manage- 
ment had been fully proved. The committee had recommended 
the erection of more penitentiaries. But the costly experiment 
of Millbank had been barren of results. The model prison at 
Pentonville, in process of construction under the pressure of a 



DEPORTATION 



59 



movement towards prison reform, could offer but limited accom- 
modation. A proposal was put forward to construct convict 
barracks in the vicinity of the great arsenals; but this, which 
contained really the germ of the present British penal system, 
was premature. The government in this dilemma steered a 
middle course and resolved to adhere to transportation, but under 
a greatly modified and it was hoped much improved form. The 
colony of Van Diemen's Land, younger and less self-reliant than 
its neighbour, had also endured convict immigration but had 
made no protest. It was resolved to direct the whole stream 
of deportation upon Van Diemen's Land, which was thus con- 
stituted one vast colonial prison. The main principle of the new 
system was one of probation; hence its name. All convicts were 
to pass through various stages and degrees of punishment accord- 
ing to their conduct and character. Some general depot was 
needed where the necessary observation could be made, and it 
was found at Millbank penitentiary. Thence boys were sent 
to the prison for juveniles at Parkhurst; the most promising 
subjects among the adults were selected to undergo the experi- 
mental discipline of solitude and separation at Pentonville; less 
hopeful cases went to the hulks; and all adults alike passed on to 
the Antipodes. Fresh stages awaited the convict on his arrival 
at Van Diemen's Land. The first was limited to " lifers " and 
colonial convicts sentenced a second time. It consisted in deten- 
tion at one of the penal stations, either Norfolk Island or Tasman's 
Peninsula, where the disgraceful conditions already described 
continued unchanged to the very last. The second stage received 
the largest number, who were subjected in it to gang labour, 
working under restraint in various parts of the colony. These 
probation stations, as they were called, were intended to inculcate 
habits of industry and subordination; they were provided with 
supervisors and religious instructors; and had they not been 
tainted by the vicious virus brought to them by others arriving 
from the penal stations, they might have answered their purpose 
for a time. But they became as bad as the worst of the penal 
settlements and contributed greatly to the breakdown of the 
whole system. The third stage and the first step towards freedom 
was the concession of a pass which permitted the convict to be 
at large under certain conditions to seek work for himself; the 
fourth was a ticket-of-leave, the possession of which allowed him 
to come and go much as he pleased; the fifth and last was 
absolute pardon, with the prospects of rehabilitation. 

This scheme seemed admirable on paper; yet it failed com- 
pletely when put into practice. Colonial resources were quite 
unable to bear the pressure. Within two or three years 
Gradual y an Dj emen ' s L an( j was inundated with convicts. 
abandon- „. , , r ,, 

went Sixteen thousand were sent out in four years; the 

average annual number in the colony was about 
30,000, and this when there were only 37,000 free settlers. 
Half the whole number of convicts remained in government 
hands and were kept in the probation gangs, engaged upon public 
works of great utility; but the other half, pass-holders 
and ticket-of-leave men in a state of semi-freedom, could 
get little or no employment. The supply greatly exceeded the 
demand; there were no hirers of labour. Had the colony been as 
large and as prosperous as its neighbour it could scarcely have 
absorbed the glut of workmen; but it was really on the verge 
of bankruptcy — its finances were embarrassed, its trades and 
industries at a standstill. But not only were the convicts idle; 
they were utterly depraved. It was soon found that the system 
which kept large bodies always together had a most pernicious 
effect upon their moral condition. " The congregation of 
criminals in large batches without adequate supervision meant 
simply wholesale, widespread pollution," as was said at the time. 
These ever-present and constantly increasing evils forced the 
government to reconsider its position; and in 1846 transporta- 
tion to Van Diemen's Land was temporarily suspended for a 
couple of years, during which it was hoped some relief might be 
afforded. The formation of a new convict colony in North 
Australia had been contemplated; but the project, warmly 
espoused by Mr Gladstone, then under-secretarv of state for the. 
colonies, was presently abandoned; and it now became clear 



that no resumption of transportation was possible. The measures 
taken to substitute other methods of secondary punishment are 
set forth in the article Prison (g.v.). 

France. — France adopted deportation for criminals as far back 
as 1763, when a penal colony was founded in French Guiana and 
failed disastrously. An expedition was sent there, composed 
of the most evil elements of the Paris population 
and numbering 14,000, all of whom died. The practice. 
attempt was repeated in 1766 and with the same 
miserable result. Other failures are recorded, the worst being 
the scheme of the philanthropist Baron Milius, who in 1823 
planned to form a community on the banks of the Mana (French 
Guiana) by the marriage of exiled convicts and degraded women, 
which resulted in the most ghastly horrors. The principle of 
deportation was then formally condemned by publicists and 
government until suddenly in 1854 it was reintroduced into the 
French penal code with many high-sounding phrases. Splendid 
results were to be achieved in the creation of rich colonies afar, 
and the regeneration of the criminal by new openings in a new 
land. The only outlet available at the moment beyond the sea 
was French Guiana, and it was again to be utilized despite its 
pestilential climate. Thousands were exiled, more than half to 
find certain death; none of the penal settlements prospered. 
No return was made by agricultural development, farms and 
plantations proved a dead loss under the unfavourable conditions 
of labour enforced in a malarious climate and unkindly soil, and 
it was acknowledged by French officials that the attempt to 
establish a penal colony on the equator was utterly futile. 
Deportation to Guiana was not abandoned, but instead of native- 
born French exiles, convicts of subject races, Arabs, Anamites 
and Asiatic blacks, were sent exclusively, with no better success 
as regards colonization. 

In 1864, however, it was possible to divert the stream else- 
where. New Caledonia in the Australian Pacific was annexed to 
France in 1853. Ten years later it became a new settlement for 
convict emigrants. A first shipload was disembarked in 1864 at 
Noumea, and the foundations of the city laid. Prison buildings 
were the first erected and were planted upon the island of Nou, 
a small breakwater to the Bay of Noumea. Outwardly all went 
well under the fostering care of the authorities. The population 
steadily increased; an average total of 600 in 1867 rose in the 
following year to 1554. In 1874 the convict population exceeded 
5000; in 1880 it had risen to 8000; the total reached 9608 
at the end of December 1883. But from that time forward the 
numbers transported annually fell, for it was found that this 
South Pacific island, with its fertile soil and fairly temperate 
climate, by no means intimidated the dangerous classes; and 
the French administration therefore resumed deportation of 
French-born whites to Guiana, which was known as notoriously 
unhealthy and was likely to act as a more positive deterrent. 
The authorities divided their exiles between the two outlets, 
choosing New Caledonia for the convicts who gave some promise 
of regeneration, and sending criminals with the worst antecedents 
and presumably incorrigible to the settlements on the equator. 
This was in effect to hand over a fertile colony entirely to 
criminals. Free immigration to New Caledonia was checked, and 
the colony became almost exclusively penal. The natural growth 
of a prosperous colonial community made no advance, and 
convict labour did little to stimulate it, the public works, essential 
for development, and construction of roads were neglected; there 
was no extensive clearance of lands, no steady development of 
agriculture. From 1898 simple deportation practically ceased, 
but the islands were full of convicts already sent, and they still 
received the product of the latest invention in the criminal code 
known as " relegation," a punishment directed against the 
recidivist or incorrigible criminal whom no penal retribution 
had hitherto touched and whom the French law felt justified 
in banishing for ever to the " back of beyond." A certain 
period of time spent in a hard labour prison preceded relegation, 
but the convicts on arrival were generally unfitted to assist in 
, colonization. They were for the most part decadent, morally 
1 and physically; their labour was of no substantial value to 



6o 



DEPOSIT— DEPRETIS 



colonists or themselves, and there was small hope of profitable 
result when they gained conditional liberation, with a concession 
of colonial land and a possibility of rehabilitation by their own 
efforts abroad, for by their sentence they were forbidden to hope 
for return to France. The punishment of relegation was not 
long in favour, the number of sentences to it fell year after year, 
and it has now been practically abandoned. 

Other Countries. — Penal exile has been practised by some other 
countries as a method of secondary punishment. Russia since 
1823 has directed a stream of offenders, mainly political, upon 
Siberia, and at one time the yearly average sent was 18,000. The 
Siberian exile system, the horrors of which cannot be exaggerated, 
belongs only in part to penitentiary science, but it was very 
distinctly punitive and aimed at regeneration of the individual 
and the development of the soil by new settlements. Although 
the journey was made mostly on foot and not by sea transport, 
the principle of deportation (or more exactly of removal) was 
the essence of the system. The later practice, however, has been 
exactly similar to transportation as originated by England and 
afterwards followed by France. The penal colonization of the 
island of Sakhalin reproduced the preceding methods, and the 
Russian convicts were conveyed by ships through the Suez 
Canal to the Far East. Sakhalin was hopefully intended as an 
outlet for released convicts and their rehabilitation by their own 
efforts, precisely in the manner tried in Australia and New 
Caledonia. The result repeated previous experiences. There was 
land to reclaim, forests to cut down, marshes to drain, everything 
but a temperate climate and a good will of the felon labourers to 
create a prosperous colony. But the convicts would not work; a 
few sought to win the right to occupy a concession of soil, but the 
bulk were pure vagabonds, wandering to and fro in search of food. 
The agricultural enterprise was a complete failure. The wrong 
sites for cultivation were chosen, the labourers were unskilled and 
they handled very indifferent tools. Want amounting to constant 
starvation was a constant rule; the rations were insufficient and 
unwholesome, very little meat eked out with salt fish and with 
entire absence of vegetables. The general tone of morals was 
inconceivably low, and a universal passion for alcohol and card- 
playing prevailed. According to one authority the life of the 
convicts at Sakhalin was a frightful nightmare, " a mixture of 
debauchery and innocence mixed with real sufferings and almost 
inconceivable privations, corrupt in every one of its phases." 
The prisons hopelessly ruined all who entered them, all classes 
were indiscriminately herded together. It is now generally 
allowed that deportation, as practised, had utterly failed, the 
chief reasons being the unmanageable numbers sent and the 
absence of outlets for their employment, even at great 
cost. 

The prisons on Sakhalin have been described as hotbeds of 
vice; the only classification of prisoners is one based on the length 
of sentence. Some imperfect attempt is made to separate those 
waiting trial from the recidivist or hardened offender, but too 
often the association is indiscriminate. Prison discipline is 
generally slack and ineffective, the staff of warders, from ill- 
judged economy, too weak to supervise or control. The officers 
themselves are of inferior stamp, drunken, untrustworthy, over- 
bearing, much given to " trafficking " with the prisoners, accept- 
ing bribes to assist escape, quick to misuse and oppress their 
charges. Crime of the worst description is common. 

Italy has practised deportation in planting various agricultural 
colonies upon the islands to be found on her coast. They 
were meant to imitate the intermediate prisons of the Irish 
system, where prisoners might work out their redemption, when 
provisionally released. Two were established on the islands 
of Pianoso and Gorgona, and there were settlements made 
on Monte Christo and Capraia. They were used also to give 
effect to the system of enforced residence or domicilio 
coatto. 

Portugal also has tried deportation to the African colony 
of Angola on a small scale with- some success, and combined 
it with free emigration. The settlers have been represented as 
well disposed towards the convicts, gladly obtaining their 



services or helping them in the matter of security. The 
convict element is orderly, and, although their treatment is 
" peu repressive et relativement debonnaire," few commit offences. 

The Andaman Islands have been utilized by the Indian 
government since the mutiny (1857) f° r the deportation of 
heinous criminals (see Andaman Islands). 

Authorities. — Captain A. Phillip, R.N., The Voyage of Governor 
Phillip to New South Wales ( 1 790) ; David Collins , A ccount of the 
English Colony of New South Wales (1798); Archbishop Whately, 
Remarks on Transportation (1834); Herman Merivale, Colonization 
and Colonies (1841); d'Haussonville, Iitablissements penitentiaires 
en France et aux colonies (1875) ; George Griffith, In a Prison Land; 
Cuche, Science et legislation penitentiaire (1905); Hawes, The Utter- 
most East (1906). (A. G.) 

DEPOSIT (Lat. depositum, from deponere, to lay down, to put 
in the care of), anything laid down or separated; as in geology, 
any mass of material accumulated by a natural agency (see 
Bed), and in chemistry, a precipitate or matter settling from 
a solution or suspension. In banking, a deposit may mean, 
generally, a sum of money lodged in a bank without regard to 
the conditions under which it is held, but more specially money 
lodged with a bank on " deposit account " and acknowledged by 
the banker by a " deposit receipt " given to the depositor. It is 
then not drawn upon by cheque, usually bears interest at a rate 
varying from time to time, and can only be withdrawn after fixed 
notice. Deposit is also used in the sense of earnest or security 
for the performance of a contract. In the law of mortgage the 
deposit of title-deeds is usual as a security for the repayment of 
money advanced. Such a deposit operates as an equitable 
mortgage. In the law of contract, deposit or simple bailment is 
delivery or bailment of goods in trust to be kept without recom- 
pense, and redelivered on demand (see Bailment). 

DEPOT (from the Fr. d&pot, Lat. depositum, laid down; the 
French accent marks are usually dispensed with in English) , a 
place where things may be stored or deposited, such as a furniture 
or forage depot, the accumulation of military stores, especially 
in the theatre of operations. In America the word is used of a 
railway station, whether for passengers or goods; in Great 
Britain on railways the word, when in use, is applied to goods 
stations. A particular military application is to a depot, situated 
as a rule in the centre of the recruiting district of the regiment or 
other unit, where recruits are received and undergo the necessary 
preliminary training before joining the active troops. Such 
depots are maintained in peace time by all armies which have to 
supply distant or oversea garrisons; in an army raised by com- 
pulsory service and quartered in its own country, the regiments 
are usually stationed in their own districts, and on their taking 
the field for war leave behind a small nucleus for the formation 
and training of drafts to be sent out later. These nucleus troops 
are generally called depot troops. 

DEPRETIS, AGOSTINO (1813-1887), Italian statesman, was 
born at Mezzana Corte, in the province of Stradella on the 31st 
of January 1813. From early manhood a disciple of Mazzini 
and affiliated to the Giovane Italia, he took an active part in the 
Mazzinian conspiracies and was nearly captured by the Austrians 
while smuggling arms into Milan. Elected deputy in 1848, he 
joined the Left and founded the journal II Diritto, but held 
no official position until appointed governor of Brescia in 1859. 
In i860 he went to Sicily on a mission to reconcile the policy of 
Cavour (who desired the immediate incorporation of the island 
in the kingdom of Italy) with that of Garibaldi, who wished to 
postpone the Sicilian plebiscite until after the liberation of Naples 
and Rome. Though appointed pro-dictator of Sicily by Garibaldi, 
he failed in his attempt. Accepting the portfolio of public works 
in the Rattazzi cabinet, in 1862, he served as intermediary in 
arranging with Garibaldi the expedition which ended disastrously 
at Aspromonte. Four years later, on the outbreak of war against 
Austria, he entered the Ricasoli cabinet as minister of marine, 
and, by maintaining Admiral Persano in command of the fleet, 
contributed to the defeat of Lissa. His apologists contend, 
however, that, as an inexperienced civilian, he could not have 
made sudden changes in naval arrangements without disorganiz- 
ing the fleet, and that in view of the impending hostilities he was 



DEPTFORD— DE QUINCEY 



61 



obliged to accept the dispositions of his predecessors. Upon the 
death of Rattazzi in 1873, Depretis became leader of the Left, 
prepared the advent of his party to power, and was called upon 
to form the first cabinet of the Left in 1876. Overthrown by 
Cairoli in March 1878 on the grist-tax question, he succeeded, 
in the following December, in defeating Cairoli, became again 
premier, but on the 3rd of July 1879 was once more overturned 
by Cairoli. In November 1879 he, however, entered the Cairoli 
cabinet as minister of the interior, and in May 1881 succeeded to 
the premiership, retaining that office until his death on the 29th of 
July 1887. During the long interval he recomposed his cabinet 
four times, first throwing out Zanardelli and Baccarini in order 
to please the Right, and subsequently bestowing portfolios upon 
Ricotti, Robilant and other Conservatives, so as to complete the 
political process known as " trasformismo." A few weeks before 
his death he repented of his transformist policy, and again in- 
cluded Crispi and Zanardelli in his cabinet. During his long term 
of office he abolished the grist tax, extended the suffrage, com- 
pleted the railway system, aided Mancini in forming the Triple 
Alliance, and initiated colonial policy by the occupation of 
Massawa; but, at the same time, he vastly increased indirect 
taxation, corrupted and destroyed the fibre of parliamentary 
parties, and, by extravagance in public works, impaired the 
stability of Italian finance. 

DEPTFORD, a south-eastern metropolitan borough of London, 
England, bounded N. by Bermondsey, E. by the river Thames 
and Greenwich, S. by Lewisham and W. by Camberwell. Pop. 
(1901) 110,398. The name is connected with a ford over the 
Ravensbourne, a stream entering the Thames through Deptford 
Creek. The borough comprises only the parish of Deptford 
St Paul, that of Deptford St Nicholas being included in the 
borough of Greenwich. Deptford is a district of poor streets, 
inhabited by a large industrial population, employed in engineer- 
ing and other riverside works. On the river front, extending 
into the borough of Greenwich, are the royal victualling yard 
and the site of the old Deptford dockyard. The first supplies the 
navy with provisions, medicines, furniture, &c, manufactured or 
stored in the large warehouses here. The dockyard ceased to be 
used in 1869, and was filled up and converted into a foreign cattle 
market by the City Corporation. Of public buildings the most 
noteworthy are St Paul's church (1730), of classic design; the 
municipal buildings; and the hospital for master mariners, 
maintained by the corporation of the Trinity House, which was 
founded at Deptford, the old hall being pulled down in 1787. 
Other institutions are the Goldsmiths' Polytechnic Institute, 
New Cross; and the South-eastern fever hospital. A mansion 
known as Sayes Court, taken down in 1729, was the residence of 
the duke of Sussex in the reign of Elizabeth; it was occupied in 
the following century by John Evelyn, author of Sylva, and by 
Peter the Great during his residence in England in 1698. The 
site of its gardens is occupied by Deptford Park of 11 acres. 
Another open space is Telegraph Hill (9 J acres). The parlia- 
mentary borough of Deptford returns one member. The borough 
council consists of a mayor, 6 aldermen, and 36 councillors. 
Area, 1562-7 acres. 

DEPUTY (through the Fr. from a Late Lat. use of deputare, to 
cut off, allot; putare having the original sense of to trim, prune), 
one appointed to act or govern instead of another; one who 
exercises an office in another man's right, a substitute; in 
representative government a member of an elected chamber. In 
general, the powers and duties of a deputy are those of his 
principal (see also Representation), but the extent to which he 
may exercise them is dependent upon the power delegated to him. 
He may be authorized to exercise the whole of his principal's 
office, in which case he is a general deputy, or to act only in 
some particular matter or service, when he is termed a special 
deputy. In the United Kingdom various officials are specifically 
empowered by statute to appoint deputies to act for them 
under certain circumstances. Thus a clerk of the peace, in case 
of illness, incapacity or absence, may. appoint a fit person to act 
as his deputy. While judges of the supreme court cannot act by 
deputy, county court judges and recorders can, in cases of illness 



or unavoidable absence, appoint deputies. So can registrars of 
county courts and returning officers at elections. 

DE QUINCEY, THOMAS (1785-1859), English author, was born 
at Greenheys, Manchester, on the 15th of August 1785. He was 
the fifth child in a family of eight (four sons and four daughters') 
His father, descended from a Norman family, was a merchant, 
who left his wife and six children a clear income of £1600 a 
year. Thomas was from infancy a shy, sensitive child, with a 
constitutional tendency to dreaming by night and by day; and, 
under the influence of an elder brother, a lad " whose genius for 
mischief amounted to inspiration," who died in his sixteenth year, 
he spent much of his boyhood in imaginary worlds of their own 
creating. The amusements and occupations of the whole family, 
indeed, seem to have been mainly intellectual; and in De 
Quincey's case, emphatically, " the child was father to the man." 
" My life has been," he affirms in the Confessions i " on the whole 
the life of a philosopher; from my birth I was made an intellectual 
creature, and intellectual in the highest sense my pursuits and 
pleasures have been." From boyhood he was more or less in 
contact with a polished circle; his education, easy to one of 
such native aptitude, was sedulously attended to. When he 
was in his twelfth year the family removed to Bath, where he was 
sent to the grammar school, at which he remained for about two 
years; and for a year more he attended another public school at 
Winkfield, Wiltshire. At thirteen he wrote Greek with ease; at 
fifteen he not only composed Greek verses in lyric measures, but 
could converse in Greek fluently and without embarrassment; one 
of his masters said of him, " that boy could harangue an Athenian 
mob better than you or I could address an English one." 
Towards the close of his fifteenth year he visited Ireland, with 
a companion of his own age, Lord Westport, the son of Lord 
Altamont, an Irish peer, and spent there in residence and travel 
some months of the summer and autumn of the year 1800, — 
being a spectator at Dublin of " the final ratification of the 
bill which united Ireland to Great Britain." On his return 
to England, his mother having now settled at St John's 
Priory, a residence near Chester, De Quincey was sent 
to the Manchester grammar school, mainly in the hope of 
securing one of the school exhibitions to help his expenses at 
Oxford. 

Discontented with the mode in which his guardians conducted 
his education, and with some view apparently of forcing them to 
send him earlier to college, he left this school after less than 
a year's residence — ran away, in short, to his mother's house. 
There his mother's brother, Colonel Thomas Penson, made an 
arrangement for him to have a weekly allowance, on which he 
might reside at some country place in Wales, and pursue his 
studies, presumably till he could go to college. From Wales, 
however, after brief trial, " suffering grievously from' want of 
books," he went off as he had done from school, and hid himself 
from guardians and friends in the world of London. And now, as 
he says, commenced " that episode, or impassioned parenthesis 
of my life, which is comprehended in The Confessions of an 
English Opium Eater." This London episode extended over a 
year or more; his money soon vanished, and he was in the 
utmost poverty; he obtained shelter for the night in Greek 
Street, Soho, from a moneylender's agent, and spent his days 
wandering in the streets and parks; finally the lad was recon- 
ciled to his guardians, and in 1803 was sent to Worcester College, 
Oxford, being by this time about nineteen. It was in the course 
of his second year at Oxford that he first tasted opium, — having 
taken it to allay neuralgic pains. De Quincey's mother had 
settled at Weston Lea, near Bath, and on one of his visits 
to Bath, De Quincey made the acquaintance of Coleridge; he 
took Mrs Coleridge to Grasmere, where he became personally 
acquainted with Wordsworth. 

After finishing his career of five years at college in 1808 he 
kept terms at the Middle Temple; but in 1809 visited the 
Wordsworths at Grasmere, and in the autumn returned to 
Dove Cottage, which he had taken on a lease. His choice was 
of course influenced partly by neighbourhood to Wordsworth, 
whom he early appreciated; — having been, he says, the only man 



62 



DE QUINCEY 



in all Europe who quoted Wordsworth so early as 1802. His 
friendship with Wordsworth decreased within a few years, and 
when in 1834 De Quincey published in Tail's Magazine his 
reminiscences of the Grasmere circle, the indiscreet references to 
the Wordsworths contained in the article led to a complete 
cessation of intercourse. Here also he enjoyed the society and 
friendship of Coleridge, Southey and especially of Professor 
Wilson, as in London he had of Charles Lamb and his circle. He 
continued his classical and other studies, especially exploring the 
at that time almost unknown region of German literature, and 
indicating its riches to English readers. Here also, in 1816, he 

married Margaret Simpson, the " dear M " of whom a 

charming glimpse is accorded to the reader of the Confessions; 
his family came to be five sons and three daughters. 

For about a year and a half he edited the Westmoreland Gazette. 
He left Grasmere for London in .the early part of 1820. The 
Lambs received him with great kindness and introduced him to 
the proprietors of the London Magazine. It was in this journal 
in 182 1 that the Confessions appeared. De Quincey also con- 
tributed to Blackwood, to Knight's Quarterly Magazine, and later 
to Tail's Magazine. His connexion with Blackwood took him to 
Edinburgh in 1828, and he lived there for twelve years, contribut- 
ing from time to time to the Edinburgh Literary Gazette. His 
wife died in 1837, and the family eventually settled at Lasswade, 
but from this time De Quincey spent his time in lodgings in 
various places, staying at one place until the accumulation of 
papers filled the rooms, when he left them in charge of the 
landlady and wandered elsewhere. After his wife's death he gave 
way for the fourth time in his life to the opium habit, but in 1844 
he reduced his daily quantity by a tremendous effort to six 
grains, and never again yielded. He died in Edinburgh on the 
8th of December 1859, and is buried in the West Churchyard. 

During nearly fifty years De Quincey lived mainly by his pen. 
His patrimony seems never to have been entirely exhausted, 
and his habits and tastes were simple and inexpensive; but he 
was reckless in the use of money, and had debts and pecuniary 
difficulties of all sorts. There was, indeed, his associates affirm, 
an element of romance even in his impecuniosity, as there was in 
everything about him; and the diplomatic and other devices 
by which he contrived to keep clear of clamant creditors, while 
scrupulously fulfilling many obligations, often disarmed ani- 
mosity, and converted annoyance into amusement. The famous 
Confessions of an English Opium Eater was published in a small 
volume in 1822, and attracted a very remarkable degree of 
attention, not simply by its personal disclosures, but by the 
extraordinary power of its dream-painting. No other literary 
man of his time, it has been remarked, achieved so high and 
universal a reputation from such merely fugitive efforts. The 
only works published separately (not in periodicals) were a novel, 
Klosterheim (1832), and The Logic of Political Economy (1844). 
After his works were brought together, De Quincey's reputation 
was not merely maintained, but extended. For range of thought 
and topic, within the limits of pure literature, no like amount of 
material of such equality of merit proceeded from any eminent 
writer of the day. However profuse and discursive, De Quincey 
is always polished, and generally exact — a scholar, a wit, a man of 
the world and a philosopher, as well as a genius. He looked upon 
letters as a noble and responsible calling; in his essay on Oliver 
Goldsmith he claims for literature the rank not only of a fine art, 
but of the highest and most potent of fine arts; and as such he 
himself regarded and practised it. He drew a broad distinction 
between " the literature of knowledge and the literature of power," 
asserting that the function of the first is to teach, the function of 
the second to move, — maintaining that the meanest of authors 
who moves has pre-eminence over all who merely teach, that 
the literature of knowledge must perish by supersession, while the 
literature of power is " triumphant for ever as long as the language 
exists in which it speaks." It is to this class of motive literature 
that De Quincey's own works essentially belong; it is by virtue 
of that vital element of power that .they have emerged from the 
rapid oblivion of periodicalism, and live in the minds of later 
generations. But their power is weakened by their volume. 



De Quincey fully defined nis own position and claim to dis- 
tinction in the preface to his collected works. These he divides 
into three classes: — "first, that class which proposes primarily 
to amuse the reader," such as the Narratives, Autobiographic 
Sketches, &c; " second, papers which address themselves purely 
to the understanding as an insulated faculty, or do so primarily," 
such as the essays on Essenism, the Caesars, Cicero, &c; and 
finally, as a third class, " and, in virtue of their aim, as a far 
higher class of compositions," he ranks those " modes of im- 
passioned prose ranging under no precedents that I am aware 
of in any literature," such as the Confessions and Suspiria de 
Profundis. The high claim here asserted has been questioned; 
and short and isolated examples of eloquent apostrophe, and 
highly wrought imaginative description, have been cited from 
Rousseau and other masters of style; but De Quincey's power 
of sustaining a fascinating and elevated strain of " impassioned 
prose " is allowed to be entirely his own. Nor, in regard to his 
writings as a whole, will a minor general claim which he makes be 
disallowed, namely, that he " does not write without a thoughtful 
consideration of his subject," and also with novelty and freshness 
of view. " Generally," he says, " I claim (not arrogantly, but 
with firmness) the merit Of rectification applied to absolute errors, 
or to injurious limitations of the truth." Another obvious 
quality of all his genius is its overflowing fulness of allusion and 
illustration, recalling his own description of a great philosopher 
or scholar — " Not one who depends simply on an infinite memory, 
but also on an infinite and electrical power of combination, 
bringing together from the four winds, like the angel of the 
resurrection, what else were dust from dead men's bones into the 
unity of breathing life." It is useless to complain of his having 
lavished and diffused his talents and acquirements over so vast 
a variety of often comparatively trivial and passing topics. 
The world must accept gifts from men of genius as they offer 
them; circumstance and the hour often rule their form. Those 
influences, no less than the idiosyncrasy of the man, determined 
De Quincey to the illumination of such matter for speculation 
as seemed to lie before him; he was not careful to search out 
recondite or occult themes, though these he did not neglect, — a 
student, a scholar and a recluse, he was yet at the same time a 
man of the world, keenly interested in the movements of men and 
in the page of history that unrolled itself before him day by day. 
To the discussion of things new, as readily as of things old, aided 
by a capacious, retentive and ready memory, which dispensed 
with reference to printed pages, he brought also the exquisite 
keenness and subtlety of his highly analytic and imaginative 
intellect, the illustrative stores of his vast and varied erudition, 
and that large infusion of common sense which preserved him 
from becoming at any time a mere doctrinaire, or visionary. If 
he did not throw himself into any of the great popular contro- 
versies or agitations of the day, it was not from any want of 
sympathy with the struggles of humanity or the progress of 
the race, but rather because his vocation was to apply to such 
incidents of his own time, as to like incidents of all history, great 
philosophical principles and tests of truth and power. In politics, 
in the party sense of that term, he would probably have been 
classed as a Liberal Conservative or Conservative Liberal — at 
one period of his life perhaps the former, and at a later the latter. 
Originally, as we have seen, his surroundings were aristocratic, 
in his middle life his associates, notably Wordsworth, Southey 
and Wilson, were all Tories; but he seems never to have held the 
extreme and narrow views of that circle. Though a flavour of 
high breeding runs through his writings, he has no vulgar sneers 
at the vulgar. As he advanced in years his views became more 
and more decidedly liberal, but he was always as far removed 
from Radicalism as from Toryism, and may be described as a 
philosophical politician, capable of classification under no definite 
party name or colour. Of political economy he had been an 
early and earnest student, and projected, if he did not so far 
proceed with, an elaborate and systematic treatise on the science, 
of which all that appears, however, are his fragmentary Dialogues 
on the system of Ricardo, published in the London Magazine in 
1824, and The Logic of Political Economy (1844). But political 



DE QUINCEY 



63 



and economic problems largely exercised his thoughts, and his 
historical sketches show that he is constantly alive to their 
interpenetrating influence. The same may be said of his bio- 
graphies, notably of his remarkable sketch of Dr Parr. Neither 
politics nor economics, however, exercised an absorbing influence 
on his mind, — they were simply provinces in the vast domain of 
universal speculation through which he ranged " with unconfined 
wings." How wide and varied was the region he traversed a 
glance at the titles of the papers which make up his collected — 
or more properly, selected — works (for there was much matter 
of evanescent interest not reprinted) sufficiently shows. Some 
things in his own line he has done perfectly; he has written 
many pages of magnificently mixed argument, irony, humour 
and eloquence, which, for sustained brilliancy, richness, subtle 
force and purity of style and effect, have simply no parallels; 
and he is without peer the prince of dreamers. The use of opium 
no doubt stimulated this remarkable faculty of reproducing in 
skilfully selected phrase the grotesque and shifting forms of that 
" cloudland, gorgeous land," which opens to the sleep-closed eye. 

To the appreciation of De Quincey the reader must bring an 
imaginative faculty somewhat akin to his own — a certain general 
culture, and large knowledge of books, and men and things. 
Otherwise much of that slight and delicate allusion that gives 
point and colour and charm to his writings will be missed; and 
on this account the full enjoyment and comprehension of De 
Quincey must always remain a luxury of the literary and in- 
tellectual. But his skill in narration, his rare pathos, his wide 
sympathies, the pomp of his dream-descriptions, the exquisite 
playfulness of his lighter dissertations, and his abounding 
though delicate and subtle humour, commend him to a. larger 
class. Though far from being a professed humorist — a char- 
acter he would have shrunk from — there is no more expert 
worker in a sort of half-veiled and elaborate humour and 
irony than De Quincey; but he employs those resources for 
the most part secondarily. Only in one instance has he given 
himself up to them unreservedly and of set purpose, 
namely, in the famous " Essay on Murder considered as one 
of the Fine Arts," published in Blackwood, — an effort which, 
admired and admirable though it be, is also, it must be 
allowed, somewhat strained. His style, full and flexible, pure 
and polished, is peculiarly his own; yet it is not the style of a 
mannerist, — its charm is, so to speak, latent; the form never 
obtrudes; the secret is only discoverable by analysis and study. 
It consists simply in the reader's assurance of the writer's 
complete mastery over all the infinite applicability and resources 
of the English language. Hence involutions and parentheses, 
" cycle on epicycle," evolve themselves into a stately clearness 
and harmony; and sentences and paragraphs, loaded with 
suggestion, roll on smoothly and musically, without either 
fatiguing or cloying — rather, indeed, to the surprise as well as 
delight of the reader; for De Quincey is always ready to indulge 
in feats of style, witching the world with that sort of noble 
horsemanship which is as graceful as it is daring. 

It has been complained that, in spite of the apparently full 
confidences of the Confessions and Autobiographic Sketches, 
readers are left in comparative ignorance, biographically speaking, 
of the man De Quincey. Two passages in his Confessions afford 
sufficient clues to this mystery. In one he describes himself 
" as framed for love and all gentle affections," and in another 
confesses to the " besetting infirmity " of being " too much of an 
eudaemonist." " I hanker," he says, " too much after a state of 
happiness, both for myself and others; I cannot face misery, 
whether my own or not, with an eye of sufficient firmness, and 
am little capable of surmounting present pain for the sake of 
any recessionary benefit." His sensitive disposition dictated the 
ignoring in his writings of traits merely personal to himself, as 
well as his ever-recurrent resort to opium as a doorway of escape 
from present ill; and prompted those habits of seclusion, and 
that apparently capricious abstraction of himself from the society 
not only of his friends, but of his own family, in which he from 
time to" time persisted. He confessed to occasional accesses of 
an almost irresistible impulse to flee to the labyrinthine shelter 



of some great city like London or Paris, — there to dwell solitary 
amid a multitude, buried by day in the cloister-like recesses of 
mighty libraries, and stealing away by night to some obscure 
lodging. Long indulgence in seclusion, and in habits of study the 
most lawless possible in respect of regular hours or any con- 
siderations of health or comfort,— the habit of working as pleased 
himself without regard to the divisions of night or day, of times 
of sleeping or waking, even of the slow procession of the seasons, 
had latterly so disinclined him to the restraints, however slight, 
of ordinary social intercourse, that he very seldom submitted 
to them. On such rare occasions, however, as he did appear, 
perhaps at some simple meal with a favoured friend, or in later 
years in his own small but refined domestic circle, he was the most 
charming of guests, hosts or companions. A short and fragile, 
but well-prcportioned frame; a shapely and compact head; a 
face beaming with intellectual light, with rare, almost feminine 
beauty of feature and complexion; a fascinating courtesy of 
manner; and a fulness, swiftness and elegance of silvery 
speech, — such was the irresistible " mortal mixture of earth's 
mould " that men named De Quincey. He possessed in a high 
degree what James Russell Lowell called " the grace of perfect 
breeding, everywhere persuasive, and nowhere emphatic "; and 
his whole aspect and manner exercised an undefinable attraction 
over every one, gentle or simple, who came within its influence; 
for shy as he was, he was never rudely shy, making good his 
boast that he had always made it his " pride to converse familiarly 
more socratico with all human beings— man, woman and child " — 
looking on himself as a catholic creature standing in an equal 
relation to high and low t to educated and uneducated. He would 
converse with a peasant lad or a servant girl in phrase as choice, 
and sentences as sweetly turned, as if his interlocutor were his 
equal both in position and intelligence; yet without a suspicion 
of pedantry, and with such complete adaptation of style and topic 
that his talk charmed the humblest as it did the highest that 
listened to it. His conversation was not a monologue; if he had 
the larger share, it was simply because his hearers were only too 
glad that it should be so; he would listen with something like 
deference to very ordinary talk, as if the mere fact of the speaker 
being one of the same company entitled him to all consideration 
and respect. The natural bent of his mind and disposition, and 
his life-long devotion to letters, to say nothing of his opium 
eating, rendered him, it must be allowed, regardless of ordinary 
obligations in life — domestic and pecuniary — to a degree that 
would have been culpable in any less singularly constituted 
mind. It was impossible to deal with or judge De Quincey 
by ordinary standards — not even his publishers did so. Much 
no doubt was forgiven him, but all that needed forgiveness 
is covered by the kindly veil of time, while his merits as a master 
in English literature are still gratefully acknowledged. 1 

[Bibliography. — In i'853 De Quincey began to prepare an edition 
of his works, Selections Grave and Gay. Writings Published and Un- 
published (14 vols., Edinburgh, 1853-1860), followed by a second 
edition (1863-1871) with notes by James Hogg and two additional 
volumes ; a further supplementary volume appeared in 1878. The 
first comprehensive edition, however, was printed in America 
(Boston, 20 vols., 1850-1855); and the "Riverside" edition 
(Boston and New York, 12 vols., 1877) is still fuller. The standard 
English edition is The Collected Writings of Thomas De Quincey (14 
vols., Edinburgh, 1 889-1 890), edited by David Masson, who also wrote 
his biography (1881) for the " English Men of Letters " series. The 
Uncollected Writings of Thomas De Quincey (London, 2 vols., 1890) 
contains a preface and annotations by James Hogg ; The Posthumous 
Writings of Thomas De Quincey (2 vols., 1891-1893) were edited by 
A. H. Japp (" H. A. Page "), who wrote the standard biography, 
Thomas De Quincey: his Life and Writings (London, 2 vols., 2nd ed., 
1879), and De Quincey Memorials (2 vols., 1891). See also Arvede 
Barine, Nevroses (Paris, 1898); Sir L. Stephen, Hours in a Library; 
H. S. Salt, De Quincey (1904) ; and De Quincey and his Friends (1895), 
a collection edited by James Hogg, which includes essays by Dr Hill 
Burton and Shadworth Hodgson.] (J. R. F.) 



1 The above account has been corrected and amplified in some 
statements of fact for this edition. Its original author, John Ritchie 
Findlay (1824-1898), proprietor of The Scotsman newspaper, and the 
donor of the Scottish National Portrait Gallery in Edinburgh, had 
been intimate with De Quincey, and in 1886 published his Personal 
Recollections of him. 



6 4 



DERA GHAZI KHAN— DERBY, EARLS OF 



DERA GHAZI KHAN, a town and district of British India, 
in the Punjab. In iooi the town had a population of 21,700. 
There are several handsome mosques in the native quarter. It 
commands the direct approaches to the Baluch highlands by 
Sakki Sarwar and Fort Monro. For many years past both the 
town and cantonment have been threatened by the erosion of 
the river Indus. The town was founded at the close of the 15th 
century and named after Ghazi Khan, son of Haji Khan, a 
Baluch chieftain, who after holding the country for the Langah 
sultans of Multan had made himself independent. Together 
with the two other deras (settlements), Dera Ismail Khan and 
Dera Fateh Khan, it gave its name to the territorial area locally 
and historically known as Derajat, which after many vicissitudes 
came into the possession of the B ritish after the Sikh War, in 1 849, 
and was divided into the two districts of Dera Ghazi Khan and 
Dera Ismail Khan. 

The District of Dera Ghazi Khan contains an area of 
5306 sq. m. The district is a long narrow strip of country, 
198 m. in length, sloping gradually from the hills which form 
its western boundary to the river Indus on the east. Below 
the hills the country is high and arid, generally level, but some- 
times rolling in sandy undulations, and much intersected by hill 
torrents, 201 in number. With the exceptions of two, these 
streams dry up after the rains, and their influence is only felt for 
a few miles below the hills. The eastern portion of the district is 
at a level sufficiently low to benefit by the floods of the Indus. A 
barren tract intervenes between these zones, and is beyond the 
reach of the hill streams on the one hand and of the Indus on the 
other. Although liable to great extremes of temperature, and 
to a very scanty rainfall, the district is not unhealthy. The 
population in 1901 was 471,149, the great majority being Baluch 
Mahommedans. The principal exports are wheat and indigo. 
The only manufactures are for domestic use. There is no railway 
in the district, and only 29 m. of metalled road. The Indus, 
which is nowhere bridged within the district, is navigable by 
native boats. The geographical boundary between the Pathan 
and Baluch races in the hills nearly corresponds with the northern 
limit of the district. The frontier tribes on the Dera Ghazi Khan 
border include the Kasranis, Bozdars, Khosas, Lagharis, 
Khetvans, Gurchanis, Mazaris, Mariris and Bugtis. The chief 
of these are described under their separate names. 

DERA ISMAIL KHAN, a town and district in the Derajat 
division of the North- West Frontier Province of India. The town 
is situated near the right bank of the Indus, which is here crossed 
by a bridge of boats during half the year. In 1901 it had a 
population of 31,737. It takes its name from Ismail Khan, a 
Baluch chief who settled here towards the end of the 15th century, 
and whose descendants ruled for 300 years. The old town was 
swept away by a flood in 1823, and the present town stands 4 m. 
back from the permanent channel of the river. The native quarters 
are well laid out, with a large bazaar for Afghan traders. It is the 
residence of many Mahommedan gentry. The cantonment accom- 
modates about a brigade of troops. There is considerable through 
trade with Afghanistan by the Gomal Pass, and there are local 
manufactures of cotton cloth scarves and inlaid wood-work. 

The District of Dera Ismail Khan contains an area of 3403 
sq. m. It was formerly divided into two almost equal portions 
by the Indus, which intersected it from north to south. To the 
west of the Indus the characteristics of the country resemble 
those of Dera Ghazi Khan. To the east of the present bed of the 
river there is a wide tract known as the Kachi, exposed to river 
action. Beyond this, the country rises abruptly, and a barren, 
almost desert plain stretches eastwards, sparsely cultivated, and 
inhabited only by nomadic tribes of herdsmen. In 1901 the 
trans-Indus tract was allotted to the newly formed North-West 
Frontier Province, the cis-Indus tract remaining in the Punjab 
jurisdiction. The cis-Indus portions of the Dera Ismail Khan 
and Bannu districts now comprise the new Punjab district of 
Mianiwali. In 1901 the population was 252,379. chiefly Pathan 
and Baluch Mahommedans. Wheat and wool are exported. 

The Indus is navigable by native boats throughout its course 
of 120 m. within the district, which is the borderland of Pathan 



and Baluch tribes, the Pathan element predominating. The chief 
frontier tribes are the Sheranis and Ustaranas. 

DERBENT, or Derbend, a town of Russia, Caucasia, in the 
province of Daghestan, on the western shore of the Caspian, 
153 m. by rail N.W. of Baku, in 42 4' N. and 48 15' E. Pop. 
(1873) i5>73°; (1897) 14,821. It occupies a narrow strip of 
land beside the sea, from which it climbs up the steep heights 
inland to the citadel of Naryn-kaleh, and is on all sides except 
towards the east surrounded by walls built of porous limestone. 
Its general aspect is Oriental, owing to the flat roofs of its two- 
storeyed houses and its numerous mosques. The environs are 
occupied by vineyards, gardens and orchards, in which madder, 
saffron and tobacco, as well as figs, peaches, pears and other 
fruits, are cultivated. Earthenware, weapons and silk and cotton 
fabrics are the principal products of the manufacturing industry. 
To the north of the town is the monument of the Kirk-lar, or 
" forty heroes," who fell defending Daghestan against the Arabs 
in 728; and to the south lies the seaward extremity of the 
Caucasian wall (50 m. long), otherwise known as Alexander's 
wall, blocking the narrow pass of the Iron Gate or Caspian Gates 
(Portae Albanae or Portae Caspiae). This, when entire, had a 
height of 29 ft. and a thickness of about 10 ft., and with its iron 
gates and numerous watch-towers formed a valuable defence of 
the Persian frontier. Derbent is usually identified with Albana, 
the capital of the ancient Albania. The modern name, a Persian 
word meaning " iron gates," came into use in the end of the 5th 
or the beginning of the 6th century, when the city was refounded 
by Kavadh of the Sassanian dynasty of Persia. The walls and 
the citadel are believed to belong to the time of Kavadh's son, 
Khosrau (Chosroes) Anosharvan. In 728 the Arabs entered into 
possession, and established a principality in the city, which they 
called Bab-el-Abwab (" the principal gate "), Bab-el-Khadid 
(" the iron gate "), and Seraill-el-Dagab (" the golden throne "). 
The celebrated caliph, Harun-al-Rashid, lived in Derbent at 
different times, and brought it into great repute as a seat of the 
arts and commerce. In 1220 it was captured by the Mongols, 
and in the course of the succeeding centuries it frequently changed 
masters. In 1722 Peter the Great of Russia wrested the town 
from the Persians, but in 1736 the supremacy of Nadir Shah was 
again recognized. In 1 796 Derbent was besieged by the Russians, 
and in 1813 incorporated with the Russian empire. 

DERBY, EARLS OF. The 1st earl of Derby was probably 
Robert de Ferrers (d. 1139), who is said by John of Hexham to 
have been made an earl by King Stephen after the battle of 
the Standard in 1138. Robert and his descendants retained 
the earldom until 1266, when Robert (c. 1240-c. 1279), probably 
the 6th earl, having taken a prominent part in the baronial 
rising against Henry III., was deprived of his lands and practi- 
cally of bis title. These earlier earls of Derby were also known 
as Earls Ferrers, or de Ferrers, from their surname; as earls 
of Tutbury from their residence; and as earls of Nottingham 
because this county was a lordship under their rule. The large 
estates which were taken from Earl Robert in 1266 were given 
by Henry III. in the same year to his son, Edmund, earl of 
Lancaster; and- Edmund's son, Thomas, earl of Lancaster, 
called himself Earl Ferrers. In 1337 Edmund's grandson, 
Henry (c. 1 290-1361), afterwards duke of Lancaster, was created 
earl of Derby, and this title was taken by Edward III.'s son, 
John of Gaunt, who had married Henry's daughter, Blanche. 
John of Gaunt's son and successor was Henry, earl of Derby, 
who became king as Henry IV. in 1399. 

In October 1485 Thomas, Lord Stanley, was created earl of 
Derby, and the title has since been retained by the Stanleys, 
who, however, have little or no connexion with the county 
of Derby. Thomas also inherited the sovereign lordship of the 
Isle of Man, which had been granted by the crown in 1406 to 
his great-grandfather, Sir John Stanley; and this sovereignty 
remained in possession of the earls of Derby till 1736, when it 
passed to the duke of Atholl. 

The earl of Derby is one of the three " catskin earls," the others 
being the earls of Shrewsbury and Huntingdon. The term 
" catskin " is possibly a corruption of quatre-skin, derived from 



DERBY, EARLS OF 



65 



the fact that in ancient times the robes of an earl (as depicted 
in some early representations) were decorated with four rows of 
ermine, as in the robes of a modern duke, instead of the three 
rows to which they were restricted in later centuries. The three 
" catskin "earldoms are the only earldoms now in existence which 
date from creations prior to the 17th century. (A. W. H.*) 

Thomas Stanley, 1st earl of Derby (c. 1435-1504), was 
the son of Thomas Stanley, who was created Baron Stanley in 
1456 and died in 1459. His grandfather, Sir John Stanley 
(d. 1414), had founded the fortunes of his family by marrying 
Isabel Lathom, the heiress of a great estate in the hundred of West 
Derby in Lancashire; he was lieutenant of Ireland in 1389-1391, 
and again in 1399-1401, and in 1405 received a grant of the 
lordship of Man from Henry IV. The future earl of Derby was 
a squire to Henry VI. in 1454, but not long afterwards married 
Eleanor, daughter of the Yorkist leader, Richard Neville, earl of 
Salisbury. At the battle of Blore Heath in August 1459 Stanley, 
though close at hand with a large force, did not join the royal 
army, whilst his brother William fought openly for York. In 
146 1 Stanley was made chief justice of Cheshire by Edward IV., 
but ten years later he sided with his brother-in-law Warwick in 
the Lancastrian restoration. Nevertheless, after Warwick's fall, 
Edward made Stanley steward of his household. Stanley served 
with the king in the French expedition of 1475, and with Richard 
of Gloucester in Scotland in 1482. About the latter date he 
married, as his second wife, Margaret Beaufort, mother of the 
exiled Henry Tudor. Stanley was one of the executors of 
Edward IV., and was at first loyal to the young king Edward V. 
But he acquiesced in Richard's usurpation, and retaining his 
office as steward avoided any entanglement through his wife's 
share in Buckingham's rebellion. He was made constable of 
England in succession to Buckingham, and granted possession of 
his wife's estates with a charge to keep her in some secret place at 
home. Richard could not well afford to quarrel with so powerful 
a noble, but early in 1485 Stanley asked leave to retire to his 
estates in Lancashire. In the summer Richard, suspicious of his 
continued absence, required him to send his eldest son, Lord 
Strange, to court as a hostage. After Henry of Richmond had 
landed, Stanley made excuses for not joining the king ; for his 
son's sake he was obliged to temporize, even when his brother 
William had been publicly proclaimed a traitor. Both the 
Stanleys took the field; but whilst William was in treaty 
with Richmond, Thomas professedly supported Richard. On 
the morning of Bosworth (August 22), Richard summoned 
Stanley to join him, and when he received an evasive reply 
ordered Strange to be executed. In the battle it was William 
Stanley who turned the scale in Henry's favour, but Thomas, 
who had taken no part in the fighting, was the first to salute the 
new king. Henry VII. confirmed Stanley in all his offices, and on 
the 27th of October created him earl of Derby. As husband of 
the king's mother Derby held a great position, which was not 
affected by the treason of his brother William in February 1495. 
In the following July the earl entertained the king and queen 
with much state at Knowsley. Derby died on the 29th of July 
1504. Strange had escaped execution in 1485, through neglect to 
obey Richard's orders; but he died before his father in 1497, and 
his son Thomas succeeded as second earl. An old poem called 
The Song of the Lady Bessy, which was written by a retainer of 
the Stanleys, gives a romantic story of how Derby was enlisted 
by Elizabeth of York in the cause of his wife's son. 

For fuller narratives see J. Gairdner's Richard III. and J. H. 
Ramsay's Lancaster and York; also Seacome's Memoirs of the 
House of Stanley (1741). (C. L. K.) 

Edward Stanley, 3rd earl of Derby (1508-1572), was a 
son of Thomas Stanley, 2nd earl and grandson of the 1st earl, 
and succeeded to the earldom on his father's death in May 1521. 
During his minority Cardinal Wolsey was his guardian, and as 
soon as he came of age he began to take part in public life, being 
often in the company of Henry VIII. He helped to quell the 
rising in the north of England known as the Pilgrimage of Grace 
in 1536; but remaining true to the Roman Catholic faith he 
disliked and opposed the religious changes made under Edward 
vni. — 3 



VI. During Mary's reign the earl was more at ease, but under 
Elizabeth his younger sons, Sir Thomas (d. r576) and Sir Edward 
Stanley (d. 1609), were concerned in a plot to free Mary, queen of 
Scots, and he himself was suspected of disloyalty. However, he 
kept his numerous dignities until his death at Lathom House, 
near Ormskirk, on the 24th of October 1572. 

Derby's first wife was Katherine, daughter of Thomas Howard, 
duke of Norfolk, by whom he had, with other issue, a son Henry, 
the 4th earl (c. 1 531-1593), who was a member of the council of 
the North, and like his father was lord-lieutenant of Lancashire. 
Henry was one of the commissioners who tried Mary, queen of 
Scots, and was employed by Elizabeth on other high under- 
takings both at home and abroad. He died on the 25th of 
September 1593. His wife Margaret (d. 1596), daughter of 
Henry Clifford, 2nd earl of Cumberland, was descended through 
the Brandons from King Henry VII. Two of his sons, Ferdinando 
(c. 1559-1594), and William (c. 1561-1642), became in turn the 
5th and 6th earls of Derby. Ferdinando, the 5th earl (d. 1594), 
wrote verses, and is eulogized by the poet Spenser under the name 
of Amyntas. (A. W. H.*) 

James Stanley, 7th earl of Derby (1607-1651), sometimes 
styled the Great Earl of Derby, eldest son of William, 6th 
earl, and Elizabeth de Vere, daughter of Edward, 17th earl of 
Oxford, was born at Knowsley on the 31st of January 1607. 
During his father's life he was known as Lord Strange. After 
travelling abroad he was chosen member of parliament for 
Liverpool in 1625, was created knight of the Bath on the occasion 
of Charles's coronation in 1626, and was joined with his father 
the same year as lieutenant of Lancashire and Cheshire and 
chamberlain of Chester, and in the administration of the Isle of 
Man, being appointed subsequently lord-lieutenant of North 
Wales. On the 7th of March 1628 he was called up to the House 
of Lords as Baron Strange. He took no part in the political 
disputes between king and parliament and preferred country 
pursuits and the care of his estates to court or public life. Never- 
theless when the Civil War broke out in 1642, Lord Strange 
devoted himself to the king's cause. His plan of securing 
Lancashire at the beginning and raising troops there, which 
promised success, was however discouraged by Charles, who was 
said to be jealous of his power and royal lineage and who com- 
manded his presence at Nottingham. His subsequent attempts 
to recover the county were unsuccessful. He was unable to get 
possession of Manchester, was defeated at Chowbent and Lowton 
Moor, and in 1643 after gaining Preston failed to take Bolton and 
Lancaster castles. Finally, after successfully beating off Sir 
William Brereton's attack on Warrington, he was defeated at 
Whalley and withdrew to York, Warrington in consequence 
surrendering to the enemy's forces. In June he left for the Isle 
of Man to attend to affairs there, and in the summer of 1644 he 
took part in Prince Rupert's successful campaign in the north, 
when Lathom House, where Lady Derby had heroically resisted 
the attacks of the besiegers, was relieved, and Bolton Castle 
taken. He followed Rupert to Marston Moor, and after the 
complete defeat of Charles's cause in the north withdrew to the 
Isle of Man, where he held out for the king and offered an asylum 
to royalist fugitives. His administration of the island imitated 
that of Strafford in Ireland. It was strong rather than just. He 
maintained order, encouraged trade, remedied some abuses, and 
defended the people from the exactions of the church; but he 
crushed opposition by imprisoning his antagonists, and aroused a 
prolonged agitation by abolishing the tenant-right and introduc- 
ing leaseholds. In July 1649 he refused scornfully terms offered 
to him by Ireton. By the death of his father on the 29th of 
September 1642 he had succeeded to the earldom, and on the 
12th of January 1650 he obtained the Garter. He was chosen by 
Charles II. to command the troops of Lancashire and Cheshire, 
and on the 15th of August 1651 he landed at Wyre Water in 
Lancashire in support of Charles's invasion, and met the king 
on the 17th. Proceeding to Warrington he failed to obtain 
the support of the Presbyterians through his refusal to take the 
Covenant, and on the 25th was totally defeated at Wigan, being 
severely wounded and escaping with difficulty. He joined 

11 



66 



DERBY, EARLS OF 



Charles at Worcester; after the battle on the 3rd of September 
he accompanied him to Boscobel, and while on his way north 
alone was captured near Nantwich and given quarter. He was 
tried by court-martial at Chester on the 29th of September, and 
on the ground that he was a traitor and not a prisoner of war 
under the act of parliament passed in the preceding month, 
which declared those who corresponded with Charles guilty of 
treason, his quarter was disallowed and he was condemned to 
death. When his appeal for pardon to parliament was rejected, 
though supported by Cromwell, he endeavoured to escape; but 
was recaptured and executed at Bolton on the 15th of October 
1651. He was buried in Ormskirk church. Lord Derby was a 
man of deep religious feeling and of great nobility of character, 
who though unsuccessful in the field served the king's cause with 
single-minded purpose and without expectation of reward. His 
political usefulness was handicapped in the later stages of the 
struggle by his dislike of the Scots, whom he regarded as guilty 
of the king's death and as unfit instruments of the restoration. 
According to Clarendon he was " a man of great honour and clear 
courage," and his defects the result of too little knowledge of 
the world. Lord Derby left in MS. " A Discourse concerning the 
Government of the Isle of Man " (printed in the Stanley Papers 
and in F. Peck's Desiderata Curiosa, vol. ii.) and several volumes 
of historical collections, observations, devotions (Stanley Papers) 
and a commonplace book. He married on the 26th of June 1626 
Charlotte de la Tremoille (1599-1664), daughter of Claude, due 
de Thouars, and granddaughter of William the Silent, prince 
of Orange, by whom besides four daughters he had five sons, of 
whom the eldest, Charles (1628-1672), succeeded him as 8th earl. 
Charles's two sons, William, the 9th earl (c. 1655-1702), and 
James, the 10th earl (1664-1736), both died without sons, and 
consequently, when James died in February 1736, his titles and 
estates passed to Sir Edward Stanley (1689-1776), a descendant 
of the 1st earl. From him the later earls were descended, the 
12th earl (d. 1834) being his grandson. 

Bibliography. — Article in Diet, of Nat. Biog. with authorities 
and article in same work on Charlotte Stanley, countess of Derby ; 
the Stanley Papers, with the too laudatory memoir by F. R. Haines 
(Chetham Soc. publications, vols. 62, 66, 67, 70); Memoires, by De 
Lloyd (1668), 572; State Trials, v. 293-324; Notes & Queries, viii. 
Ser. iii. 246; Seacombe's House of Stanley; Clarendon's Hist, of 
the Rebellion; Gardiner's Hist, of the Civil War and Protectorate; 
The Land of Home Rule, by Spencer Walpole (1893); Hist, of 
the Isle of Man, by A. W. Moore (1900); Manx Soc. publications, 
vols. 3, 25. 27. (P- C Y.) 

Edward Geoffrey Smith Stanley, 14th earl of Derby (1799- 
1869), the " Rupert of Debate," born at Knowsley in Lanca- 
shire on the 29th of March 1799, grandson of the 12th earl and 
eldest son of Lord Stanley, subsequently (1834) 13th earl of Derby 
(1775-1851). He was educated at Eton and at Christ Church, 
Oxford, where he distinguished himself as a classical scholar, 
though he took no degree. In 1819 he obtained the Chancellor's 
prize for Latin verse, the subject being " Syracuse." He gave 
early promise of his future eminence as an orator, and in his youth 
he used to practise elocution under the instruction of Lady 
Derby, his grandfather's second wife, the actress, Elizabeth 
Farren. In 1820 he was returned for Stockbridge in Hampshire, 
one of the nomination boroughs whose electoral rights were 
swept away by the Reform Bill of 1832, Stanley being a warm 
advocate of their destruction. 

His maiden speech was delivered early in the session of 1824 in 
the debate on a private bill for lighting Manchester with gas. On 
the 6th of May 1824 he delivered a vehement and eloquent speech 
against Joseph Hume's motion for a reduction of the Irish Church 
establishment, maintaining in its most conservative form the 
doctrine that church property is as sacred as private property. 
From this time his appearances became frequent; and he soon 
asserted his place as one of the most powerful speakers in the 
House. Specially noticeable almost from the first was the skill 
he displayed in reply. Macaulay, in an essay published in 1834, 
remarked that he seemed to possess intuitively the faculty which 
\n most men is developed only by long and laborious practice. In 
the autumn of 1824 Stanley went on an extended tour through 



Canada and the United States in company with Mr Labouchere, 
afterwards Lord Taunton, and Mr Evelyn Denison, afterwards 
Lord Ossington. In May of the following year he married the 
second daughter of Edward Bootle-Wilbraham, created Baron 
Skelmersdale hi 1828, by whom he had a family of two sons 
and one daughter who survived. 

At the general election of 1826 Stanley renounced his connec- 
tion with Stockbridge, and became the representative of the 
borough of Preston, where the Derby influence was paramount. 
The change of seats had this advantage, that it left him free to 
speak against the system of rotten boroughs, which he did with 
great force during the Reform Bill debates, without laying himself 
open to the charge of personal inconsistency as the representative 
of a place where, according to Gay, cobblers used to " feast three 
years upon one vote." In 1827 he and several other distinguished 
Whigs made a coalition with Canning on the defection of the more 
unyielding Tories, and he commenced his official life as under- 
secretary for the colonies, but the coalition was broken up by 
Canning's death in August. Lord Goderich succeeded to the 
premiership, but he never was really in power, and he resigned 
his place after the lapse of a few months. During the succeeding 
administration of the duke of Wellington (1828-1830), Stanley 
and those with whom he acted were in opposition. His robust 
and assertive Liberalism about this period seemed curious after- 
wards to a younger generation who knew him only as the very 
embodiment of Conservatism. 

By the advent of Lord Grey to power in November 1830, 
Stanley obtained his first opportunity of showing his capacity for 
a responsible office. He was appointed to the chief secretary- 
ship of Ireland, a position in which he found ample scope 
for both administrative and debating skill. On accepting 
office he had to vacate his seat for Preston and seek re-election; 
and he had the mortification of being defeated by the Radical 
" orator " Hunt. The contest was a peculiarly keen one, and 
turned upon the question of the ballot, which Stanley refused to 
support. He re-entered the House as one of the members for 
Windsor, Sir Hussey Vivian having resigned in his favour. In 1 83 2 
he again changed his seat, being returned for North Lancashire. 

Stanley was one of the most ardent supporters of Lord Grey's 
Reform Bill. Of this no other proof is needed than his frequent 
parliamentary utterances, which were fully in sympathy with the 
popular cry " The bill, the whole bill, and nothing but the bill." 
Reference may be made especially to the speech he delivered on 
the 4th of March 1831 on the adjourned debate on the second 
reading of the bill, which was marked by all the higher qualities 
of his oratory. Apart from his connexion with the general policy 
of the government, Stanley had more than enough to have 
employed all his energies in the management of his own depart- 
ment. The secretary of Ireland has seldom an easy task; Stanley 
found it one of peculiar difficulty. The country was in a very 
unsettled state. The just concession that had been somewhat 
tardily yielded a short time before in Catholic emancipation 
had excited the people to make all sorts of demands, reasonable 
and unreasonable. Undaunted by the fierce denunciations of 
O'Connell, who styled him Scorpion Stanley, he discharged with 
determination the ungrateful task of carrying a coercion bill 
through the House. It was generally felt that O'Connell, 
powerful though he was, had fairly met his match in Stanley, 
who, with invective scarcely inferior to his own, evaded no 
challenge, ignored no argument, and left no taunt unanswered. 
The title " Rupert of Debate " is peculiarly applicable to him 
in connexion with the fearless if also often reckless method of 
attack he showed in his parliamentary war with O'Connell. 
It was first applied to him, however, thirteen years later by Sir 
Edward Bulwer Lytton in The New Timon : — 

" One after one the lords of time advance; 
Here Stanley meets — here Stanley scorns the glance! 
The brilliant chief, irregularly great, 
Frank, haughty, rash, — the Rupert of debate." 

The best answer, however, which he made to the attacks of the 
great agitator was not the retorts of debate, effective though 
these were, but the beneficial legislation he was instrumental in 



DERBY, EARLS OF 



67 



passing. He introduced and carried the first national education 
act for Ireland, one result of which was the remarkable and to 
many almost incredible phenomenon of a board composed 
of Catholics, Episcopalians and Presbyterians harmoniously 
administering an efficient education scheme. He was also chiefly 
responsible for the Irish Church Temporalities Act, though the 
bill was not introduced into parliament until after he had quitted 
the Irish secretaryship for another office. By this measure two 
archbishoprics and eight bishoprics were abolished, and a remedy 
was provided for various abuses connected with the revenues of 
the church. As originally introduced, the bill contained- a clause 
authorizing the appropriation of surplus revenues to non- 
ecclesiastical purposes. This had, however, been strongly opposed 
from the first by Stanley and several other members of the 
cabinet, and it was withdrawn by the government before the 
measure reached the Lords. 

In 1833, just before the introduction of the Irish Church 
Temporalities Bill, Stanley had been promoted to be secretary 
for the colonies with a seat in the cabinet. In this position it fell 
to his lot to carry the emancipation of the slaves to a successful 
practical issue. The speech which he delivered on introducing 
the bill for freeing the slaves in the West Indies, on the 14th of 
May 1833, was one of the finest specimens of his eloquence. 

The Irish Church question determined more than one turning- 
point in his political career. The most important occasion on 
which it did so was in 1834, when the proposal of the government 
to appropriate the surplus revenues of the church to educational 
purposes led to his secession from the cabinet, and, as it proved, 
his complete and final separation from the Whig party. In the 
former of these steps he had as his companions Sir James Graham, 
the earl of Ripon and the duke of Richmond. Soon after it 
occurred, O'Connell, amid the laughter of the House, described 
the secession in a couplet from Canning's Loves of the Triangles: — 
" Still down thy steep, romantic Ashbourne, glides 
The Derby dilly carrying six insides." 

Stanley was not content with marking his disapproval by the 
simple act of withdrawing from the cabinet. He spoke against the 
bill to which he objected with a vehemence that showed the 
strength of his feeling in the matter, and against its authors with 
a bitterness that he himself is understood to have afterwards 
admitted to have been unseemly towards those who had so 
recently been his colleagues. The course followed by the govern- 
ment was " marked with all that timidity, that want of dexterity, 
which led to the failure of the unpractised shoplifter." His late 
colleagues were compared to "thimble-riggers at a country fair," 
and their plan was "petty larceny, for it had not the redeeming 
qualities of bold and open robbery." 

In the end of 1834, Lord Stanley, as he was now styled by 
courtesy, his father having succeeded to the earldom in October, 
was invited by Sir Robert Peel to join the short-lived Con- 
servative ministry which he formed after the resignation of Lord 
Melbourne. Though he declined the offer for reasons stated in a 
letter published in the Peel memoirs, he acted from that date 
with the Conservative party, and on its next accession to power, 
in 1 84 1, he accepted the office of colonial secretary, which he had 
held under Lord Grey. His position and his temperament alike, 
however, made him a thoroughly independent supporter of any 
party to which he attached himself. When, therefore, the injury 
to health arising from the late hours in the Commons led him 
in 1844 to seek elevation to the Upper House in the right of his 
father's barony, Sir Robert Peel, in acceding to his request, had 
the satisfaction of at once freeing himself from the possible effects 
of his " candid friendship " in the House, and at the same time 
greatly strengthening the debating power on the Conservative 
side in the other. If the premier in taking this step had any 
presentiment of an approaching difference on a vital question, it 
was not long in being realized. When Sir Robert Peel accepted 
the policy of free trade in 1846, the breach between him and Lord 
Stanley was, as might have been anticipated from the antecedents 
of the latter, instant and irreparable. Lord Stanley at once 
asserted himself as the uncompromising opponent of that policy, 
and he became the recognized leader of the Protectionist party, 



having Lord George Bentinck and Disraeli for his lieutenants 
in the Commons. They did all that could be done in a case in 
which the logic of events was against them, though Protection 
was never to become more than their watchword. 

It is one of the peculiarities of English politics, however, that 
a party may come into power because it is the only available one 
at the time, though it may have no chance of carrying the very 
principle to which it owes its organized existence. Such was the 
case v/hen Lord Derby, who had succeeded to the earldom on the 
death of his father in June 1851, was called upon to form his first 
administration in February 1852. He was in a minority, but the 
circumstances were such that no other than a minority govern- 
ment was possible, and he resolved to take the only available 
means of strengthening his position by dissolving parliament and 
appealing to the country at the earliest opportunity. The appeal 
was made in autumn, but its result did not materially alter the 
position of parties. Parliament met in November, and by the 
middle of the following month the ministry had resigned in 
consequence of their defeat on Disraeli's budget. For the six 
following years, during Lord Aberdeen's " ministry of all the 
talents " and Lord Palmerston's premiership, Lord Derby 
remained at the head of the opposition, whose policy gradually 
became more generally Conservative and less distinctively 
Protectionist as the hopelessness of reversing the measures 
adopted in 1846 made itself apparent. In 1855 ne was asked to 
form an administration after the resignation of Lord Aberdeen, 
but failing to obtain sufficient support, he declined the task. It 
was in somewhat more hopeful circumstances that, after the 
defeat of Lord Palmerston on the Conspiracy Bill in February 
1858, he assumed for the second time the reins of government. 
Though he still could not count upon a working majority, there 
was a possibility of carrying on affairs without sustaining defeat, 
which was realized for a full session, owing chiefly to the dexterous 
management of Mr Disraeli in the Commons. The one rock 
ahead was the question of reform, on which the wishes of the 
country were being emphatically expressed, but it was not so 
pressing as to require to be immediately dealt with. During the 
session of 1858 the government contrived to pass two measures 
of very considerable importance, one a bill to remove Jewish 
disabilities, and the other a bill to transfer the government of 
India from the East India Company to the crown. Next year 
the question of parliamentary reform had to be faced, and, 
recognizing the necessity, the government introduced a bill 
at the opening of the session, which, in spite of, or rather in 
consequence of, its " fancy franchises," was rejected by the 
House, and, on a dissolution, rejected also by the country. A 
vote of no confidence having been passed in the new parliament 
on the 10th of June, Lord Derby at once resigned. 

After resuming the leadership of the Opposition Lord Derby 
devoted much of the leisure the position afforded him to the 
classical studies that had always been congenial to him. It was 
his reputation for scholarship as well as his social position that 
had led in 1852 to his appointment to the chancellorship of the 
university of Oxford, in succession to the duke of Wellington ; 
and perhaps a desire to justify the possession of the honour on 
the former ground had something to do with his essays in the 
field of authorship. His first venture was a poetical version of the 
ninth ode of the third book of Horace, which appeared in Lord 
Ravensworth's collection of translations of the Odes. In 1862 he 
printed and circulated in influential quarters a volume entitled 
Translations of Poems A ncient and Modern, with a very modest 
dedicatory letter to Lord Stanhope, and the words " Not 
published " on the title-page. It contained, besides versions of 
Latin, Italian, French and German poems, a translation of the 
first book of the Iliad. The reception of this volume was such as 
to encourage him to proceed with the task he had chosen as his 
magnum opus, the translation of the whole of the Iliad, which 
accordingly appeared in 1864. 

During. the seven years that elapsed between Lord Derby's 
second and third administrations an industrial crisis occurred 
in his native county, which brought out very conspicuously his 
public spirit and his philanthropy. The destitution in Lancashire 



68 



DERBY, EARLS OF 



caused by the. stoppage of the cotton-supply in consequence of the 
American Civil War, was so great as to threaten to overtax the 
benevolence of the country. That it did not do so was probably 
due to Lord Derby more than to any other single man. From the 
first he was the very life and soul of the movement for relief. His 
persona] subscription, munificent though it was, represented the 
least part of his service. His noble speech at the meeting in 
Manchester in December 1862, where the movement was initiated, 
and his advice at the subsequent meetings of the committee, 
which he attended very regularly, were of the very highest value 
in stimulating and directing public sympathy. His relations 
with Lancashire had always been of the most cordial description, 
notwithstanding his early rejection by Preston; but it is not 
surprising that after the cotton famine period the cordiality 
passed into a warmer and deeper feeling, and that the name of 
Lord Derby was long cherished in most grateful remembrance 
by the factory operatives. 

On the rejection of Earl Russell's Reform Bill in 1866, Lord 
Derby was for the third time entrusted with the formation of a 
cabinet. Like those he had previously formed it was destined to 
be short-lived, but it lived long enough to settle on a permanent 
basis the question that had proved fatal to its predecessor. The 
" education " of the party that had so long opposed all reform to 
the point of granting household suffrage was the work of another; 
but Lord Derby fully concurred in, if he was not the first to 
suggest, the statesmanlike policy by which the question was 
disposed of in such a way as to take it once for all out of the region 
of controversy and agitation. The passing of the Reform Bill was 
the main business of the session 1867. The chief debates were, of 
course, in the Commons, and Lord Derby's failing powers pre- 
vented him from taking any large share in those which took place 
in the Lords. His description of the measure as a " leap in the 
dark " was eagerly caught up, because it exactly represented the 
common opinion at the time, — the most experienced statesmen, 
while they admitted the granting of household suffrage to be a 
political necessity, being utterly unable to foresee what its effect 
might be on the constitution and government of the country. 

Finding himself unable, from declining health, to encounter 
the fatigues of another session, Lord Derby resigned office early 
in 1868. The step he had taken was announced in both Houses 
on the evening of the 25th of February, and warm tributes of 
admiration and esteem were paid by the leaders of the two great 
parties. He yielded the entire leadership of the party as well 
as the premiership to Disraeli. His subsequent appearances in 
public were few and unimportant. It was noted as a consistent 
close to his political life that his last speech in the House of Lords 
should have been a denunciation of Gladstone's Irish Church Bill 
marked by much of his early fire and vehemence. A few months 
later, on the 23rd of October 1869, he died at Knowsley. 

Sir Archibald Alison, writing of him when he was in the zenith 
of his powers, styles him " by the admission of all. parties the 
most perfect orator of his day." Even higher was the opinion of 
Lord Aberdeen, who is reported by The Times to have said that 
no one of the giants he had listened to in his youth, Pitt, Fox, 
Burke or Sheridan, " as a speaker, is to be compared with our 
own Lord Derby, when Lord Derby is at his best." (W.B.S.) 

Edward Henry Stanley, 15th earl of Derby (1826- 
1893), eldest son of the 14th earl, was educated at Rugby 
and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took a high degree 
and became a member of the society known as the Apostles. In 
March 1848 he unsuccessfully contested the borough of Lancaster, 
and then made a long tour in the West Indies, Canada and the 
United States. During his absence he was elected member for 
King's Lynn, which he represented till October 1869, when he 
succeeded to the peerage. He took his place, as a matter of 
course, among the Conservatives, and delivered his maiden speech 
in May 1850 on the sugar duties. Just before, he had made a 
very brief tour in Jamaica and South America. In 1852 he went 
to India, and while travelling in that country he was appointed 
under-secretary for foreign affairs in his father's first administra- 
tion. From the outset of his career he was known to be a most 
Liberal Conservative, and in 1855 Lord Palmerston offered him 



the post of colonial secretary. He was much tempted by the 
proposal, and hurried down to Knowsley to consult his father, 
who called out when he entered the room, "Hallo, Stanley! 
what brings you here ? — Has Dizzy cut his throat, or are you 
going to be married ? " When the object of his sudden appear- 
ance had been explained, the Conservative chief received the 
courteous suggestion of the prime minister with anything but 
favour, and the offer was declined. In his father's second 
administration Lord Stanley held, at first, the office of secretary 
for the colonies, but became president of the Board of Control on 
the resignation of Lord Ellenborough. He had the charge of the 
India Bill of 1858 in the House of Commons, became the first 
secretary of state for India, and left behind him in the India 
Office an excellent reputation as a man of business. After the 
revolution in Greece and the disappearance of King Otho, the 
people most earnestly desired to have Queen Victoria's second 
son, Prince Alfred, for their king. He declined the honour, and 
they then took up the idea that the next best thing they could 
do would be to elect some great and wealthy English noble, not 
concealing the hope that although they might have to offer him 
a Civil List he would decline to receive it. Lord Stanley was the 
prime favourite as an occupant of this bed of thorns, and it has 
been said that he was actually offered the crown. That, however, 
is not true; the offer was never formally made. After the fall of 
the Russell government in 1866 he became foreign secretary in 
his father's third administration. He compared his conduct in 
that great post to that of a man floating down a river and fending 
off from his vessel, as well as he could, the various obstacles it 
encountered. He thought that that should be the normal 
attitude of an English foreign minister, and probably under the 
circumstances of the years 1866-1868 it was the right one. He 
arranged the collective guarantee of the neutrality of Luxemburg 
in 1867, negotiated a convention about the " Alabama," which, 
however, was not ratified, and most wisely refused to take any 
part in the Cretan troubles. In 1874 he again became foreign 
secretary in Disraeli's government. He acquiesced in the 
purchase of the Suez Canal shares, a measure then considered 
dangerous by many people, but ultimately most successful; he 
accepted the Andrassy Note, but declined to accede to the Berlin 
Memorandum. His part in the later phases of the Russo-Turkish 
struggle has never been fully explained, for with equal wisdom 
and generosity he declined to gratify public curiosity at the cost 
of some of his colleagues. A later generation will know better 
than his contemporaries what were the precise developments of 
policy which obliged him to resign. He kept himself ready to 
explain in the House of Lords the course he had taken if those 
whom he had left challenged him to do so, but from that course 
they consistentlyrefrained. Already in October 1 8 79 it was clear 
enough that he had thrown in his lot with the Liberal party, but 
it was not till March 1880 that he publicly announced this change 
of allegiance. He did not at first take office in the second 
Gladstone government, but became secretary for the colonies in 
December 1882, holding this position till the fall of that govern- 
ment in the summer of 1885. In 1886 the old Liberal party was 
run on the rocks and went to pieces. Lord Derby became a 
Liberal Unionist, and took an active part in the general manage- 
ment of that party, leading it in the House of Lords till 1891, 
when Lord Hartington became duke of Devonshire. In 1892 he 
presided over the Labour Commission, but his health never 
recovered an attack of influenza which he had in 1891, and he 
died at Knowsley on the 21st of April 1893. 

During a great part of Lord Derby's life he was deflected from 
his natural course by the accident of his position as the son of the 
leading Conservative statesman of the day. From first to last 
he was at heart a moderate Liberal. After making allowance, 
however, for this deflecting agency, it must be admitted that in 
the highest quality of the statesman, " aptness to be right," he 
was surpassed by none of his contemporaries, or — if by anybody 
— by Sir George Cornewall Lewis alone. He would have been 
more at home in a state of things which did not demand from its 
leading statesman great popular power; he had none of those 
" isms " and " prisms of fancy " which stood in such good stead 



DERBY 



6 9 



some of his rivals. He had another defect besides the want 
of popular power. He was so anxious to arrive at right con- 
clusions that he sometimes turned and turned and turned a 
subject over till the time for action had passed. One of his best 
lieutenants said of him in a moment of impatience: "Lord 
Derby is like the God of Hegel: ' Er setzt sich, er verneint sich, 
er verneint seine Negation.' " His knowledge, acquired both 
from books and by the ear, was immense, and he took every 
opportunity of increasing it. He retained his old university 
habit of taking long walks with a congenial companion, even in 
London, and although he cared but little for what is commonly 
known as society — the society of crowded rooms and fragments 
of sentences — he very much liked conversation. During the 
many years in which he was a member of " The Club " he was 
one of its most assiduous frequenters, and his loss was acknow- 
ledged by a formal resolution. His talk was generally grave, but 
every now and then was lit up by dry humour. The late Lord 
Arthur Russell once said to him, after he had been buying some 
property in southern England: " So you still believe in land, 
Lord Derby." " Hang it," he replied, " a fellow must believe in 
something! " He did an immense deal of work outside politics. 
He was lord rector of the University of Glasgow from 1868 to 
187 1, and later held the same office in that of Edinburgh. From 
1875 to 1893 be was president of the Royal Literary Fund, and 
attended most closely to his duties then. He succeeded Lord 
Granville as chancellor of the University of London in 1891, and 
remained in that position till his death. He lived much in 
Lancashire, managed his enormous estates with great skill, and 
did a great amount of work as a local magnate. He married in 
1870 Maria Catharine, daughter of the 5th earl de la Warr, and 
widow of the 2nd marquess of Salisbury. 

The earl left no children and he was succeeded as 16th earl 
by his brother Frederick Arthur Stanley (1 841-1908), who had 
been made a peer as Baron Stanley of Preston in 1886. He was 
secretary of state for war and for the colonies and president of 
the board of trade; and was governor-general of Canada from 
1888 to 1893. He died on the 14th of June 1908, when his eldest 
son, Edward George Villiers Stanley, became earl of Derby. As 
Lord Stanley the latter had been member of parliament for the 
West Houghton division of Lancashire from 1892 to 1906; he 
was financial secretary to the War Office from 1900 to 1903, and 
postmaster-general from 1903 to 1905. 

The best account of the 15th Lord Derby is that which was 
prefixed by W. E. H. Lecky, who knew him very intimately, 
to the edition of his speeches outside parliament, published in 
1894. (M. G. D.) 

DERBY, a city of New Haven county, Connecticut, U.S.A., 
coextensive with the township of Derby, about 10 m. W. of New 
Haven, at the junction of the Housatonic and Naugatuck rivers. 
Pop. (1900) 7930 (2635 foreign-born); (1910) 8991. It is served 
by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railway, and by 
interurban electric railways. In Derby there are an opera house, 
owned by the city, and a public library. Across the Housatonic 
is the borough of Shelton (pop. 1910, 4807), which is closely 
related, socially and industrially, to Derby, the two having a 
joint board of trade. Adjoining Derby on the N. along the 
Naugatuck is Ansonia. Derby, Ansonia and Shelton form one of 
the most important manufacturing communities in the state; 
although their total population in 1900 (23,448) was only 2-9% 
of the state's population, the product of their manufactories was 
7 '4 % of the total manufactured product of Connecticut. Among 
the manufactures of Derby are pianos and organs, woollen goods, 
pins, keys, dress stays, combs, typewriters, corsets, hosiery, guns 
and ammunition, and foundry and machine-shop products. 
Derby was settled in 1642 as an Indian trading post under the 
name Paugasset, and received its present name in 1675. The 
date of organization of the township is unknown. Ansonia was 
formed from a part of Derby in 1889. In 1893 the borough of 
Birmingham, on the opposite side of the Naugatuck, was annexed 
to Derby, and Derby was chartered "as a city. In the 18th 
century Derby was the centre of a thriving commerce with the 
West Indies. Derby is the birthplace of David Humphreys 



(1752-1818), a soldier, diplomatist and writer, General 
Washington's aide and military secretary from 1780 until the 
end of the War of Independence, the first minister of the 
United States to Portugal (1 790-1 797) and minister to Spain in 
1797-1802, and one of the "Hartford Wits." 

See Samuel Orcutt and Ambrose Beardsley, History of the Old 
Town of Derby (Springfield, 1880); and the Town Records of Derby 
front 165$ to 1710 (Derby, 1901). 

DERBY, a municipal, county and parliamentary borough, 
and the county town of Derbyshire, England, i28f m. N.N.W. 
of London by the Midland railway; it is also served by the 
Great Northern railway. Pop. (1891) 94,146; (1901) 114,848. 
Occupying a position almost in the centre of England, the town 
is situated chiefly on the western bank of the river Derwent, on an 
undulating site encircled with gentle eminences, from which flow 
the Markeaton and other brooks. In the second half of the 19th 
century the prosperity of the town was enhanced by the establish- 
ment of the head offices and principal workshops of the Midland 
Railway Company. Derby possesses several handsome public 
buildings, including the town hall, a spacious range of buildings 
erected for the postal and inland revenue offices, the county hall, 
corn exchange and market hall. Among churches may be 
mentioned St Peter's a fine building principally of Perpendicular 
date but with earlier portions; St Alkmund's with its lofty spire, 
Decorated in style; St Andrew's, in the same style, by Sir G. G. 
Scott; and All Saints', which contains a beautiful choir-screen, 
good stained glass and monuments by L. F. Roubiliac, Sir 
Francis Chantrey and others. The body of this church is in 
classic style (1725), but the tower was built 1509-1527, and is one 
of the finest in the midland counties, built, in three tiers, and 
crowned with battlements and pinnacles, which give it a total 
height of 210 ft. The Roman Catholic church of St Mary is one 
of the best examples of the work of A. W. Pugin. The Derby 
grammar school, one of the most ancient in England, was placed 
in 1 1 60 under the administration of the chapter of Darley Abbey, 
which lay a little north of Derby. It occupies St Helen's House, 
once the town residence of the Strutt family, and has been 
enlarged in modern times, accommodating about 160 boys. The 
Derby municipal technical college is administered by the corpora- 
tion. Other institutions include schools of science and art, 
public library, museum and art gallery, the Devonshire alms- 
houses, a remodelled foundation inaugurated by Elizabeth, 
countess of Shrewsbury, in the 16th century, and the town and 
county infirmary. The free library and museum buildings, 
together with a recreation ground, were gifts to the town from 
M. T. Bass, M.P. (d. 1884), while an arboretum of seventeen 
acres was presented to the town by Joseph Strutt in 1840. 

Derby has been long celebrated for its porcelain, which 
rivalled that of Saxony and France. This manufacture was 
introduced about 1750, and although for a time partially 
abandoned, it has been revived. There are also spar works where 
the fluor-spar, or Blue John, is wrought into a variety of useful 
and ornamental articles. The manufacture of silk, hosiery, lace 
and cotton formerly employed a large portion of the population, 
and there are still numerous silk mills and elastic web works. 
Silk " throwing " or spinning was introduced into England in 
1 71 7 by John Lombe, who found out the secrets of the craft 
when visiting Piedmont, and set up machinery in Derby. Other 
industries include the manufacture of paint, shot, white and 
red lead and varnish; and there are sawmills and tanneries. 
The manufacture of hosiery profited greatly by the inventions 
of Jedediah Strutt about 1750. In the northern suburb of 
Littlechester, there are chemical and steam boiler works. The 
Midland railway works employ a large number of hands. Derby 
is a suffragan bishopric in the diocese of Southwell. The parlia- 
mentary borough returns two members. The town is governed 
by a mayor, sixteen aldermen and forty-two councillors. Area, 
3449 acres. 

Littlechester, as its name indicates, was the site of a Roman 
fort or village; the site is in great part built over and the remains 
practically effaced. Derby was known in the time of the 
heptarchy as Northworthig, and did not receive the name of 



7o 



DERBYSHIRE 



Deoraby or Derby until after it was given up to the Danes by the 
treaty of Wedmore and had become one of their five boroughs, 
probably ruled in the ordinary way by an earl with twelve 
" lawmen " under him. Being won back among the sweeping 
conquests of /Ethelflred, lady of the Mercians, in 91 7, it prospered 
during the 10th century, and by the reign of Edward the Con- 
fessor there were 243 burgesses in Derby. However, by 1086 this 
number had decreased to 100, while 103 " manses " which used 
to be assessed were waste. In spite of this the amount rendered 
by the town to the lord had increased from £24 to £30. The first 
extant charter granted to Derby is dated 1206 and is a grant of all 
those privileges which the burgesses of Nottingham had in the 
time of Henry I. and Henry II., which included freedom from toll, 
a gild merchant, power to elect a provost at their will, and the 
privilege of holding the town at the ancient farm with an increase 
of £10 yearly. The charter also provides that no one shall dye 
cloth within ten leagues of Derby except in the borough. A 
second charter, granted by Henry III. in 1 229, limits the power of 
electing a provost by requiring that he shall be removed if he 
be displeasing to the king. Henry III. also granted the burgesses 
two other charters, one in 1225 confirming their privileges and 
granting that the comitatus of Derby should in fuiure be held on 
Thursdays in the borough, the other in 1260 granting that no 
Jew should be allowed to live in the town. In 1337 Edward III. 
on the petition of the burgesses granted that they might have two 
bailiffs instead of one. Derby was incorporated by James I. in 
161 1 under the name of the bailiffs and burgesses of Derby, but 
Charles I. in 1637 appointed a mayor, nine aldermen, fourteen 
brethren and fourteen capital burgesses. In 1680 the burgesses 
were obliged to resign their charters, and received a new one, 
which did not, however, alter the government of the town. Derby 
has been represented in parliament by two members since 1295. 
In the rebellion of 1745 the young Pretender marched with his 
army as far south as Derby, where the council was held which 
decided that he should return to Scotland instead of going on to 
London. 

Among early works on Derby are W. Hutton, History of Derby 
(London, 1791); R. Simpson, History and Antiquities of Derby 
(Derby, 1826). 

DERBYSHIRE, a north midland county of England, bounded 
N. and N.E. by Yorkshire, E. by Nottinghamshire, S.E. and S. by 
Leicestershire, S. and S.W. by Staffordshire, and W. and N.W. by 
Cheshire. Theareais1029-5sq.nl. The physical aspect is much 
diversified. The extreme south of the county is lacking in 
picturesqueness, being for the most part level, with occasional 
slight undulations. The Peak District of the north, on the other 
hand, though inferior in grandeur to the mountainous Lake 
District, presents some of the finest hill scenery in England, 
deriving a special beauty from the richly wooded glens and 
valleys, such as those of Castleton, Glossop, Dovedale and 
Millersdale. The character of the landscape ranges from the wild 
moorland of the Cheshire borders or the grey rocks of the Peak, 
to the park lands and woods of the Chatsworth district. Some of 
the woods are noted for their fine oaks, those at Kedleston, 3 m. 
from Derby, ranking among the largest and oldest in the kingdom. 
From the northern hills the streams of the county radiate. 
Those of the north-west belong to the Mersey, and those of the 
north-east to the Don, but all the others to the Trent, which, like 
the Don, falls into the Humber. The principal river is the Trent, 
which, rising in the Staffordshire moorlands, intersects the 
southern part of Derbyshire, and forms part of its boundary 
with Leicestershire. After the Trent the most important river 
is the Derwent, one of its tributaries, which, taking its rise in the 
lofty ridges of the High Peak, flows southward through a beautiful 
valley, receiving a number of minor streams in its course, includ- 
ing the Wye, which, rising near Buxton, traverses the fine 
Millersdale and Monsal Dale. The other principal rivers are the 
following: The Dane rises at the junction of the three counties, 
Staffordshire, Cheshire and Derbyshire. The Goyt has its source 
a little farther north, at the base of the same hill, and, taking a 
N.N.E. direction, divides Derbyshire from Cheshire, andfallsinto 
the Mersey. The Dove rises on the southern slope, and flows as 



the boundary stream between Derbyshire and Staffordshire for 
nearly its entire course. It receives several feeders, and falls into 
the Trent near Repton. The Erewash is the boundary stream 
between Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire. The Rother rises 
about Baslow, and flows into Yorkshire, with a northerly course, 
joining the Don. Besides the attractions of its scenery Derby- 
shire possesses, in Buxton, Matlock and Bakewell, three 
health resorts in much favour on account of their medicinal 
springs. 

The whole northward extension of the county is occupied by 
the plateau of the Peak and other plateau-like summits, the 
highest of which are of almost exactly similar elevation. Thus 
in the extreme north Bleaklow Hill reaches 2060 ft., while 
southward from this point along the axis of main elevation are 
found Shelf Moss (2046 ft.), and Kinder Scout and other summits 
of the Peak itself, ranging up to 2088 ft. This plateau-mass is 
demarcated on the north and west by the vales of the Etherow 
and Goyt, by the valley of the Derwent on the east, and in part 
by that of its tributary the Noe on the south. The flanks of the 
plateau are deeply scored by abrupt ravines, often known as 
" doughs " (an Anglo-Saxon word, cloh) watered by streams 
which sometimes descend over precipitous ledges in picturesque 
falls, such as the Kinder Downfall, formed by the brook of that 
name which rises on Kinder Scout. The most picturesque 
doughs are found on the south, descending to Edale, and on the 
west. Edale is the upper part of the Noe valley, and the narrow 
gorge at its head is exceedingly beautiful, as is the more gentle 
scenery of the Vale of Plope, the lower part of the valley. In a 
branch vale is situated Castleton (g.v.), with the ruined Peak 
Castle, or Castle of the Peak, and the Peak Cavern, Blue John 
Mine and other caves. The upper Derwent valley, or Derwent 
Dale, is narrow and well wooded. In it, near the village of 
Derwent Chapel, is Derwent Hall, a fine old mansion formerly 
a seat of the Newdigate family. On Derwent Edge, above the 
village, are various peculiar rock formations, known by such 
names as the Salt-cellar. Ashopton, another village lower down 
the dale, is a favourite centre, and here the main valley is joined 
by Ashop Dale, a bold defile in its upper part, penetrating the 
heart of the Peak. 

The well-known high road crossing the plateau from east to 
west, between the lower Derwent valley, Bakewell, Buxton and 
Macclesfield, shows the various types of scenery characteristic 
of the limestone hill-country of Derbyshire south of the Peak 
itself. The lower Derwent valley, about Chatsworth, Rowsley, 
Darley and Matlock, is open, fertile and well wooded. The road 
leads up the tributary valley of the Wye, which after Bakewell 
quickly narrows, and in successive portions is known as Monsal 
Dale, Millersdale (which the main road does not touch), Chee 
Dale and Wye Dale. On the flanks of these beautiful dales bold 
cliffs and bastions of limestone stand out among rich woods. 
Near the mouth of the valley, about Stanton, the fantastic 
effects of weathering on the limestone are especially well seen, 
as in Rowtor Rocks and Robin Hood's Stride, and in the same 
locality are a remarkable number of tumuli and other early 
remains, and the Hermitage, a cave containing sacred carvings. 
From Buxton the road ascends over the high moors, here open 
and grassy in contrast to the heather of the Peak, and shortly 
after crossing the county boundary, reaches the head of the pass 
well known by the name of an inn, the Cat and Fiddle, at its 
highest point, 1690 ft. 

South of Buxton the elevations along the main axis decrease, 
thus Axe Edge reaches 1600 ft., and this height is nowhere 
exceeded as the hills sink to the plain valley of the Trent. The 
dales and ravines which ramify among the limestone heights are 
characteristic and beautiful, and the valley of the Dove (g.v.) 
or Dovedale, on the border with Staffordshire, is as famous as 
any of the northern dales. Swallow-holes or waterworn caverns 
are common in many parts of the limestone region. The hills 
east of the Derwent are nowhere so high as those to the west — 
Margley Hill reaches 1793 ft., Howden Edge 1787 ft. and Der- 
went Moors 1505 ft. The plateau type is maintained. The 
valley of the Derwent provides the most attractive scenery in 



DERBYSHIRE 



7i 



the southern part of the county, from Matlock southward by 
Heage, Belper and Duffield to Derby. 

Geology. — Five well-contrasted types of scenery in Derbyshire are 
clearly traceable to as many varieties of rock ; the bleak dry uplands 
of the north and east, with deep-cut ravines and swift clear streams, 
are due to the great mass of Mountain Limestone ; round the lime- 
stone boundary are the valleys with soft outlines in the Pendleside 
Shales; these are succeeded by the rugged moorlands, covered with 
heather and peat, which are due to the Millstone Grit series; east- 
ward lies the Derbyshire Coalfield with its gently moulded grass- 
covered hills; southward is the more level tract of red Triassic rocks. 
The principal structural feature is the broad anticline, its axis running 
north and south, which has brought up the Carboniferous Limestone ; 
this uplifted region is the southern extremity of the Pennine Range. 
The Carboniferous or " Mountain " Limestone is the oldest formation 
in the county; its thickness is not known, but it is certainly over 
2000 ft. ; it is well exposed in the numerous narrow gorges cut by the 
Derwent and its tributaries and by the Dove on the Staffordshire 
border. Ashwood Dale, Chee Dale, Millersdale, Monsal Dale and the 
valley at Matlock are all flanked by abrupt sides of this rock. It is 
usually a pale, thick-bedded rock, sometimes blue and occasionally, 
as at Ashford, black. In some places, e.g. Thorpe Cloud, it is highly 
fossiliferous, but it is usually somewhat barren except for abundant 
crinoids and smaller organisms. It is polished in large slabs at 
Ashford, where crinoidal, black and " rosewood " marbles are pro- 
duced. Volcanic rocks, locally called " Toadstone," are represented 
in the limestones by intrusive sills and flows of dolerite and by necks 
of agglomerate, notably near Tideswell, Millersdale and Matlock. 
Beds and nodules of chert are abundant in the upper parts of the 
limestone; at Bakewell it is quarried for use in the Potteries. At 
some points the limestone has been dolomitized ; near Bonsall it has 
been converted into a granular silicified rock. A series of black 
shales with nodular limestones, the Pendleside series, rests upon the 
Mountain Limestone on the east, south and north-west ; much of the 
upper course of the Derwent has been cut through these soft beds. 
Mam Tor, or the Shivering Mountain, is made of these shales. Next 
in upward sequence is a thick mass of sandstones, grits and shales — 
the Millstone Grit series. On the west side these extend from 
Blacklow Hill to Axe Edge; on the east, from Derwent Edge to near 
Derby ; outlying masses form the rough moorland on Kinder Scout 
and the picturesque tors near Stanton-by-Youlgreave. A small 
patch of Millstone Grit and Limestone occurs in the south of the 
county about Melbourne and Ticknall. The Coal Measures repose 
upon the Millstone Grit ; the largest area of these rocks lies on the east, 
where they are conterminous with the coalfields of Yorkshire and 
Nottingham. A small tract, part of the Leicestershire coalfield, lies 
in the south-east corner, and in the north-west corner a portion of the 
Lancashire coalfield appears about New Mills and Whaley Bridge. 
They yield valuable coals, clays, marls and ganister. East of 
Bolsover, the Coal Measures are covered unconformably by the 
Permian breccias and magnesian limestone. Flanking the hills 
between Ashbourne and Quarndon are red beds of Bunter marl, 
sandstone and conglomerate; they also appear at Morley, east of the 
Derwent, and again round the small southern coalfield. Most of the 
southern part of the county is occupied by Keuper marls and sand- 
stones, the latter yield good building stone; and at Chellaston the 
gypsum beds in the former are excavated on a large scale. Much of 
the Triassic area is covered superficially by glacial drift and alluvium 
of the Trent. Local boulders as well as northern erratics are found 
in the valley of the Derwent. The bones of Pleistocene mammals, 
the rhinoceros, mammoth, bison, hyaena, &c, have been found at 
numerous places, often in caves and fissures in the limestones, e.g. at 
Castleton, Wirksworth and Creswell. At Doveholes the Pleiocene 
Mastodon has been reported. Galena and other lead ores are 
abundant in veins in the limestone, but they are now only worked on 
a large scale at Mill Close, near Winster; calamine, zinc, blende, 
barytes, calcite and fluor-spar are common. Apeculiar variety of the 
last named, called " Blue John," is found only near Castleton; at 
the same place occurs the remarkable elastic bitumen, " elaterite." 
Limestone is quarried at Buxton, Millersdale and Matlock for lime, 
fluxing and chemical purposes. Good sandstone is obtained from 
the Millstone Grit at Stancliffe, Tansley and Whatstandwell. Cal- 
careous tufa or travertine occurs in the valley of Matlock and else- 
where, and in some places is still being deposited by springs. Large 
pits containing deposits of white sand, clay and pebbles are found 
in the limestone at Longcliff, Newhaven and Carsington. 

Climate. — From the elevation which it attains in its northern 
division the county is colder and is rainier than other midland 
counties. Even in summer cold and thick fogs are often seen 
hanging over the rivers, and clinging to the lower parts of the 
hills, and hoar-frosts are by no means unknown even in June 
and July. The winters in the uplands are generally severe, and 
the rainfall heavy. At Buxton, at an elevation of about 1000 ft., 
the mean temperature in January is 34-9° F., and in July 57-5°, 
the mean annual being 45-4°. These conditions contrast with 
those at Derby, in the southern lowknd, where the figures are 



respectively 37-5°, 61-2° and 48-8°, while intermediate conditions 
are found at Belper, 9 m. higher up the Derwent valley, where 
the figures are 36-3°, 59-9° and 47-3°. The contrasts shown by 
the mean annual rainfall are similarly marked. Thus at Wood- 
head, lying high in the extreme north, it is 52-03 in., at Buxton 
49-33 in., at Matlock, in the middle part of the Derwent valley, 
35-2 in., and at Derby 24-35 in. 

Agriculture. — A little over seven-tenths of the total area of 
the county is under cultivation. Among the higher altitudes of 
north Derbyshire, where the soil is poor and the climate harsh, 
grain is unable to flourish, while even in the more sheltered parts 
of this region the harvest is usually belated. In such districts 
sheep farming is chiefly practised, and there is a considerable 
area of heath pasture. - Farther south, heavy crops of wheat, 
turnips and other cereals and green crops are not uncommon, 
while barley is cultivated about Repton and Gresley, and also in 
the east of the county, in order to supply the Burton breweries. 
A large part of the Trent valley is under permanent pasture, 
being devoted to cattle-feeding and dairy-farming. This industry 
has prospered greatly, and the area of permanent pasture 
encroaches continually upon that of arable land. Derbyshire 
cheeses are exported or sent to London in considerable quantities ; 
and cheese fairs are held in various parts of the county, as at 
Ashbourne and Derby. A feature of the upland districts is the 
total absence of hedges, and the substitution of limestone walls, 
put together without any mortar or cement. 

Other Industries. — The manufactures of Derbyshire are both 
numerous and important, embracing silks, cotton hosiery, iron, 
woollen manufactures, lace, elastic web and brewing. For many 
of these this county has long been famous, especially for that of 
silk, which is carried on to a large extent in Derby, as well as in 
Belper and Duffield. Derby is also celebrated for its china, and 
silk-throwing is the principal industry of the town. Elastic web 
weaving by power looms is carried on to a great extent, and the 
manufacture of lace and net curtains, gimp trimmings, braids 
and cords. In the county town and neighbourhood are several 
important chemical and colour works; and in various parts of 
the county, as at Belper, Cromford, Matlock, Tutbury, are cotton- 
spinning mills, as well as hosiery and tape manufactories. The 
principal works of the Midland Railway Company are at Derby. 
The principal mineral is coal. Ironstone is not extensively 
wrought, but, on account of the abundant supply of coal, large 
quantities are imported for smelting purposes. There are 
smelting furnaces in several districts, as at Alfreton, Chesterfield, 
Derby, Ilkeston. Besides lead, gypsum and zinc are raised, to 
a small extent; and for the quarrying of limestone Derbyshire is 
one of the principal English counties. The east and the extreme 
south-west parts are the principal industrial districts. 

Communications. — The chief railway serving the county is the 
Midland, the south, east and north being served by its main line 
and branches. In the north-east and north the Great Central 
system touches the county; in the west the North Staffordshire 
and a branch of the London & North- Western; while a branch of 
the Great Northern serves Derby and other places in the south. 
The Trent & Mersey canal crosses the southern part of the county, 
and there is a branch canal (the Derby) connecting Derby with 
this and with the Erewash canal, which runs north from the 
Trent up the Erewash valley. From it there is a little-used 
branch (the Cromford canal) to Matlock. 

Population and Administration. — The area of the ancient 
county is 658,885 acres, with a population in 1891 of 528,033, 
and 1901 of 620,322. The area of the administrative county is 
652,272 acres. The county contains six hundreds. The municipal 
boroughs are Chesterfield (pop. 27,185), Derby, a county borough 
and the county town (114,848), Glossop (21,526), Ilkeston 
( 2 S,384)- The other urban districts .are Alfreton (17,505), 
AlvastonandBoulton(i279), Ashbourne (4039), Bakewell(285o), 
Baslow and Bubnell (797), Belper (10,934), Bolsover (6844) 
Bonsall (1360), Brampton and Walton (2698), Buxton (10,181), 
Clay Cross(8358), Dronfield(38o9), Fairfield(2 9 6 9 ), Heage(2889), 
Heanor (16,249), Long Eaton (13,045), Matlock (5979), Matlock 
Bath and Scarthin Nick (i8iq), Newbold and Dunston (5986*). 



72 



DERBYSHIRE 



New Mills (7773), North Darley (2756), Ripley (10,111), 
South Darley (788), Swadlincote (18,014), Whittington (9416), 
Wirksworth (3807). Among other towns may be mentioned 
Ashover (2426), Barlborough (2056), Chapel-en-le-Frith (4626), 
Clowne (3896) , Crich (3063) , Killamarsh (3644) , Staveley (1 1 ,420) , 
Whitwell (3380). The county is in the Midland circuit, and 
assizes are held at Derby. It has one court of quarter sessions 
and is divided into fifteen petty sessional divisions. The boroughs 
of Derby, Chesterfield and Glossop have separate commissions of 
the peace, and that of Derby has also a separate court of quarter 
sessions. The total number of civil parishes is 3 14. The county 
is mainly in the diocese of Southwell, with small portions in the 
dioceses of Peterborough and Lichfield, and contains 255 ecclesi- 
astical parishes or districts. The parliamentary divisions of 
the county are High Peak, North-Eastern, Chesterfield, Mid, 
Ilkeston, Southern and Western, each returning one member, 
while the parliamentary borough of Derby returns two members. 

History. — The earliest English settlements in the district which 
is now Derbyshire were those of the West Angles, who in the 
course of their northern conquests in the 6th century pushed 
their way up the valleys of the Derwent and the Dove, where they 
became known as the Pecsaetan. Later the district formed the 
northern division of Mercia, and in 848 the Mercian witenagemot 
assembled at Repton. In the 9th century the district suffered 
frequently from the ravages of the Danes, who in 874 wintered at 
Repton and destroyed its famous monastery, the burial-place of 
the kings of Mercia. Derby under Guthrum was one of the five 
Danish burghs, but in 917 was recovered by ./Ethelfted. In 924 
Edward the Elder fortified Bakewell, and in 942 Edmund 
regained Derby, which had fallen under the Danish yoke. 
Barrows of the Saxon period are numerous in Wirksworth 
hundred and the Bakewell district, among the most remarkable 
being White-low near Winster and Bower's-low near Tissington. 
There are Saxon cemeteries at Stapenhill and Foremark Hall. 

Derbyshire probably originated as a shire in the time of 
iEthelstan, but for long it maintained a very close connexion with 
Nottinghamshire, and the Domesday Survey gives a list of local 
customs affecting the two counties alike. The two shire-courts 
sat together for the Domesday Inquest, and the counties were 
united under one sheriff until the time of Elizabeth. The villages 
of Appleby, Oakthorpe, Donisthorpe, Stretton-en-le-Field, 
Willesley, Chilcote and Measham were reckoned as part of 
Derbyshire in 1086, although separated from it by the Leicester- 
shire parishes of Over and Nether Seat. 

The early divisions of the county were known as wapentakes, 
five being mentioned in Domesday, while 13th-century documents 
mention seven wapentakes, corresponding with the six present 
hundreds, except that Repton and Gresley were then reckoned as 
separate divisions. In the 14th century the divisions were more 
frequently described as hundreds, and Wirksworth alone retained 
the designation wapentake until modern times. Ecclesiastically 
the county constituted an archdeaconry in the diocese of 
Lichfield, comprising the six deaneries of Derby, Ashbourne, 
High Peak, Castillar, Chesterfield and Repington. In 1884 it 
was transferred to the newly formed diocese of Southwell. The 
assizes for Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire were held at 
Nottingham until the reign of Henpy III., when they were held 
alternately at Nottingham and Derby until 1569, after which the 
Derbyshire assizes were held at Derby. The court of the Honour 
of Peverel, held at Basford in Nottinghamshire, which formerly 
exercised jurisdiction in the hundreds of Scarsdale, the Peak and 
Wirksworth. was abolished in 1849. The miners of Derbyshire 
formed an independent community under the jurisdiction of 
a steward and barmasters, who held two Barmote courts 
(q.v.) every year. The forests of Peak and Duffield had their 
separate courts and officers, the justice seat of the former being 
in an extra-parochial part at equal distances from Castleton, 
Tideswell and Bowden, while the pleas of Duffield Forest were 
held at Tutbury. Both were disafforested in the 17th 
century. 

The greatest landholder in Derbyshire at the time of the 
Domesday Survey was Henry de Ferrers, who owned almost the 



whole of the modern hundred of Appletree. The Ferrers estates 
were forfeited by Robert, earl of Derby, in the reign of Henry III. 
Another great Domesday landholder was William Peverel, the 
historic founder of Peak Castle, whose vast possessions were 
known as the Honour of Peverel. In 1155 the younger Peverel 
was disinherited for poisoning the earl of Chester, and his estates 
forfeited to the crown. Few Englishmen retained estates of any 
importance after the Conquest, but one, Elfin, an under-tenant 
of Henry de Ferrers, not only held a considerable property but 
was the ancestor of the Derbyshire family of Brailsford, The 
families of Shirley and Gresley can also boast an unbroken descent 
from Domesday tenants. 

During the rebellion of Prince Henry against Henry II. the 
castles of Tutbury and Duffield were held against the king, and 
in the civil wars of John's reign Bolsover and Peak Castles were 
garrisoned by the rebellious barons. In the Barons' War of the 
reign of Henry III. the earl of Derby was active in stirring up 
feeling in the county against the king, and in 1266 assembled 
a considerable force, which was defeated by the king's party at 
Chesterfield. At the time of the Wars of the Roses discontent 
was rife in Derbyshire, and riots broke out in 1443, but the county 
did not lend active support to either party. On the outbreak of 
the Civil War of the 17th century, the county at first inclined 
to support the king, who received an enthusiastic reception 
when he visited Derby in 1642, but by the close of 1643 Sir 
John Gell of Hopton had secured almost the whole county for 
the parliament. Derby, however, was always royalist in sym- 
pathy, and did not finally surrender till 1646; in 1659 it rebelled 
against Richard Cromwell, and in 1745 entertained the young 
Pretender. 

Derbyshire has always been mainly a mining and manufactur- 
ing county, though the rich land in the south formerly produced 
large quantities of corn. The lead mines were worked by the 
Romans, and the Domesday Survey mentions lead mines at 
Wirksworth, Matlock, Bakewell, Ashford and Crich. . Iron has 
also been produced in Derbyshire from an early date, and coal 
mines were worked at Norton and Alfreton in the beginning of the 
14th century. The woollen industry flourished in the county 
before the reign of John, when an exclusive privilege of dyeing 
cloth was conceded to the burgesses of Derby. Thomas Fuller 
writing in 1662 mentions lead, malt and ale as the chief products 
of the county, and the Buxton waters were already famous in his 
day. The 18th century saw the rise of numerous manufactures. 
In 1 7 18 Sir Thomas and John Lombe set up an improved silk- 
throwing machine at Derby, and in 1758 Jedediah Strutt intro- 
duced a machine for making ribbed stockings, which became 
famous as the " Derby rib." In 177 1 Sir Richard Arkwright set 
up one of his first cotton mills in Cromford, and in 1787 there 
were twenty-two cotton mills in the county. The Derby porcelain 
or china manufactory was started about 1750. 

From 1295 until the Reform Act of 1832 the county and town 
of Derby each returned two members to parliament. From this 
latter date the county returned four members in two divisions 
until the act of 1868, under which it returned six members for 
three divisions. 

Antiquities. — Monastic remains are scanty, but there are 
interesting portions of a priory incorporated with the school 
buildings at Repton. The village church of Beauchief Abbey, 
near Dronfield, is a remnant of an abbey founded c. n 75 by 
Robert Fitzranulf. It has a stately transitional Norman tower, 
and three fine Norman arches. Dale Abbey, near Derby, was 
founded early in the 13th century for the Premonstratensian 
order. The ruins are scanty, but the east window is preserved, 
and the present church incorporates remains of the ancient rest- 
house for pilgrims. The church has a peculiar music gallery, 
entered from without. The abbey church contained famous 
stained glass, and some of this is preserved in the neighbouring 
church at Morley. Derbyshire is rich in ecclesiastical architecture 
as a whole. The churches are generally of various styles. The 
chancel of the church at Repton is assigned to the second half of 
the 10th century, though subsequently altered, and the crypt 
beneath is supposed to be earlier still; its roof is supported by 



DEREHAM— DERHAM 



73 



four round pillars, and it is approached by two stairways. Other 
remains of pre-Conquest date are the chancel arches in the 
churches of Marston Montgomery and of Sawle}'; and the 
curiously carved font in Wilne church is attributed to the same 
period. Examples of Norman work are frequent in doorways, 
as in the churches of Allestree and Willington near Repton, 
while a fine tympanum is preserved in the modern church of 
Findern. There is a triple-recessed doorway, with arcade above, 
in the west end of Bakewell church, and there is another fine 
west doorway in Melbourne church, a building principally of the 
late Norman period, with central and small western towers. 
In restoring this church curious mural paintings were discovered. 
At Steetley, near Worksop, is a small Norman chapel, with 
apse, restored from a ruinous condition; Youlgrave church, a 
building of much general interest, has Norman nave pillars and 
a fine font of the same period, and Normanton church has a 
peculiar Norman corbel table. The Early English style is on 
the whole less well exemplified in the county, but Ashbourne 
church, with its central tower and lofty spire, contains beautiful 
details of this period, notably the lancet windows in the Cockayne 
chapel. 

The parish churches of Dronfield, Hathersage (with some 
notable stained glass), Sandiacre and -Tideswell exemplify the 
Decorated period; the last is a particularly stately and beautiful 
building, with a lofty and ornate western tower and some good 
early brasses. The churches of Dethic, Wirksworth and Chester- 
field are typical of the Perpendicular period; that of Wirksworth 
contains noteworthy memorial chapels, monuments and brasses, 
and that of Chesterfield is celebrated for its crooked spire. 

The remains of castles are few; the ancient Bolsover Castle is 
replaced by a castellated mansion of the 17th century; of the 
Norman Peak Castle near Castleton little is left; of Codnor 
Castle in the Erewash valley there are picturesque ruins of the 
13th century. Among ancient mansions Derbyshire possesses 
one of the most famous in England in Haddon Hall, of the 
15th century. Wingfield manor house is a ruin dating from 
the same century. Hardwick Hall is a very perfect example of 
Elizabethan building; ruins of the old Tudor hall stand near by. 
Other Elizabethan examples are Barlborough and Tissington 
Halls. 

The village of Tissington is noted for the maintenance of an 
old custom, that of " well-dressing." On the Thursday before 
Easter a special church service is celebrated, and the wells are 
beautifully ornamented with flowers, prayers being offered at 
each. The ceremony has been revived also in several other 
Derbyshire villages. 

See Davies, New Historical and Descriptive View of Derbyshire 
(Belper, 181 1) ; D. Lysons, Magna Britannia, vol. v. (London, 1817) ; 
Maunder, Derbyshire Miners' Glossary (Bakewell, 1824) ; R. Simpson, 
Collection of Fragments illustrative of the History of Derbyshire (1826) ; 
S. Glover, History and Gazetteer of the County of Derby, ed. T. Noble, 
part 1 of vols. i. and ii. (Derby, 1831-1833); T. Bateman, Vestiges 
of the Antiquities of Derbyshire (London, 1848); L. Jewitt, Ballads 
and Songs of Derbyshire (London, 1867); J. C. Cox, Notes on the 
Churches of Derbyshire (Chester, 1875), and Three Centuries of 
Derbyshire Annals (2 vols., London, 1890); R. N. Worth, Derby, in 
"Popular County Histories" (London, 1886); J. P. Yeatman, 
Feudal History of the County of Derby (3 vols., London, 1886-1895) ; 
Victoria County History, Derbyshire. See also Notts and Derbyshire 
Notes and Queries. 

DEREHAM (properly East Dereham), a market town in the 
Mid parliamentary division of Norfolk, England, 122 m. N.N.E. 
from London by the Great Eastern railway. Pop. of urban 
district (1901) 5545. The church of St Nicholas is a cruciform 
Perpendicular structure with a beautiful central tower, and some 
portions of earlier date. It contains a monument to William 
Cowper, who came to live here in 1796, and the Congregational 
chapel stands on the site of the house where the poet spent his 
last days. Dereham' is an important agricultural centre with 
works for the manufacture of agricultural implements, iron 
foundries and a malting industry. 

DERELICT (from Lat. derelinquere, to forsake), in law, 
property thrown away or abandoned by the owner in such a 
manner as to indicate that he intends to make no further claim to 



it. The word is used more particularly with respect to property 
abandoned at sea (see Wreck), but it is also applied in other 
senses; for example, land gained from the sea by receding of the 
water is termed dereliction. Land gained gradually and slowly 
by dereliction belongs to the owner of the adjoining land, but in 
the case of sudden or considerable dereliction the land belongs to 
the Crown. This technical use of the term " dereliction " is to 
be distinguished from the more general modern sense, dere- 
liction or abandonment of duty, which implies a culpable failure 
or neglect in moral or legal obligation. 

DERENBOURG, JOSEPH (1811-1895), Franco-German 
orientalist. He was a considerable force in the educational 
revival of Jewish education in France. He made great contribu- 
tions to the knowledge of Saadia, and planned a complete edition 
of Saadia's works in Arabic and French. A large part of this 
work appeared during his lifetime. He also wrote an Essai sur 
I'histoire et la giographie de la Palestine (Paris, 1867). This was 
an original contribution to the history of the Jews and Judaism 
in the time of Christ, and has been much used by later writers on 
the subject (e.g. by Schiirer). He also published in collaboration 
with his son Hartwig, Opuscules et traites d' Abou-'l-W aiid (with 
translation, 1 880); Deux Versions hebra'iques du livre de Kalildh 
et Dimnah (188 1), and a Latin translation of the same story 
under the title Joannia de Capua directorium vitae humanae 
(1889); Commenlaire de Maimonide sur la Mischnah Seder 
Tohorot (Berlin,i886-i8gi); and a second edition of S. de 
Sacy's Stances de Hariri. He died on the 29th of July 1895, at 
Ems. 

His son, Hartwig Derenbourg (1844-1908), was born in Paris 
on the 17th of June 1844. He was educated at Gottingen and 
Leipzig. Subsequently he studied Arabic at the Ecole des 
Langues Orientales. In 1879 he was appointed professor of 
Arabic, and in i886_ professor of Mahommedan Religion, at the 
Ecole des Hautes Etudes in Paris. He collaborated with his 
father in the great edition of Saadia and the edition of Abu-'l- 
Walid, and also produced a number of important editions of 
other Arabic writers. Among these are Le Diwdn de Ndbiqa 
Dhobyani; Le Livre de Sibawaihi (2 vols., Paris, 1881-1889); 
Chrestomathie eUmeritaire de I'arabe litteral (in collaboration with 
Spiro, 1885; 2nded., 1892); Ousdma ibn Mounkidh, un £mir 
syrien (1889); Ousdma ibn Mounkidh, preface du livre du bdton 
(with trans., 1887); Al-Fdkhri (1895); Oumdra du Gemen 
(1897), a catalogue of Arabic MSS. in the Escorial (vol. i., 
1884). 

DERG, LOUGH, a lake of Ireland, on the boundary of the 
counties Galway, Clare and Tipperary. It is an expansion of the 
Shannon, being the lowest lake on that river, and is 23 m. long 
and generally from 1 to 3 m. broad. It lies where the Shannon 
leaves the central plain of Ireland and flows between the hills 
which border the plain. While the northerly shores of the lake, 
therefore, are flat, the southern are steep and picturesque, being 
backed by the Slieve Aughty, Slieve Bernagh and Arra Mountains. 
Ruined churches and fortresses are numerous on the eastern 
shore, and on Iniscaltra Island are a round tower and remains of 
five churches. 

Another Lough Derg, near Pettigo in Donegal, though small, 
is famous as the traditional scene of St Patrick's purgatory. In 
the middle ages its pilgrimages had a European reputation, and 
they are still observed annually by many of the Irish from June 1 
to August 15. The hospice, chapels, &c, are on Station Island, 
and there is a ruined monastery on Saints' Island. 

DERHAM, WILLIAM (1657-1735), English divine, was born at 
Stoulton, near Worcester, on the 26th of November 1657. He was 
educated at Blockley, in his native county, and at Trinity College, 
Oxford. In ,1682 he became vicar of Wargrave, in Berkshire; 
and in 1689 he was preferred to the living of Upminster, in Essex. 
In 1696 he published his Artificial Clockmaker, which went 
through several editions. The best known of his subsequent 
works are Physico-Theology, published in 17 13; Astro-Theology, 
1714; and Christo-Theology, 1730. The first two of these books 
were teleological arguments for the being and attributes of God, 
and were used by Paley nearly a century later. In 1702 Derham 



74 



D'ERLON— DEROULEDE 



was elected fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1716 was made 
a canon of Windsor. He was Boyle lecturer in 1711-1712. His 
last work, entitled A Defence of the Church's Right in Leasehold 
Estates, appeared in 173 1. He died on the 5th of April 1735. 
Besides the works published in his own name, Derham, who 
was keenly interested in natural history, contributed a variety 
of papers to the Transactions of the Royal Society, revised the 
Miscellanea Curiosa, edited the correspondence of John Ray and 
Eleazar Albin's Natural History, and published some of the MSS. 
of Robert Hooke, the natural philosopher. 

D'ERLON, JEAN BAPTISTE DROUET, Count (1765-1844), 
marshal of France, was born at Reims on the 29th of July 1765. 
He entered the army as a private soldier in 1782, was discharged 
after five years' service, re-entered it in 1792, and rose rapidly to 
the rank of an officer. From 1794 to 1796 he was aide-de-camp 
to General Lefebvre. He did good service in the campaigns of 
the revolutionary wars and in 1799 attained the rank of general 
of brigade. In the campaign of that year he was engaged in 
the Swiss operations under Massena. In 1800 he fought under 
Moreau at Hohenlinden. As a general of division he took part in 
Napoleon's campaigns of 1805 and 1806, and rendered excellent 
service at Jena. He was next engaged under Lefebvre in the 
siege of Danzig and negotiated the terms of surrender; after this 
he rejoined the field army and fought at Friedland (1807), 
receiving a severe wound. After this battle he was made grand 
officer of the Legion of Honour, was created Count d'Erlon and 
received a pension. For the next six years d'Erlon was almost 
continuously engaged as commander of an army corps in the 
Peninsular War, in which he added greatly to his reputation as a 
capable general. At the pass of Maya in the Pyrenees he inflicted 
a defeat upon Lord Hill's troops, and in the subsequent battles 
of the 1814 campaign he distinguished himself further. After 
the first Restoration he was named commander of the 16th 
military division, but he was soon arrested for conspiring with 
the Orleans party, to which he was secretly devoted. He escaped, 
however, and gave in his adhesion to Napoleon, who had returned 
from Elba. The emperor made him a peer of France, and gave 
him command of the I. army corps, which formed part of the 
Army of the North. In the Waterloo campaign d'Erlon's corps 
formed part of Ney's command on the 16th of June, but, in 
consequence of an extraordinary series of misunderstandings, 
took part neither at Ligny nor at Quatre Bras (see Waterloo 
Campaign) . He was not, however, held to account by Napoleon, 
and as the latter's practice in such matters was severe to the 
verge of injustice, it may be presumed that the failure was not 
due to d'Erlon. 

He was in command of the right wing of the French army 
throughout the great battle of the 18th of June, and fought in 
the closing operations around Paris. At the second Restoration 
d'Erlon fled into Germany, only returning to France after the 
amnesty of 1825. He was not restored to the service until the 
accession of Louis Philippe, in whose interests he had engaged in 
several plots and intrigues. As commander of the 1 2th military 
division (Nantes), he suppressed the legitimist agitation in his 
district and caused the arrest of the duchess of Berry (1832). 
His last active service was in Algeria, of which country he was 
made governor-general in 1834 at the age of seventy. He 
returned to France after two years, and was made marshal of 
France shortly before his death at Paris on the 25th of January 
1844. 

DERMOT MAC MURROUGH (d. 1171), Irish king of Leinster, 
succeeded his father in the principality of the Hui Cinsellaigh 
(1115) an d eventually in the kingship of Leinster. The early 
events of his life are obscure; but about 1152 we find him 
engaged in a feud with O Ruairc, the lord of Breifne (Leitrim and 
Cavan). Dermot abducted the wife of O Ruairc more with the 
object of injuring his rival than from any love of the lady. The 
injured husband called to his aid Roderic, the high king (aird- 
righ) of Connaught; and in n 66 Dermot fled before this powerful 
coalition to invoke the aid of England. Obtaining from Henry II. 
a licence to enlist allies among the Welsh marchers, Dermot 
secured the aid of the Clares and Geraldines. To Richard 



Strongbow, earl of Pembroke and head of the house of Clare, 
Dermot gave his daughter Eva in marriage; and on his death 
was succeeded by the earl in Leinster. The historical importance 
of Dermot lies in the fact that he was the means of introducing 
the English into Ireland. Through his aid the towns of Water- 
ford, Wexford and Dublin had already become English colonies 
before the arrival of Henry II. in the island. 

See The Song of Dermot and the Earl, an old French Poem (by M. 
Regan?), ed. with trans, by G. H. Orpen, 1892; Kate Norgate, 
England under the Angevin Kings, vol. ii. (H. W. C. D.) 

DERNA (anc. Darnis-Zarine), a town on the north coast of 
Africa and capital of the eastern half of the Ottoman province 
of Bengazi or Barca. Situated below the eastern butt of Jebel 
Akhdar on a small but rich deltaic plain, watered by fine perennial 
springs, it has a growing population and trade, the latter being 
mainly in fruits grown in its extensive palm gardens, and in hides 
and wool brought down by the nomads from the interior. If the 
port >Were better there would be more rapid expansion. The bay 
is open from N.W. round to S.E. and often inaccessible in winter 
and spring, and the steamers of the Nav. Gen. Italiana sometimes 
have to pass without calling. The population has recovered 
from the great plague epidemic of 1821 and reached its former 
figure of about 7000. A proportion of it is of Moorish stock, of 
Andalusian origin, which emigrated in 1493; the descendants 
preserve a fine facial type. The sheikhs of the local Bedouin 
tribes have houses in the place, and a Turkish garrison of about 
250 men is stationed in barracks. There is a lighthouse W. of the 
bay. A British consular agent is resident and the Italians 
maintain a vice-consul. The names Darnis and Zarine are 
philologically identical and probably refer to the same place. No 
traces are left of the ancient town except some rock tombs. 
Darnis continued to be of some importance in early Moslem times 
as a station on the Alexandria-Kairawan road, and has served 
on more than one occasion as a base for Egyptian attacks on 
Cyrenaica and Tripolitana. In 1805 the government of the 
United States, having a quarrel with the dey of Tripoli on account 
of piracies committed on American shipping, landed a force to 
co-operate in the attack on Derna then being made by Sidi 
Ahmet, an elder brother of the dey. This force, commanded by 
William Eaton (q.v.), built a fort, whose ruins and rusty guns are 
still to be seen, and began to improve the harbour; but its work 
quickly came to an end with the conclusion of peace. After 1835 
Derna passed under direct Ottoman control, and subsequently 
served as the point whence the sultan exerted a precarious but 
increasing control over eastern Cyrenaica and Marmarica. It is 
now in communication by wireless telegraphy with Rhodes and 
western Cyrenaica. It is the only town, or even large village, 
between Bengazi and Alexandria (600 m.) (D. G. H.) 

_ DEROULEDE, PAUL (1846- ), French author and poli- 
tician, was born in Paris on the 2nd of September 1846. He 
made his first appearance as a poet in the pages of the Revue 
nationale, under the pseudonym of Jean Rebel, and in 1869 pro- 
duced at the Theatre Francais a one-act drama in verse entitled 
Juan Strenner. On the outbreak of the Franco-German War he 
enlisted as a private, was wounded and taken prisoner at Sedan, 
and sent to Breslau, but effected his escape. He then served 
under Chanzy and Bourbaki, took part in the latter's disastrous 
retreat to Switzerland, and fought against the Commune in Paris. 
After attaining the rank of lieutenant, he was forced by an 
accident to retire from the army. He published in 187 2 a number 
of patriotic poems {Chants du soldat), which enjoyed unbounded 
popularity. This was followed in 1875 by another collection, 
Nouveaux Chants du soldat. In 1877 he produced a drama in 
verse called L'Hetman, which derived a passing success from the 
patriotic fervour of its sentiments. For the exhibition of 1878 he 
wrote a hymn, Vive la France, which was set to music by Gounod. 
In 1880 his drama in verse, La Moabite, which had been accepted 
by the Theatre Francais, was forbidden by the censor on religious 
grounds. In 1882 M. Deroulede founded the Ligue des patriotes, 
with the object of furthering France's " revanche " against 
Germany. He was one of the first advocates of a Franco-Russian 
alliance, and as early as 1883 undertook a journey to Russia for 



DERRICK— DERVISH 



75 



the furtherance of that object. On the rise of General Boulanger, 
M. Deroulede attempted to use the Ligue des patriotes, hitherto a 
non-political organization, to assist his cause, but was deserted by 
a great part of the league and forced to resign his presidency. 
Nevertheless he used the section that remained faithful to him 
with such effect that the government found it necessary in 1889 
to decree its suppression. In the same year he was elected to the 
chamber as member for Angouleme. He was expelled from the 
chamber in 1890 for his disorderly interruptions during debate. 
He did not stand at the elections of 1803, but was re-elected in 
1898, and distinguished himself by his violence as a nationalist 
and anti-Dreyfusard. After the funeral of President Faure, on 
the 23rd of February 1899, he endeavoured to persuade General 
Roget to lead his troops upon the Elys6e. For this he was 
arrested, but on being tried for treason was acquitted (May 31). 
On the 1 2th of August he was again arrested and accused, together 
with Andre Buffet, Jules Guerin and others, of conspiracy against 
the republic. After a long trial before the high court, he was 
sentenced, on the 4th of January 1900, to ten years' banishment 
from France, and retired to San Sebastian. In 1901, he was 
again brought prominently before the public by a quarrel with 
his Royalist allies, which resulted in an abortive attempt to 
arrange a duel with M. Buffet in Switzerland. In November 
1905, however, the law of amnesty enabled him to return to 
France. 

Besides the works already mentioned, he published Le Sergent, 
in the The&tre de campagne (1880) ; De I'educalion naiionale 
(1882); Monsieur le Uhlan et les trois couleurs (1884); Le 
Premier grenadier de France; La Tour d'Auvergne (1886); Le 
Livre de la ligue des patriotes (1887); Refrains milUaires (1888); 
Histoire d 'amour (1890); a pamphlet entitled Dfsarmement? 
(1891); Chants du paysan (1894); PoSsies Militaires (1896) and 
Messire du Guesdin, drame en vers (1895); La mort de Hoche. 
Cinq actes en prose (1897); La Plus belle fille du monde, conte 
dialogue en vers litres (1898). 

DERRICK, a sort of crane (q.v.); the name is derived from 
that of a famous early 1 7th-century Tyburn hangman, and was 
originally applied as a synonym. 

DERRING-DO, valour, chivalrous conduct, or " desperate 
courage," as it is defined by Sir Walter Scott. The word in its 
present accepted substantival form is a misconstruction of the 
verbal substantive durryng or durring, daring, and do or don, 
the present infinitive of " do," the phrase dorryng do thus 
meaning " daring to do." It is used by Chaucer in Troylus, 
and by Lydgate in the Chronicles of Troy. Spenser in the 
Shepherd's Calendar first adapted derring-do as a substantive 
meaning " manhood and chevalrie," and this use was revived 
by Scott, through whom it came into vogue with writers of 
romance. 

DE RUYTER, MICHAEL ADRIANZOON (1607-1676), Dutch 
naval officer, was born at Flushing on the 24th of March 1607. 
He began his seafaring life at the age of eleven as a cabin boy, 
and in 1636 was entrusted by the merchants of Flushing with 
the command of a cruiser against the French pirates. • In 1640 he 
entered the service of the States, and, being appointed rear- 
admiral of a fleet fitted out to assist Portugal against Spain, 
specially distinguished himself at Cape St Vincent, on the 3rd of 
November 1641. In the following year he left the service of the 
States, and, until the outbreak of war with England in 1652, held 
command of a merchant vessel. In 1653 a squadron of seventy 
vessels was despatched against the English, under the command 
of Admiral Tromp. Ruyter, who accompanied the admiral in 
this expedition, seconded him with great skill and bravery in the 
three battles which were fought with the English. He was after- 
wards stationed in the Mediterranean, where he captured several 
Turkish vessels. In 1659 he received a commission to join the 
king of Denmark in his war with the Swedes. As a reward of 
his services, the king of Denmark ennobled him and gave him 
a pension. In 1661 he grounded a vessel belonging to Tunis, 
released forty Christian slaves, made a treaty with the Tunisians, 
and reduced the Algerine corsairs to submission. From his 
achievements on the west coast of Africa he was recalled in 1665 



to take command of a large fleet which had been organized 
against England, and in May of the following year, after a long 
contest off the North Foreland, he compelled the English to take 
refuge in the Thames. On the 7th of Ju-ne 1672 he fought a 
drawn battle with the combined fleets of England and France, in 
Southwold or Sole Bay, and after the fight he convoyed safely 
home a fleet of merchantmen. His valour was displayed to equal 
advantage in several engagements with the French and English 
in the folio wing year. In i676he was despatched to the assistance 
of Spain against France in the Mediterranean, and, receiving 
a mortal wound in the battle on the 21st of April off Messina, 
died on the 29th at Syracuse. A patent by the king of Spain, 
investing him with the dignity of duke, did not reach the fleet till 
after his death. His body was carried to Amsterdam, where a 
magnificent monument to his memory was erected by command 
of the states-general. 

See Life of De Ruyter by Brandt (Amsterdam, 1687), and by 
Klopp (2nd ed., Hanover, 1858). 

DERVISH, a Persian word, meaning " seeking doors," i.e. 
" beggar," and thus equivalent to the Arabic faqir (fakir). 
Generally in Islam it indicates a member of a religious fraternity, 
whether mendicant or not; but in Turkey and Persia it indicates 
more exactly a wandering, begging religious, called, in Arabic- 
speaking countries, more specifically a faqir. With important 
differences, the dervish fraternities may be compared to the 
regular religious orders of Roman Christendom, while the Ulema 
(q.v.) are, also with important differences, like the secular clergy. 
The origin and history of the mystical life in Islam, which led to 
the growth of the order of dervishes, are treated under Sufi'ism. 
It remains to treat here more particularly of (1) the dervish 
fraternities, and (2) the Sufi hierarchy. 

1. The Dervish Fraternities. — In the earlier times, the relation 
between devotees was that of master and pupil. Those inclined 
to the spiritual life gathered round a revered sheikh (murshid, 
"guide," usladh, pir, "teacher"), lived with him, shared his 
religious practices and were instructed by him. In time of 
war against the unbelievers, they might accompany him to the 
threatened frontier, and fight under his eye. Thus murdbil, 
" one who pickets his horse on a hostile frontier," has become 
the marabout (q.v.) or dervish of French Algeria; and ribat, " a 
frontier fort," has come to mean a monastery. The relation, 
also, might be for a time only. The pupil might at any time 
return to the world, when his religious education and training 
were complete. On the death of the master the memory of his 
life and sayings might go down from generation to generation, 
and men might boast themselves as pupils of his pupils. Con- 
tinuous corporations to perpetuate his name were slow in forming. 
Ghazali himself, though he founded, taught and ruled a Sufi 
cloister (khanqah) at Tus, left no order behind him. But 'Adi 
al-Hakkarl, who founded a cloister at Mosul and died about 1 163, 
was long reverenced by the 'Adawite Fraternity, and in 1166 
died 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani, from whom the Qadirite order 
descends, one of the greatest and most influential to this day. 
The troublous times of the break up of the Seljuk rule may have 
been a cause in this, as, with St Benedict, the crumbling Roman 
empire. Many existing fraternities, it is true, trace their origin 
to saints of the third, second and even first Moslem centuries, but 
that is legend purely. Similar is the tendency to claim all the 
early pious Moslems as good Sufis; collections of Sufi biography 
begin with the ten to whom Mahomet promised Paradise. So, 
too, the ultimate origin of fraternities is assigned to either Ali 
or Abu Bekr. and in Egypt all are under the rule of a direct 
descendant of the latter. 

To give a complete list of these fraternities is quite impossible. 
Commonly, thirty-two are reckoned, but many have vanished 
or have been suppressed, and there are sub-orders innumerable. 
Each has a " rule " dating back to its founder, and a ritual which 
the members perform when they meet together in their convent 
(khanqah, zawiya, takya). This may consist simply in the repeti- 
tion of sacred phrases, or it may be an elaborate performance, 
such as the whirlings of the dancing dervishes, the Mevlevites, 
an order founded by Jelal ud-Dln ar-Rurnl, the author of the 



7 6 



DERWENT 



great Persian mystical poem, the Mesnevi, and always ruled by 
one of his descendants. Jelal ud-Din was an advanced pantheist, 
and so are the Mevlevites, but that seems only to earn them the 
dislike of the Ulema,- and not to affect their standing in Islam. 
They are the most broad-minded and tolerant of all. There are 
also the performances of the Rifa'ites or " howling dervishes." 
In ecstasy they cut themselves with knives; eat live coals and 
glass, handle red-hot iron and devour serpents. They profess 
miraculous healing powers, and the head of the Sa'dites, a sub- 
order, used, in Cairo, to ride over the bodies of his dervishes 
without hurting them, the so-called Doseh (dausa). These 
different abilities are strictly regulated. Thus, one sub-order 
may eat glass and another may eat only serpents. Another 
division is made by their attitude to the law of Islam. When a 
dervish is in a state of ecstasy (majdhub), he is supposed to be 
unconscious of the actions of his body. Reputed saints, therefore, 
can do practically anything, as their souls will be supposed to be 
out of their bodies and in the heavenly regions. They may not 
only commit the vilest of actions, but neglect in general the 
ceremonial and ritual law. This goes so far that in Persia and 
Turkey dervish orders are classified as bd-shar', " with law," and 
bi-shar, " without law." The latter are really antinomians, and 
the best example of them is the Bakhtashite order, widely spread 
and influential in Turkey and Albania and connected by legend 
with the origin of the Janissaries. The Qalandarite order is known 
to all from the " Calenders " of the Thousand and One Nights. 
They separated from the Bakhtashites and are under obligation 
of perpetual travelling. The Senussi (Senussia) were the last 
order to appear, and are distinguished from the others by a 
severely puritanic and reforming attitude and strict orthodoxy, 
without any admixture of mystical slackness in faith or conduct. 
Each order is distinguished by a peculiar garb. Candidates for 
admission have to pass through a noviciate, more or less lengthy. 
First comes the 'ahd, or initial covenant, in which the neophyte 
or murld, " seeker," repents of his past sins and takes the sheikh 
of the order he enters as his guide (murskid) for the future. 
He then enters upon a course of instruction and discipline, called 
a " path " (tariqa), on which he advances through diverse 
" stations " (tnaqdmdl) or " passes " {'aqabat) of the spiritual life. 
There is a striking resemblance here to the gnostic system, with 
its seven Archon-guarded gates. On another side, it is plain that 
the sheikh, along with ordinary instruction of the novice, also 
hypnotizes him and causes him to see a series of visions, marking 
his penetration of the divine mystery. The part that hypnosis 
and autohypnosis, conscious and unconscious, has played here 
cannot easily be overestimated. The Mevlevites seem to have 
the most severe noviciate. Their aspirant has to labour as a lay 
servitor of the lowest rank for iooi days — called the karrd kolak, 
or " jackal " — before he can be received. For one day's failure 
he must begin again from the beginning. 

But besides these full members there is an enormous number 
of lay adherents, like the tertiaries of the Franciscans. Thus, 
nearly every religious man of the Turkish Moslem world is a lay 
member of one order or another, under the duty of saying certain 
prayers daily. Certain trades, too, affect certain orders. Most 
of the Egyptian Qadirites, for example, are fishermen and, on 
festival days, carry as banners nets of various colours. On this side, 
the orders bear a striking resemblance to lodges of Freemasons 
and other friendly societies, and points of direct contact have 
even been alleged between the more pantheistic and antinomian 
orders, such as the Bakhtashite, and European Freemasonry. 
On another side, just as the dhikrs of the early ascetic mystics 
suggest comparison with the class-meetings of the early 
Methodists, so these orders are the nearest approach in Islam 
to the different churches of Protestant Christendom. They are 
the only ecclesiastical organization that Islam has ever known, 
but it is a multiform organization, unclassified internally or 
externally. They differ thus from the Roman monastic orders, 
in that they are independent and self-developing, each going its 
own way in faith and practice, limited only by the universal 
conscience (ijmd', "agreement": see Mahommedan Law) of 
Islam. Strange doctrines and moral defects may develop, but 



freedom is saved, and the whole people of Islam can be reached 
and affected. 

2. Saints and the Sufi Hierarchy. — That an elaborate doctrine 
of wonder-working saints should have grown up in Islam may, at 
first sight, appear an extreme paradox. It can, however, be 
conditioned and explained. First, Mahomet left undoubted 
loop-holes for a minor inspiration, legitimate and illegitimate. 
Secondly, the Sufis, under various foreign influences, developed 
these to the fullest. Thirdly, just as the Christian church has 
absorbed much of the mythology of the supposed exterminated 
heathen religions into its cult of local saints, so Islam, to an 
even higher degree, has been overlaid and almost buried by 
the superstitions of the peoples to which it has gone. Their 
religious and legal customs have completely overcome the direct 
commands of the Koran, the traditions from Mahomet and 
even the " Agreement " of the rest of the Moslem world (see 
Mahommedan Law). The first step in this, it is true, was taken 
by Mahomet himself when he accepted the Meccan pilgrimage and 
the Black Stone. The worship of saints, therefore, has appeared 
everywhere in Islam, with an absolute belief in their miracles 
and in the value of their intercession, living or dead. 

Further, there appeared very early in Islam a belief that there 
was always in existence some individual in direct intercourse 
with God and having the right and duty of teaching and ruling 
all mankind. This individual might be visible or invisible; 
his right to rule continued. This is the basis of the Isma'Ilite 
and Shl'ite positions (see Mahommedan Religion and 
Mahommedan Institutions). The Sufis applied this idea of 
divine right to the doctrine of saints, and developed it into the 
Sufi hierarchy. This is a single, great, invisible organization, 
forming a saintly board of administration, by which the invisible 
government of the world is supposed to be carried on. Its head 
is called the Qutb (Axis); he is presumably the greatest saint 
of the time, is chosen by God for the office and given greater 
miraculous powers and rights of intercession than any other saint 
enjoys. He wanders through the world, often invisible and 
always unknown, performing the duties of his office. Under 
him there is an elaborate organization of walls, of different ranks 
and powers, according to their sanctity and faith. The term wall 
is applied to a saint because of Kor. x. 63, " Ho! the waits of 
God; there is no fear upon them, nor do they grieve," where 
wall means " one who is near ," friend or favourite. 

In the fraternities, then," all are dervishes, cloistered or lay; 
those whose faith is so great that God has given them miraculous 
powers — and there are many — are walls; begging friars are 
fakirs. All forms of life — solitary, monastic, secular, celibate, 
married, wandering, stationary, ascetic, free — are open. Their 
theology is some form of Sufi'ism. 

Authorities. — The bibliography of this subject is very large, and 
the following only a selection: — (1) On Dervishes. In Egypt, Lane's 
Modern Egyptians, chaps, x. xx., xxiv., xxv. ; in Turkey, D'Ohsson, 
Tableau general de I'emp. othoman, ii. (Paris, 1790); Turkey in 
Europe by " Odysseus " (London, 1900) ; in Persia, E. G. Browne, 
A Year among the Persians (1893) , in Morocco, T. H. Weir, Sheikhs 
of Morocco (Edinburgh, 1904) ; B. Meakin, The Moors (London, 1902), 
chap. xix. ; in Central Asia, all Vambery's books of travel and 
history. In general, Hughes, Diet, of Islam, s.v. " Faqir "; Depont 
and Cappolani, Les Confreries religieuses musulmanes (Alger, 1897) I 
J. P. Brown, The Dervishes, or Oriental Spiritualism (London, 1868). 
(2) On Saints. I. Goldziher, Muhammedanische Studien, ii. 277 ff., 
and " De l'ascetisme aux premiers temps de l'lslam " in Revue de 
I'histoire des religions, ;vol. xxxvii. pp. 134 ff. ; Lane, Modern 
Egyptians, chap. x. ; Arabian Nights, chap. iii. note 63; Vollers in 
Zeitsch. d. morgenland. Gesellsch. xliii. 115 ff. (D. B. Ma.) 

DERWENT (Celtic Dwr-gent, clear water), the name of several 
English rivers. (1) The Yorkshire Derwent collects the greater 
part of the drainage of the North Yorkshire moors, rising in their 
eastern part. A southern head-stream, however, rises in the 
Yorkshire Wolds near Filey, little more than a mile from the 
North Sea, from which it is separated by a morainic deposit, and 
thus flows in an inland direction. The early course of the Derwent 
lies through a flat open valley between the North Yorkshire moors 
and the Yorkshire Wolds, the upper part of which is known as 
the Carrs, when the river follows an artificial drainage cut. It 
receives numerous tributaries from the moors, then breaches the 



DERWENTWATER 



77 



low hills below Malton in a narrow picturesque ' valley, and 
debouches upon the central plain of Yorkshire. Its direction, 
hitherto westerly and south-westerly from the Carrs, now becomes 
southerly, and it flows roughly parallel to the Ouse, which it 
joins near Barmby-on-the-Marsh, in the level district between 
Selby and the head of the Humber estuary, after a course, 
excluding minor sinuosities, of about 70 m. As a tributary of 
the Ouse it is included in the Humber basin. It is tidal up to 
Sutton-upon-Derwent, 15 m. from the junction with the Ouse, 
and is locked up to Malton, but the navigation is little used. A 
canal leads east from the tidal water to the small market town of 
Pocklington. 

(2) The Derbyshire Derwent rises in Bleaklow Hill north of 
the Peak and traverses a narrow dale, which, with those of such 
tributary streams as the Noe, watering Hope Valley, and the Wye, 
is famous for its beauty (see Derbyshire). The Derwent flows 
south past Chatsworth, Matlock and Belper and then, passing 
Derby, debouches upon a low plain, and turns south-eastward, 
with an extremely sinuous course, to join the Trent near Sawley. 
Its length is about 60 m. It falls in all some 1 700 ft. (from 
Matlock 200 ft.), and no part is navigable, save certain reaches at 
Matlock and elsewhere for pleasure boats. 

(3) The Cumberland Derwent rises below Great End in the 
Lake District, draining Spinkling and Sty Head tarns, and flows 
through Borrowdale, receiving a considerable tributary from 
Lang Strath. It then drains the lakes of Derwentwater and 
Bassenthwaite, after which its course, hitherto N. and N.N.W., 
turns W. and W. by S. past Cockerrhouth to the Irish Sea 
at Workington. The length is about 34 m., and the fall about 
2000 ft. (from Derwentwater 244 ft.); the waters are usually 
beautifully clear, and the river is not navigable. At a former 
period this stream must have formed one large lake covering the 
whole area which includes Derwentwater and Bassenthwaite; 
between which a flat alluvial plain is formed of the deposits of 
the river Greta, which now joins the Derwent from the east 
immediately below Derwentwater, and the Newlands Beck, 
which enters Bassenthwaite. In time of high flood this plain is 
said to have been submerged, and the two lakes thus reunited. 

(4) A river Derwent rises in the Pennines near the borders of 
Northumberland and Durham, and, forming a large part of the 
boundary between these counties, takes a north-easterly course 
of 30 m. to the Tyne, which it joins 3 m. above Newcastle. 

DERWENTWATER, EARL OF, an English title borne by the 
family of Radclyffe, or Radcliffe, from 1688 to 17 16 when the 
3rd earl was attainted and beheaded, and claimed by his 
descendants, adherents of the exiled house of Stewart, from that 
date until the death of the last male heir in 1814. Sir Francis 
Radclyffe, 3rd baronet (1625-1697), was the lineal descendant of 
Sir Nicholas Radclyffe, who acquired the extensive Derwent- 
water estates in 141 7 through his marriage with the heiress of 
John de Derwentwater, and of Sir Francis Radclyffe, who was 
made a baronet in 1619. In 1688 Sir Francis was created 
Viscount Radclyffe and earl of Derwentwater by James II., 
and dying in 1697 was succeeded as 2nd earl by his eldest 
son Edward (1655-1705), who had married Lady Mary Tudor 
(d. 1726), a natural daughter of Charles II. The 2nd earl died 
in 1705, and was succeeded by his eldest son James (1689-1716), 
who was born in London on the 28th of June 1689, and was 
brought up at the court of the Stewarts in France as companion 
to Prince James Edward, the old Pretender. In 17 10 he came 
to reside on his English estates, and in July 171 2 was married to 
Anna Maria (d. 1723), daughter of Sir John Webb, baronet, of 
Odstock, Wiltshire. Joining without any hesitation in the 
Stewart rising of 171 5, Derwentwater escaped arrest owing to the 
devotion of his tenantry, and in October, with about seventy 
followers, he joined Thomas Forster at Green-rig. Like Forster 
the earl was lacking in military experience, and when the rebels 
capitulated at Preston he was conveyed to London and im- 
peached. Pleading guilty at his trial he was attainted and 
condemned to death. Great efforts were made to obtain a 
mitigation of the sentence, but the government was obdurate, 
and Derwentwater was beheaded on Tower Hill on the 24th 



of February 1716, declaring on the scaffold his devotion to the 
Roman Catholic religion and to King James III. The earl was 
very popular among his tenantry and in the neighbourhood of 
his residence, Dilston Hall. His gallant bearing and his sad 
fate have been celebrated in song and story, and the aurora 
borealis, which shone with exceptional brightness on the night of 
his execution, is known locally as " Lord Derwentwater's lights." 
He left an only son John, who, in spite of his father's attainder, 
assumed the title of earl of Derwentwater, and who died un- 
married in 1731; and a daughter Alice Mary (d. 1760), who 
married in 1732 Robert James, 8th Baron Petre (1713-1742). 

On the death of John Radclyffe in 1731 his uncle Charles 
(1693-1746), the only surviving son of the 2nd earl, took the 
title of earl of Derwentwater. Charles Radclyffe had shared the 
fate of his brother, the 3rd earl, at Preston in November 1715, 
and had been condemned to death for high treason; but, more 
fortunate than James, he had succeeded in escaping from prison, 
and had joined the Stewarts on the Continent. In 1724 he 
married Charlotte Maria (d. 1755), in her own right countess of 
Newburgh, and after spending some time in Rome, he was 
captured by an English ship in November 1745 whilst proceeding 
to join Charles Edward, the young Pretender, in Scotland. 
Condemned to death under his former sentence he was beheaded 
on the 8th of December 1 746. His eldest son, James Bartholomew 
(1725-1786), who had shared his father's imprisonment, then 
claimed the title of earl of Derwentwater, and on his mother's 
death in 1755 became 3rd earl of Newburgh. His only son 
and successor, Anthony James (1 757-1814), died without issue 
in 1 8 14, when the title became extinct de facto as well as de 
jure. Many of the forfeited estates in Northumberland and 
Cumberland had been settled upon Greenwich Hospital, and in 
1 749 a sum of £30,000 had been raised upon them for the benefit 
of the earl of Newburgh. The present representative of the 
Radclyffe family is Lord Petre, and in 1874 the bodies of the 
first three earls of Derwentwater were reburied in the family vault 
of the Petres at Thorndon, Essex. 

In 1865 a woman appeared in Northumberland who claimed 
to be a grand-daughter of the 4th earl and, as there were 
no male heirs, to be countess of Derwentwater and owner of the 
estates. She said the 4th earl had not died in 1731 but had 
married and settled in Germany. Her story aroused some 
interest, and it was necessary to eject her by force from Dilston 
Hall. 

See R. Patten, History of the Late Rebellion (London, 1717) ; W. S. 
Gibson, Dilston Hall, or Memoirs of James Radcliffe, earl of Derwent- 
water (London, 1848-1850); G. E. C(okayne), Complete Peerage 
(Exeter, 1887-1898) ; and Dictionary of National Biography, vol. xlvii. 
(London, 1896). 

DERWENTWATER, a lake of Cumberland, England, in the 
northern part of the celebrated Lake District (q.v. for the physical 
relations of the lake with the district at large). It is of irregular 
figure, approaching to an oval, about 3 m. in length and from 
\ m. to ij m. in breadth. The greatest depth is 70 ft. The lake 
is seen at one view, within an amphitheatre of mountains of 
varied outline, overlooked by others of greater height. Several 
of the lesser elevations near the lake are especially famous as 
view-points, such as Castle Head, Walla Crag, Ladder Brow and 
Cat Bells. The shores are well wooded, and the lake is studded 
with several islands, of which Lord's Island, Derwent Isle and 
St Herbert's are the principal. Lord's Island was the residence 
of the earls of Derwentwater. St Herbert's Isle receives its name 
from having been the abode of a holy man of that name mentioned 
by Bede as contemporary with St Cuthbert of Fame Island in the 
7th century. Derwent Isle, about six acres in extent, contains 
a handsome residence surrounded by lawns, gardens and timber 
of large growth. The famous Falls of Lodore, at the upper end 
of the lake, consist of a series of cascades in the small Watendlath 
Beck, which rushes over an enormous pile of protruding crags 
from a height of nearly 200 ft. The " Floating Island " appears 
at intervals on the upper portion of the lake near the mouth 
of the beck. This singular phenomenon is supposed to owe its 
appearance to an accumulation of gas, formed by the decay oi 



78 



DES ADRETS— DESAULT 



vegetable matter, detaching and raising to the surface the matted 
weeds which cover the floor of the lake at this point. The river 
Derwent (q.v.) enters the lake from the south and leaves it on the 
north, draining it through Bassenthwaite lake, to the Irish Sea. 
To the north-east of the lake lies the town of Keswick. 

DES ADRETS, FRANCOIS DE BEAUMONT, Baron (c. 1512- 
1587), French Protestant leader, was born in 1512 or 1513 at 
the chateau of La Frette (Isere) . During the reign of Henry II. of 
France he served with distinction in the royal army and became 
colonel of the " legions " of Dauphine, Provence and Languedoc. 
In 1562, however, he joined the Huguenots, not from religious 
conviction but probably from motives of ambition and personal 
dislike of the house of Guise. His campaign against the Catholics 
in 1562 was eminently successful. In June of that year Des 
Adrets was master of the greater part of Dauphine. But his 
brilliant military qualities were marred by his revolting atrocities. 
The reprisals he exacted from the Catholics after their massacres 
of the Huguenots at Orange have left a dark stain upon his name. 
The garrisons that resisted him were butchered with every cir- 
cumstance of brutality, and at Montbrison, in Forez, he forced 
eighteen prisoners to precipitate themselves from the top of the 
keep. Having alienated the affections of the Huguenots by 
his pride and violence, he entered into communication with the 
Catholics, and declared himself openly in favour of conciliation. 
On the 10th of January 1563 he was arrested on suspicion by 
some Huguenot officers and confined in the citadel of Nimes. 
He was liberated at the edict of Amboise in the following March, 
and, distrusted alike by Huguenots and Catholics, retired to the 
chateau of La Frette, where he died, a Catholic, on the 2nd of 
February 1587. 

Authorities. — J. Roman, Documents inSdits sur le baron des 
Adrets (1878); and memoirs and histories of the time. See also 
Guy Allard, Vie de Francois de Beaumont (1675) ; l'abbe J. C. Martin, 
Histoire politique et militaire de Francois de Beaumont (1803) ; Eugene 
and Emile Haag, La France protestante (2nd ed., 1877 seq.). 

DESAIX DE VEYGOUX, LOUIS CHARLES ANTOINE 

(1768-1800), French general, was born of a noble though im- 
poverished family. He received a military education at the 
school founded by Marshal d'Effiat, and entered the French 
royal army. During the first six years of his service the young 
officer devoted himself assiduously to duty and the study of his 
profession, and at the outbreak of the Revolution threw himself 
whole-heartedly into the cause of liberty. In spite of the pressure 
put upon him by his relatives, he refused to " emigrate," and 
in 1792 is found serving on Broglie's staff. The disgrace of this 
general nearly cost young Desaix his life, but he escaped the 
guillotine, and by his conspicuous services soon drew upon 
himself the favour of the Republican government. Like many 
other members of the old ruling classes who had accepted the new 
order of things, the instinct of command, joined to native ability, 
brought Desaix rapidly to high posts. By 1794 he had attained 
the rank of general of division. In the campaign of 1795 he 
commanded Jourdan's right wing, and in Moreau's invasion of 
Bavaria in the following year he held an equally important 
command. In the retreat which ensued when the archduke 
Charles won the battles of Amberg and Wiirzburg (see French 
Revolutionary Wars) Desaix commanded Moreau's rearguard, 
and later the fortress of Kehl, with the highest distinction, and 
his name became a household word, like those of Bonaparte, 
Jourdan, Hoche, Marceau and Kleber. Next year his initial 
successes were interrupted by the Preliminaries of Leoben, 
and he procured for himself a mission into Italy in order to 
meet General Bonaparte, who spared no pains to captivate the 
brilliant young general from the almost rival camps of Germany. 
Provisionally appointed commander of the " Army of England," 
Desaix was soon transferred by Bonaparte to the expeditionary 
force intended for Egypt. It was his division which bore the 
brunt of the Mameluke attack at the battle of the Pyramids, and 
he crowned his reputation by his victories over Murad Bey in 
Upper Egypt. Amongst the fellaheen he acquired the significant 
appellation of the " Just Sultan." When his chief handed over 
the command to K16ber and prepared to return to France, 



Desaix was one of the small party selected to accompany the 
future emperor. But, from various causes, it was many months 
before he could join the new Consul. The campaign of 1800 was 
well on its way to the climax when Desaix at last reported 
himself for duty in Italy. He was immediately assigned to the 
command of a corps of two infantry divisions. Three days later 
(June 14), detached, with Boudet's division, at Rivalta, he heard 
the cannon of Marengo on his right. Taking the initiative he 
marched at once towards the sound, meeting Bonaparte's staff 
officer, who had come to recall him, half way on the route. He 
arrived with Boudet's division at the moment when the Austrians 
were victorious all along the line. Exclaiming, " There is yet 
time to win another battle! " he led his three regiments straight 
against the enemy's centre. At the moment of victory Desaix 
was killed by a musket ball. Napoleon paid a just tribute to the 
memory of one of the most brilliant soldiers of that brilliant time 
by erecting the monuments of Desaix on the Place Dauphine and 
the Place des Victoires in Paris. 

See F. Martha-Beker, Comte de Mons, Le General L. C. A. Desaix 
(Paris, 1852). 

DESAUGIERS, MARC ANTOINE MADELEINE (1772-1827), 
French dramatist and song-writer, son of Marc Antoine 
D6saugiers, a musical composer, was born at Frejus (Var) on 
the 17th of November 1772. He studied at the Mazarin college 
in Paris, where he had for one of his teachers the critic Julien 
Louis Geoffroy. He entered the seminary Saint Lazare with a 
view to the priesthood, but soon gave up his intention. In his 
nineteenth year he produced in collaboration with his father a 
light opera (1791) adapted from the MSdecin malgri lui of Moliere. 

During the Revolution he emigrated to St Domingo, and during 
the negro revolt he was made prisoner, barely escaping with his 
life. He took refuge in the United States, where he supported 
himself by teaching the piano. In 1 797 he returned to his native 
country, and in a very few years he became famous as a writer of 
comedies, operas and vaudevilles, which were produced in rapid 
succession at the Theatre des Varietes and the Vaudeville. He 
also wrote convivial and satirical songs, which, though different 
in character, can only worthily be compared with those of 
Beranger. He was at one time president of the Caveau, a con- 
vivial society whose members were then chiefly drawn from 
literary circles. He had the honour of introducing Beranger as a 
member. In 1815 Desaugiers succeeded Pierre Yves Barre as 
manager of the Vaudeville, which prospered under his manage- 
ment until, in 1820, the opposition of the Gymnase proved too 
strong for him, and he resigned. He died in Paris on the 9th of 
August 1827. 

Among his pieces maybe mentioned Le Valet d'emprunt (1807); 
Monsieur Vautour (181 1); and-Le Regne d'un terme et le termed'un 
regne, aimed at Napoleon. 

An edition of Desaugiers' Chansons et Poesies diverses appeared in 
1827. A new selection with a notice by Alfred de Bougy appeared 
in 1858. See also Sainte-Beuve's Portraits contemporains, vol. v. 

DESAULT, PIERRE JOSEPH (1744-1795), French anatomist 
and surgeon, was born at Magny-Vernois (Haute Sa6ne) on the 
6th of February 1744. He was destined for the church, but his 
own inclination was towards the study of medicine; and, after 
learning something from the barber-surgeon of his native village, 
he was settled as an apprentice in the military hospital of Belfort, 
where he acquired some knowledge of anatomy and military 
surgery. Going to Paris when about twenty years of age, he 
opened a school of anatomy in the winter of 1766, the success 
of which excited the jealousy of the established teachers and 
professors, who endeavoured to make him give up his lectures. 
In 1776 he was admitted a member of the corporation of 
surgeons; and in 1782 he was appointed surgeon-major to the 
hospital De la CharitS. Within a few years he was recognized 
as one of the leading surgeons of France. The clinical school of 
surgery which he instituted at the H6tel Dieu attracted great 
numbers of students, not only from every part of France but also 
from other countries; and he frequently had an audience of 
about 600. He introduced many improvements into the practice 
of surgery, as well as into the construction of various surgical 



DES BARREAUX— DESCARTES 



79 



instruments. In 1791 he established a Journal de chirurgerie, 
edited by his pupils, which was a record of the most interesting 
cases that had occurred in his clinical school, with the remarks 
which he had made upon them in the course of his lectures. But 
in the midst of his labours he became obnoxious to some of the 
revolutionists, and he was, on some frivolpus charge, denounced 
to the popular sections. After being twice examined, he was 
seized on the 28th of May 1 793 , while delivering a lecture, carried 
away from his theatre, and committed to prison in the Luxem- 
bourg. In three days, however, he was liberated, and permitted 
to resume his functions. He died in Paris on the 1st of June 1795, 
the story that his death was caused by poison being disproved 
by the autopsy carried out by his pupil, M. F. X. Bichat. A 
pension was settled on his widow by the republic. Together 
with Francois Chopart (1 743-1 795) he published a Traits des 
maladies chirurgicales (1779), and Bichat published a digest 
of his surgical doctrines in (Euvres chirurgicales de Desault 
(1 798-1 799). 

DES BARREAUX, JACQUES VALLEE, Sieur (1602-1673), 
French poet, was born in Paris in 1602. His great-uncle, 
Geoff roy-Va!16e, had been hanged in 1574 for the authorship of 
a book called Le FISau de la joy. His nephew appears to have 
inherited his scepticism, which on one occasion nearly cost him 
his life. The peasants of Touraine attributed to the presence 
of the unbeliever an untimely frost that damaged the vines, 
and proposed to stone him. His authorship of the sonnet on 
" Penitence," by which he is generally known, has been disputed. 
He had the further distinction of being the first of the lovers of 
Marion Delorme. He died at Chalon-sur-Saone on the 9th of 
May 1673. 

See Poesies de Des Barreaux (1904), edited by F. Lachevre. 

DESBOROUGH, JOHN (1608-1680), English soldier and 
politician, son of James Desborough of Eltisley, Cambridgeshire, 
and of Elizabeth Hatley of Over, in the same county, was baptized 
on the 13th of November 1608. He was educated for the law. 
On the 23rd of June 1636 he married Eltisley Jane, daughter 
of Robert Cromwell of Huntingdon, and sister of the future 
Protector. He took an active part in the Civil War when it 
broke out, and showed considerable military ability. In 1645 he 
was present as major in the engagement at Langport on the 10th 
of July, at Hambleton Hill on the 4th of August, and on the 10th 
of September he commanded the horse at the storming of Bristol. 
Later he took part in the operations round Oxford. In 1648 
as colonel he commanded the forces at Great Yarmouth. He 
avoided all participation in the trial of the king in June 1649, 
being employed in the settlement of the west of England. He 
fought at Worcester as major-general and nearly captured 
Charles II. near Salisbury. After the establishment of the 
Commonwealth he was chosen, on the 17th of January 1652, a 
member of the committee for legal reforms. In 1653 he became 
a member of the Protectorate council of state, and a com- 
missioner of the treasury, and was appointed one of the four 
generals at sea and a commissioner for the army and navy. In 
1654 he was made constable of St Briavel's Castle in Gloucester- 
shire. Next year he was appointed major-general over the west. 
He had been nominated a member of Barebones' parliament 
in 1653, and he was returned to the parliament of 1654 for 
Cambridgeshire, and to that of 1656 for Somersetshire. In July 
1657 he became a member of the privy council, and in 1658 he 
accepted a seat in Cromwell's House of Lords. In spite of his 
near relationship to the Protector's family, he was one of the 
most violent opponents of the assumption by Cromwell of the 
royal title, and after the Protector's death, instead of supporting 
the interests and government of his nephew Richard Cromwell, 
he was, with Fleetwood, the chief instigator and organizer of the 
hostility of the army towards his administration, and forced him 
by threats and menaces to dissolve his parliament in April 1659. 
He was chosen a member of the council of state by the restored 
Rump, and made colonel and governor of Plymouth, but pre- 
senting with other officers a seditious petition from the army 
council, on the 5th of October, was about a week later dismissed. 
After the expulsion of the Rump by Fleetwood on the 13 th of 



October he was chosen by the officers a member of the new 
administration and commissary-general of the horse. The new 
military government, however, rested on no solid foundation, and 
its leaders quickly found themselves without any influence. 
Desborough himself became an object of ridicule, his regiment 
even revolted against him, and on the return of the Rump he 
was.ordered to quit London. At the restoration he was excluded 
from the act of indemnity but not included in the clause of pains 
and penalties extending to life and goods, being therefore only 
incapacitated from public employment. Soon afterwards he was 
arrested on suspicion of conspiring to kill the king and queen, 
but was quickly liberated. Subsequently he escaped to Holland, 
where he engaged in republican intrigues. Accordingly he was 
ordered home, in April 1666, on pain of incurring the charge of 
treason, and obeying was imprisoned in the Tower till February 
1667, when he was examined before the council and set free. 
Desborough died in 1680. By his first wife, Cromwell's sister, he 
had one daughter and seven sons; he married a second wife in 
April 1658 whose name is unrecorded. Desborough was a good 
soldier and nothing more; and his only conception of govern- 
ment was by force and by the army. His rough person and 
manners are the constant theme of ridicule in the royalist ballads, 
and he is caricatured in Butler's Hudibras and in the Parable 0] 
the Lion and Fox. 

DESCARTES, RENE! (1596-1650), French philosopher, was 
born at La Haye, in Touraine, midway between Tours and 
Poitiers, on the 31st of March 1596, and died at Stockholm on the 
nth of February 1650. The house where he was born is still 
shown, and a mUairie about 3 m. off retains the name of 
Les Cartes. His family on both sides was of Poitevin .descent. 
Joachim Descartes, his father, having purchased a commission 
as counsellor in the parlement of Rennes, introduced the family 
into that demi-noblesse of the robe which, between the bourgeoisie 
and the high nobility, maintained a lofty rank in French society. 
He had three children, a son who afterwards succeeded to his 
father in the parlement, a daughter who married a M. du Crevis, 
and Rene, after whose birth the mother died. 

Descartes, known as Du Perron, from a small estate destined 
for his inheritance, soon showed an inquisitive mind. From 
1604 to 1612 he studied at the school of La Fleche, 
which Henry IV. had lately founded and endowed for ye ^ s . 
the Jesuits. He enjoyed exceptional privileges; his 
feeble health excused him from the morning duties, and thus 
early he acquired the habit of reflection in bed, which clung to 
him throughout life. Even then he had begun to distrust the 
authority of tradition and his teachers. Two years before he 
left school he was selected as one of the twenty-four who went 
forth to receive the heart of Henry IV. as it was bome to its 
resting-place at La Fleche. At the age of sixteen he went home 
to his father, who was now settled at Rennes, and had married 
again. During the winter of 1612 he completed his preparations 
for the world by lessons in horsemanship and fencing; and then 
started as his own master to taste the pleasures of Parisian life. 
Fortunately he went to no perilous lengths; the worst we hear 
of is a passion for gaming. Here, too, he made the acquaintance 
of Claude Mydorge, one of the foremost mathematicians of France, 
and renewed an early intimacy with Marin Mersenne (g.v.), now 
Father Mersenne, of the order of Minim friars. The withdrawal 
of Mersenne in 1614 to a post in the provinces was the signal for 
Descartes to abandon social life and shut himself up for nearly 
two years in a secluded house of the faubourg St Germain. 
Accident betrayed the secret of his retirement; he was com- 
pelled to leave his mathematical investigations, and to take part 
in entertainments, where the only thing that chimed in with his 
theorizing reveries was the music. French politics were at that 
time characterized by violence and intrigue to such an extent 
that Paris was no fit place for a student, and there was little 
honourable prospect for a soldier. Accordingly, in May 1617, 
Descartes set out for the Netherlands and took service in the 
army of Prince Maurice of Orange. At Breda he enlisted as a 
volunteer, and the first and only pay which he accepted he kept: 
as a curiosity through life. There was a lull in the war, and the 



8o 



DESCARTES 



Netherlands was distracted by the quarrels of Gomarists and 
Arminians. During the leisure thus arising, Descartes one day 
had his attention drawn to a placard in the Dutch tongue; as 
the language, of which he never became perfectly master, was 
then strange to him, he asked a bystander to interpret it into 
either French or Latin. The stranger, Isaac Beeckman, principal 
of the college of Dort, offered to do so into Latin, if the inquirer 
would bring him a solution of the problem, — for the advertise- 
ment was one of those challenges which the mathematicians of 
the age were accustomed to throw down to all comers, daring 
them to discover a geometrical mystery known as they fancied 
to themselves alone. Descartes promised and fulfilled; and a 
friendship grew up between him and Beeckman — broken only 
by the dishonesty of the latter, who in later years took credit for 
the novelty contained in a small essay on music (Compendium 
Musicae) which Descartes wrote at this period and entrusted to 
Beeckman. 1 

After spending two years in Holland as a soldier in a period 
of peace, Descartes, in July 1610, attracted by the news of 
the impending struggle between the house of Austria and the 
Protestant princes, consequent upon the election of the palatine 
of the Rhine to the kingdom of Bohemia, set out for upper 
Germany, and volunteered into the Bavarian service. The 
winter of 1610, spent in quarters at Neuburg on the Danube, was 
the critical period in his life. Here, in his warm room {dans un 
poele), he indulged those meditations which afterwards led to the 
Discourse of Method. It was here that, on the eve of St Martin's 
day, he " was filled with enthusiasm, and discovered the founda- 
tions of a marvellous science." He retired to rest with anxious 
thoughts of his future career, which haunted him through the 
night in three dreams that left a deep impression on his mind. 
The date of his philosophical conversion is thus fixed to a day. 
But as yet he had only glimpses of a logical method which should 
invigorate the syllogism by the co-operation of ancient geometry 
and modern algebra. For during the year that elapsed before he 
left Swabia (and whilst he sojourned at Neuburg and Ulm), and 
amidst his geometrical studies, he would fain have gathered some 
knowledge of the mystical wisdom attributed to the Rosicrucians; 
but the Invisibles, as they called themselves, kept their secret. 
He was present at the battle of Weisser Berg (near Prague), where 
the hopes of the elector palatine were blasted (November 8, 
1620), passed the winter with the army in southern Bohemia, 
and next year served in Hungary under Karl Bonaventura de 
Longueval, Graf von Buquoy or Boucquoi (1571-1621). On the 
death of this general Descartes quitted the imperial service, and 
in July 162 1 began a peaceful tour through Moravia, the borders 
of Poland, Pomerania, Brandenburg, Holstein and Friesland, 
from which he reappeared in February 1622 in Belgium, and 
betook himself directly to his father's home at Rennes in 
Brittany. 

At Rennes Descartes found little to interest him; and, after 
he had visited the maternal estate of which his father now put 
him in possession, he went to Paris, where he found the Rosi- 
crucians the topic of the hour, and heard himself credited with 
partnership in their secrets. A short visit to Brittany enabled 
him, with his father's consent, to arrange for the sale of his 
property in Poitou. The proceeds were invested in such a way 
at Paris as to bring him in a yearly income of between 6000 and 
7000 francs (equal now to more than £500). Towards the end 
of the year Descartes was on his way to Italy. The natural 
phenomena of Switzerland, and the political complications in 
the Valtellina, where the Catholic inhabitants had thrown off the 
yoke of the Grisons and called in the Papal and Spanish troops 
to their assistance, delayed him some time; but he reached 
Venice in time to see the ceremony of the doge's wedlock with the 
Adriatic. After paying his vows at Loretto, he came to Rome, 
which was then on the eve of a year of jubilee — an occasion which 
Descartes seized to observe the variety of men and manners which 
the city then embraced within its walls. In the spring of 1625 

1 It was only published after the author's death ; and of it, besides 
the French version, there exists an English translation " by a Person 
of Quality." 



he returned home by Mont Cenis, observing the avalanches,' 
instead of, as his relatives hoped, securing a post in the French 
army in Piedmont. 

For an instant Descartes seems to have concurred in the plan 
of purchasing a post at Chatellerault, but he gave up the idea, 
and settled in Paris (June 1625), in the quarter where he had 
sought seclusion before. By this time he had ceased to devote 
himself to pure mathematics, and in company with his friends 
Mersenne and Mydorge was deeply interested in the theory of 
the refraction of light, and in the practical work of grinding 
glasses of the best shape suitable for optical instruments. But 
all the while he was engaged with reflections on the nature of 
man, of the soul and of God, and for a while he remained invisible 
even to his most familiar friends. But their importunity made a 
hermitage in Paris impossible; a graceless friend even surprised 
the philosopher in bed at eleven in the morning meditating and 
taking notes. In disgust, Descartes started for the west to take 
part in the siege of La Rochelle, and entered the city with the 
troops (October 1628) . A meeting at which he was present after 
his return to Paris decided his vocation. He had expressed an 
opinion that the true art of memory was not to be gained by 
technical devices, but by a philosophical apprehension of things; 
and the cardinal de Berulle, the founder of the Congregation of 
the Oratory, was so struck by the tone of the remarks as to 
impress upon the speaker the duty of spending his life in the 
examination of truth. Descartes accepted the philosophic 
mission, and in the spring of 1629 he settled in Holland. His 
financial affairs he had entrusted to the care of the abb6 Picot, 
and as his literary and scientific representative he adopted 
Mersenne. 

Till 1649 Descartes lived in Holland. Thrice only did he 
revisit France — in 1644, 1647 and 1648. The first of these 
occasions was in order to settle family affairs after the death 
of his father in 1640. The second brief visit, in 1647, partly on 
literary, partly on family business, was signalized by the award 
of a pension of 3000 francs, obtained from the royal bounty 
by Cardinal Mazarin. The last visit in 1648 was less fortunate. 
A royal order summoned him to France for new honours — an 
additional pension and a permanent post — for his fame had by 
this time gone abroad, and it was the age when princes sought to 
attract genius and learning to their courts. But when Descartes 
arrived, he found Paris rent asunder by the civil war of the 
Fronde. He paid the costs of his royal parchment, and left 
without a word of reproach. The only other occasions on which 
he was out of the Netherlands were in 1630, when he made a 
flying visit to England to observe for himself some alleged 
magnetic phenomena, and in 1634, when he took an excursion 
to Denmark. 

During his residence in Holland he lived at thirteen different 
places, and changed his abode twenty-four times. In the choice 
of these spots two motives seem to have influenced him — the 
neighbourhood of a university or college, and the amenities of 
the situation. Among these towns were Franeker in Friesland, 
Harderwyk, Deventer, Utrecht, Leiden, Amersfoort, Amster- 
dam, Leeuwarden in Friesland. His favourite residences were 
Endegeest, Egmond op den Hoef and Egmond the Abbey (west 
of Zaandam). 

The time thus spent seems to have been on the whole happy, 
even allowing for warm discussions with the mathematicians 
and metaphysicians of France, and for harassing controversies in 
the Netherlands. Friendly agents — chiefly Catholic priests — were 
the intermediaries who forwarded his correspondence from Dort, 
Haarlem, Amsterdam and Leiden to his proper address, which he 
kept completely secret; and Father Mersenne sent him objections 
and questions. His health, which in his youth had been bad, 
improved. " I sleep here ten hours every night," he writes 
from Amsterdam, " and no care ever shortens my slumber." 
" I take my walk every day through the confusion of a great 
multitude with as much freedom and quiet as you could find in 
your rural avenues." 3 At his first coming to Franeker he 
arranged to get a cook acquainted with French cookery; but, 
2 (Euvres, v. 255. * lb. vi. 199. 



DESCARTES 



81 



to prevent misunderstanding, it may be added that his diet was 
mainly vegetarian, and that he rarely drank wine. New friends 
gathered round him who took, a keen interest in his researches. 
Once only do we find him taking an interest in the affairs of his 
neighbours, — to ask pardon from the government for a homicide. 1 
He continued the profession of his religion. Sometimes from 
curiosity he went to the ministrations of anabaptists, 2 to hear 
the preaching of peasants and artisans. He carried few books 
to Holland with him, but a Bible and the Summa of Thomas 
Aquinas were amongst them. 3 One of the recommendations of 
Egmond the Abbey was the free exercise there allowed to the 
Catholic religion. At Franeker his house was a small chateau, 
" separated by a moat from the rest of the town, where the mass 
could be said in safety." * And one motive in favour of accepting 
an invitation to England lay in the alleged leanings of Charles I. 
to the older church. 

The best account of Descartes's mental history during his 
life in Holland is contained in his letters, which extend over the 
whole period, and are particularly frequent in the latter half. 
The majority of them are addressed to Mersenne, and deal with 
problems of physics, musical theory (in which he took a special 
interest), and mathematics. Several letters between 1643 and 
1649 are addressed to the princess Elizabeth, the eldest daughter 
of the ejected elector palatine, who lived at The Hague, where her 
mother maintained the semblance of a royal court. The princess 
was obliged to quit Holland, but kept up a philosophical corre- 
spondence with Descartes. It is to her that the Principles of 
Philosophy were dedicated; and in her alone, according to 
Descartes, were united those generally separated talents for 
metaphysics and for mathematics which are so characteristically 
co-operative in the Cartesian system. Two Dutch friends, 
Constantijn Huygens (von Zuylichem), father of the more 
celebrated Huygens, and Hoogheland, figure amongst the 
correspondents, not to mention various savants, professors and 
churchmen (particularly Jesuits). 

His residence in the Netherlands fell in the most prosperous 
and brilliant days of the Dutch state, under the stadtholdership 
of Frederick Henry (1625-1647). Abroad its navigators mono- 
polized the commerce of the world, and explored unknown seas; 
at home the Dutch school of painting reached its acme in 
Rembrandt (1607-1669); and the philological reputation of 
the country was sustained by Grotius, Vossius and the elder 
Heinsius. And yet, though Rembrandt's " Nightwatch " is dated 
the very year after the publication of the Meditations, not a word 
in Descartes breathes of any work of art or historical learning. 
The contempt of aesthetics and erudition is characteristic of the 
most typical members of what is known as the Cartesian school, 
especially Malebranche. Descartes was not in any strict sense a 
reader. His wisdom grew mainly out of his own reflections and 
experiments. The story of his disgust when he found that 
Queen Christina devoted some time every day to the study of 
Greek under the tuition of Vossius is at least true in substance. 6 
It gives no evidence of science, he remarks, to possess a tolerable 
knowledge of the Roman tongue, such as once was possessed by 
the populace of Rome. 6 In all his travels he studied only the 
phenomena of nature and human life. He was a spectator 
rather than an actor on the stage of the world. He entered the 
army, merely because the position gave a vantage-ground from 
which to make his observations. In the political interests which 
these contests involved he took no part; his favourite disciple, 
the princess Elizabeth, was the daughter of the banished king, 
against whom he had served in Bohemia; and Queen Christina, 
his second royal follower, was the daughter of Gustavus 
Adolphus. 

Thus Descartes is a type of that spirit of science to which 
erudition and all the heritage of the past seem but elegant 
trifling. The science of Descartes was physics in all its branches, 
but especially as applied to physiology. Science, he says, may 
be compared to a tree; metaphysics is the root, physics is the 
trunk, and the three chief branches are mechanics, medicine and 



1 CEuvres, viii. 59. 
4 lb. vi. 123. 



2 76. viii. 173. 
5 76. x. 375. 



3 lb. viii. 181. 

• lb. ix. 6. 



morals, — the three applications of our knowledge to the outward 
world, to the human body, and to the conduct of life. 7 

Such then was the work that Descartes had in view in Holland. 
His residence was generally divided into two parts — one his 
workshop for science, the other his reception-room for society. 
" Here are my books," he is reported to have told a visitor, as he 
pointed to the animals he had dissected. He worked hard at his 
book on refraction, and dissected the heads of animals in order to 
explain imagination and memory, which he considered physical 
processes. 8 But he was not a laborious student. " I can say 
with truth," he writes to the princess Elizabeth, 9 " that the 
principle which I have always observed in my studies, and which 
I believe has helped me most to gain what knowledge I have, has 
been never to spend beyond a very few hours daily in thoughts 
which occupy the imagination, and a very few hours yearly in 
those which occupy the understanding, and to give all the rest of 
my time to the relaxation of the senses and the repose of the 
mind." But his expectations from the study of anatomy and 
physiology went a long way. " The conservation of health," 
he writes in 1646, " has always been the principal end of my 
studies." 10 In 1629 he asks Mersenne to take care of himself 
" till I find out if there is any means of getting a medical theory 
based on infallible demonstrations, which is what I am now 
inquiring." 11 Astronomical inquiries in connexion with optics, 
meteorological phenomena, and, in a word, the whole field 
of natural laws, excited his desire to explain them. His own 
observation, and the reports of Mersenne, furnished his data. Of 
Bacon's demand for observation and collection of facts he is 
an imitator; and he wishes (in a letter of 1632) that " some one 
would undertake to give a history of celestial phenomena after 
the method of Bacon, and describe the sky exactly as it appears 
at present, without introducing a single hypothesis." 12 

He had several writings in hand during the early years of his 
residence in Holland, but the main work of this period was a 
physical doctrine of the universe which he termed The World. 
Shortly after his arrival he writes to Mersenne that it will prob- 
ably be finished in 1633, but meanwhile asks him not to disclose 
the secret to his Parisian friends. Already anxieties appear as to 
the theological verdict upon two of his fundamental views— the 
infinitude of the universe, and the earth's rotation round the 
sun. 13 But towards the end of year 1633 we find him writing as 
follows: — " I had intended sending you my World as a New 
Year's gift, and a fortnight ago I was still minded to send you a 
fragment of the work, if the whole of it could not be transcribed 
in time. But I have just been at Leyden and Amsterdam to 
ask after Galileo's cosmical system as I imagined I had heard of 
its being printed last year in Italy. I was told that it had been 
printed, but that every copy had been at the same time burnt at 
Rome, and that Galileo had been himself condemned to some 
penalty." 14 He has also seen a copy of Galileo's condemnation 
at Liege (September 20, 1633), with the words "although he 
professes that the [Copernican] theory was only adopted by him 
as a hypothesis." His friend Beeckman lent him a copy of 
Galileo's work, which he glanced through in his usual manner 
with other men's books; he found it good, and " failing more 
in the points where it follows received opinions than where it 
diverges from them." 15 The consequence of these reports of the 
hostility of the church led him to abandon all thoughts of 
publishing. The World was consigned to his desk; and although 
doctrines in all essential respects the same constitute the physical 
portion of his Principia, it was not till after the death of Descartes 
that fragments of the work, including Le Monde, or ? treatise on 
light, and the physiological tracts L' Homme and La Formation du 
foetus, were given to the world by his admirer Claude Clerselier 
(1614-1684) in 1664. Descartes was not disposed to be a 
martyr; he had a sincere respect for the church, and had no 
wish to begin an open conflict with established doctrines. 

In 1636 Descartes had resolved to publish some specimens of 
the fruits of his method, and some general observations on its 



7 76. iii. 24. 
10 lb. ix. 341. 
13 lb. vi. 73. 



* lb. vi. 234. 
11 lb. vi. 89. 
14 lb. vi. 239, 



9 lb. ix. 131. 
12 76. vi. 210. 
i 6 76, vi. 248, 



82 



DESCARTES 



nature which, under an appearance of simplicity, might sow the 
good seed of more adequate ideas on the world and man. " I 
should be glad," he says, when talking of a publisher, 1 " if the 
whole book were printed in good type, on good paper, and I 
should like to have at least 200 copies for distribution. The book 
will contain four essays, all in French, with the general title of 
' Project of a Universal science, capable of raising our nature to 
its highest perfection; also Dioptrics, Meteors and Geometry, 
wherein the most curious matters which the author could select 
as a proof of the universal science which he proposes are explained 
in such a way that even the unlearned may understand them.' " 
The work appeared anonymously at Leiden (published by Jean 
Maire) in 1637, under the modest title of Essais philosophiques; 
and the project of a universal science becomes the Diseours de la 
methode pour Men conduire sa raison et chercher la virile" dans les 
sciences. In 1644 it appeared in a Latin version, revised by 
Descartes, as Specimina philosophica. A work so widely circu- 
lated by the author naturally attracted attention, but in France 
it was principally the mathematicians who took it up, and their 
criticisms were more pungent than complimentary. Fermat, 
Roberval and Desargues took exception in their various ways to 
the methods employed in the geometry, and to the demonstra- 
tions of the laws of refraction given in the Dioptrics and Meteors. 
The dispute on the latter point between Fermat and Descartes 
was continued, even after the philosopher's death, as late as 
1662. In the youthful Dutch universities the effect of the essays 
was greater. 

The first public teacher of Cartesian views was Henri Renery, 
a Belgian, who at Deventer and afterwards at Utrecht had 
introduced the new philosophy which he had learned 
Spread of f rom personal intercourse with Descartes. Renery 
slanism. on ty survived five years at Utrecht, and it was reserved 
for Heinrich Regius (van Roy) — who in 1638 had been 
appointed to the new chair of botany and theoretical medicine 
at Utrecht, and who visited Descartes at Egmond in order more 
thoroughly to learn his views — to throw down the gauntlet to 
the adherents of the old methods. With more eloquence than 
judgment, he propounded theses bringing into relief the points 
in which the new doctrines clashed with the old. The attack was 
opened by Gisbert Voet, foremost among the orthodox theo- 
logical professors and clergy of Utrecht. In 1639 he published a 
series of arguments against atheism, in which the Cartesian views 
were not obscurely indicated as perilous for the faith, though no 
name was mentioned. Next year he persuaded the magistracy 
to issue an order forbidding Regius to travel beyond the received 
doctrine. The magisterial views seem to have prevailed in the 
professoriate, which formally in March 1642 expressed its dis- 
approbation of the new philosophy as well as of its expositors. 
As yet Descartes was not directly attacked. Voet now issued, 
under the name of Martin Schoock, one of his pupils, a pamphlet 
with the title of Methodus novae philosophiae Renati Descartes, in 
which atheism and infidelity were openly declared to be the effect 
of the new teaching. Descartes replied to Voet directly in a letter, 
published at Amsterdam in 1643. He was summoned before the 
magistrates of Utrecht to defend himself against charges of 
irreligion and slander. What might have happened we cannot 
tell; but Descartes threw himself on the protection of the French 
ambassador and the prince of Orange, and the city magistrates, 
from whom he vainly demanded satisfaction in a dignified letter, 2 
were snubbed by their superiors. About the same time (April 
1645) Schoock was summoned before the university of Groningen, 
of which he was a member, and forthwith disavowed the more 
abusive passages in his book. So did the effects of the odium 
theologicum, for the meanwhile at least, die away. 

In the Discourse of Method Descartes had sketched the main 
points in his new views, with a mental autobiography which 
Discourse m isht explain their origin, and with some suggestions 
of Method, as to their applications. His second great work,. 
aadMedl- Meditations on the First Philosophy, which had been 
tatiocs. begun soon after his settlement in the Netherlands, 
expounded in more detail the foundations of his system, 
1 CEuvres, vi. 276. 2 lb. ix. 250. 



laying especial emphasis on the priority of mind to body, and on 
the absolute and ultimate dependence of mind as well as body on 
the existence of God. In 1640 a copy of the work in manuscript 
was despatched to Paris, and Mersenne was requested to lay it 
before as many thinkers and scholars as he deemed desirable, 
with a view to getting their views upon its argument and doctrine. 
Descartes soon had a formidable list of objections to reply to. 
Accordingly, when the work was published at Paris in August 
1 64 1, under the title of Meditationes de prima philosophia ubi de 
Dei existentia et animae immortalitate (though it was in fact not 
the immortality but the immateriality of the mind, or, as the 
second edition described it, animae humanae a cor pore distinctio, 
which was maintained), the title went on to describe the larger 
part of the book as containing various objections of learned 
men, with the replies of the author. These objections in the first 
edition are arranged under six heads: the first came from 
Caterus, a theologian of Louvain; the second and sixth are 
anonymous criticisms from various hands; whilst the third, 
fourth and fifth belong respectively to Hobbes, Arnauld and 
Gassendi. In the second edition appeared the seventh — objec- 
tions from Pere Bourdin, a Jesuit teacher of mathematics in 
Paris; and subsequently another set of objections, known 
as those of Hyperaspistes, was included in the collection of 
Descartes's letters. The anonymous objections are very much 
the statement of common-sense against philosophy; those of 
Caterus criticize the Cartesian argument from the traditional 
theology of the church; those of Arnauld are an appreciative 
inquiry into the bearings and consequences of the meditations 
for religion and morality; while those of Hobbes (q.v.) and 
Gassendi — both somewhat senior to Descartes and with a 
dogmatic system of their own already formed— are a keen assault 
upon the spiritualism of the Cartesian position from a generally 
" sensational " standpoint. The criticisms of the last two are 
the criticisms of a hostile school of thought; those of Arnauld 
are the difficulties of a possible disciple. 

In 1644 the third great work of Descartes, the Principia 
philosophiae, appeared at Amsterdam. Passing briefly over 
the conclusions arrived at in the Meditations, it deals 
in its second, third and fourth parts with the general It*™"' 
principles of physical science, especially the laws of 
motion, with the theory of vortices, and with the phenomena of 
heat, light, gravity, magnetism, electricity, &c, upon the earth. 
This work exhibits some curious marks of caution. Undoubtedly, 
says Descartes, the world was in the beginning created in all its 
perfection. "But yet as it is best, if we wish to understand the 
nature of plants or of men, to consider how they may by degrees 
proceed from seeds, rather than how they were created by God 
in the beginning of the world, so, if we can excogitate some 
extremely simple and comprehensible principles, out of which, 
as if they were seeds, we can prove that stars, and earth and all 
this visible scene could have originated, although we know full 
well that they never did originate in such a way, we shall in that 
way expound their nature far better than if we merely described 
them as they exist at present." 3 The Copernican theory is 
rejected in name, but retained in substance. The earth, or other 
planet, does not actually move round the sun; yet it is carried 
round the sun in the subtle matter of the great vortex, where it 
lies in equilibrium, — carried like the passenger in a boat, who may 
cross the sea and yet not rise from his berth. 

In 1647 the difficulties that had arisen at Utrecht were repeated 
on a smaller scale at Leiden. There the Cartesian innovations 
had found a patron in Adrian Heerebord, and were openly 
discussed in theses and lectures. The theological professors took 
the alarm at passages in the Meditations; an attempt to prove 
the existence of God savoured, as they thought, of atheism anc 
heresy. When Descartes complained to the authorities of this 
unfair treatment, 4 the only reply was an order by which all 
mention of the name of Cartesianism, whether favourable or 
adverse, was forbidden in the university. This was scarcely 
what Descartes wanted, and again he had to apply to the prince 
of Orange, whereupon the theologians were asked to behave with 
3 Princip. L. iii. S. 45. * CEuvres, x. 26. 



DESCARTES 



83 



civility, and the name of Descartes was no longer proscribed. 
But other annoyances were not wanting from unfaithful disciples 
and unsympathetic critics. The Instantiae of Gassendi appeared 
at Amsterdam in 1644 as a reply to the reply which Descartes had 
published of his previous objections; and the publication by 
Heinrich Regius of his work on physical philosophy (Fundamenta 
physices, 1646) gave the world to understand that he had ceased 
to be a thorough adherent of the philosophy which he had so 
enthusiastically adopted. 

It was about 1648 that Descartes lost his friends Mersenne 
and Mydorge by death. The place of Mersenne as his Parisian 
representative was in the main taken by Claude Clerselier (the 
French translator of the Objections and Responses), whom he had 
become acquainted with in Paris. Through Clerselier he came to 
know Pierre Chanut, who in 1645 was sent as French ambassador 
to the court of Sweden. Queen Christina was not yet twenty, 
and took a lively if a somewhat whimsical interest in literary 
and philosophical culture. Through Chanut, with whom she 
was on terms of familiarity, she came to hear of Descartes, and a 
correspondence which the latter nominally carried on with the 
ambassador was in reality intended for the eyes of the queen. 
The correspondence took an ethical tone. It began with a long 
letter on love in all its aspects (February 1647) >' a topic suggested 
by Chanut, who had been discussing it with the queen; and this 
was soon followed by another to Christina herself on the chief 
good. An essay on the passions of the mind (Passions de I'ame), 
which had been written originally for the princess Elizabeth, 
in development of some ethical views suggested by the De vita 
beata of Seneca, was enclosed at the same time for Chanut. It 
was a draft of the work published in 1650 under the same title. 
Philosophy, particularly that of Descartes, was becoming a 
fashionable divertissement for the queen and her courtiers, and 
it was felt that the presence of the sage himself was necessary 
to complete the good work of education. An invitation to 
the Swedish court was urged upon Descartes, and after much 
hesitation accepted; a vessel of the royal navy was ordered 
to wait upon him, and in September 1649 he left Egmond for 
the north. 

The position on which he entered at Stockholm was unsuited 
for a man who wished to be his own master. The young queen 
wanted Descartes to draw up a code for a proposed 
ea ' academy of the sciences, and to give her an hour of 
philosophic instruction every morning at five. She had already 
determined to create him a noble, and begun to look out an estate 
in the lately annexed possessions of Sweden on the Pomeranian 
coast. But these things were not to be. His friend Chanut fell 
dangerously ill; and Descartes, who devoted himself to attend 
in the sick-roonij was obliged to issue from it every morning in 
the chill northern air of January, and spend an hour in the palace 
library. The ambassador recovered, but Descartes fell a victim 
to the same disease, inflammation of the lungs. The last time he 
saw the queen was on the 1st of February 1650, when he handed 
to her the statutes he had drawn up for the proposed academy. 
On the 1 ith of February he died. The queen wished to bury him 
at the feet of the Swedish kings, and to raise a costly mausoleum 
in his honour; but' these plans were overruled, and a plain 
monument in the Catholic cemetery was all that marked the place 
of his rest. Sixteen years after his death the French treasurer 
d'Alibert made arrangements for the conveyance of the ashes to 
his native land; and in 1667 they were interred in the church of 
Ste Genevieve du Mont, the modern Pantheon. In 1819, after 
being temporarily deposited in a stone sarcophagus in the court 
of the Louvre during the Revolutionary epoch, they were 
transferred to St Germain-des-Pres, where they now repose 
between Montfaucon and Mabillon. A monument was raised 
to his memory at Stockholm by Gustavus III.; and a modern 
statue has been erected to him at Tours, with an inscription on 
the pedestal: " Je pense, done je suis." 

Descartes never married, and had little of the amorous in his 
temperament. He has alluded to a. childish fancy for a young 
girl with a slight obliquity of vision; but he only mentions it 
1 CEuvres, x. 3. 



a propos of the consequent weakness which led him ta associate 
such a defect with beauty. 2 In person he was small, with large 
head, projecting brow, prominent nose, and eyes wide apart, 
with black hair coming down almost to his eyebrows. His voice 
was feeble. He usually dressed in black, with unobtrusive 
propriety. 

Philosophy. — The end of all study, says Descartes, in one of his 
earliest writings, ought to be to guide the mind to form true and 
sound judgments on every thing that may be presented to it. 3 
The sciences in their totality are but the intelligence of man; 
and all the details of knowledge have no value save as they 
strengthen the understanding. The mind is not for the sake of 
knowledge, but knowledge for the sake of the mind. This is the 
reassertion of a principle which the middle ages had lost sight of 
— that knowledge, if it is to have any value, must be intelligence, 
and not erudition. 

But how is intelligence, as opposed to erudition, possible? 
The answer to that question is the method of Descartes. That 
idea of a method grew up with his study of geometry _ 

and arithmetic, — the only branches of knowledge mattes. 
which he would allow to be " made sciences." But 
they did not satisfy his demand for intelligence. " I found in 
them," he says, " different propositions on numbers of which, 
after a calculation, I perceived the truth; as for the figures, I 
had, so to speak, many truths put before my eyes, and many 
others concluded from them by analogy; but it did not seem to me 
that they told my mind with sufficient clearness why the things 
were as I was shown, and by what means their discovery was 
attained." 4 The mathematics of which he thus speaks included 
the geometry of the ancients, as it had been handed down to the 
modern world, and arithmetic with the developments it had 
received in the direction of algebra. The ancient geometry, as we 
know it, is a wonderful monument of ingenuity — a series of 
tours de force, in which each problem to all appearance stands 
alone, and, if solved, is solved by methods and principles peculiar 
to itself. Here and there particular curves, for example, had 
been obliged to yield the secret of their tangent; but the ancient 
geometers apparently had no consciousness of the general 
bearings of the methods which they so successfully applied. 
Each problem was something unique; the elements of transition 
from one to another were.Jvanting; and the next step which 
mathematics had to make was to find some method of reducing, 
for instance, all curves to a common notation. When that was 
found, the solution of one problem would immediately entail the 
solution of all others which belonged to the same series as itself. 

The arithmetical half of mathematics, which had been gradually 
growing into algebra, and had decidedly established itself as such 
in the Ad logisticen speciosam notae prior es of Francois Vieta 
(1540-1603), supplied to some extent the means of generalizing 
geometry." And the algebraists or arithmeticians of the 16th 
century, such as Luca Pacioli (Lucas de Borgo), Geronimo or 
Girolamo Cardano (1501-1576), and Niccola Tartaglia (1506- 
1559), had used geometrical constructions to throw light on 
the solution of particular equations. But progress was made 
difficult, in consequence of the clumsy and irregular nomenclature 
employed. With Descartes the use of exponents as now employed 
for denoting the powers of a quantity becomes systematic; and 
without some such step by which the homogeneity of successive 
powers is at once recognized, the binomial theorem could scarcely 
have been detected. The restriction of the early letters of the 
alphabet to known, and of the late letters to unknown, quantities 
is also his work. In this and other details he crowns and com- 
pletes, in a form henceforth to be dominant for the language 
of algebra, the work of numerous obscure predecessors, such as 
Etienne de la Roche, Michael Stifel or Stiefel (1487-1567), and 
others. 

Having thus perfected the instrument, his next step was to 
apply it in such a way as to bring uniformity of method into the 
isolated and independent operations of geometry. " I had no 
intention," 6 he says in the Method., " of attempting to master all 

1 Regulae, CEuvres, xi. 202. 
6 Disc, de methode, part ii. 



2 lb. x. 53. 

4 CEuvres, id. 219. 



8 4 



DESCARTES 



the particular sciences commonly called mathematics; but as I 
observed that, with all differences in their objects, they agreed in 
considering merely the various relations or proportions subsisting 
among these objects, I thought it best for my purpose to consider 
these relations in the most general form possible, without refer- 
ring them to any objects in particular except such as would 
most facilitate the knowledge of them. Perceiving further, that 
in order to understand these relations I should sometimes have 
to consider them one by one, and sometimes only to bear them in 
mind or embrace them in the aggregate, I thought that, in order 
the better to consider them individually, I should view them as 
subsisting between straight lines, than which I could find no 
objects more simple, or capable of being more distinctly repre- 
sented to my imagination and senses; and on the other hand 
that, in order to retain them in the memory or embrace an 
aggregate of many, I should express them by certain characters, 
the briefest possible." Such is the basis of the algebraical or 
modern analytical geometry. The problem of the curves is 
solved by their reduction to a problem of straight lines; and the 
locus of any point is determined by its distance from two given 
straight lines — the axes of co-ordinates. Thus Descartes gave 
to modern geometry that abstract and general character in 
which consists its superiority to the geometry of the ancients. 
In another question connected with this, the problem of drawing 
tangents to any curve, Descartes was drawn into a controversy 
with Pierre (de) Fermat (1601-1663), Gilles Persone de Roberval 
(1602-1675), and Girard Desargues (1593-1661). Fermat and 
Descartes agreed in regarding the tangent to a curve as a secant 
of that curve with the two points of intersection coinciding, while 
Roberval regarded it as the direction of the composite movement 
by which the curve can be described. Both these methods, 
differing from that now employed, are interesting as preliminary 
steps towards the method of fluxions and the differential calculus. 
In pure algebra Descartes expounded and illustrated the general 
methods of solving equations up to those of the fourth degree 
(and believed that his method could go beyond), stated the law 
which connects the positive and negative roots of an equation 
with the changes of sign in the consecutive terms, and introduced 
the method of indeterminate coefficients for the solution of 
equations. 1 These innovations have been attributed on in- 
adequate evidence to other algebraists, e.g. William Oughtred 
(1575-1660) and Thomas Harriot (1560-1621). 

The Geometry of Descartes, unlike the other parts of his essays, 
is not easy reading. It dashes at once into the middle of the 
subjects with the examination of a problem which had baffled 
the ancients, and seems as if it were tossed at the heads of 
the French geometers as a challenge. An edition of it ap- 
peared subsequently, with notes by his friend Florimond de 
Beaune (1601-1652), calculated to smooth the difficulties of 
the work. All along mathematics was regarded by' Descartes 
rather as the envelope than the foundation of his method; and 
the " universal mathematical science " which he sought after 
was only the prelude of a universal science of all-embracing 
character. 2 

The method of Descartes rests upon the proposition that all 
the objects of our knowledge fall into series, of which the members 
( are more or less known by means of one another. In 
method. every such series or group there is a dominant element, 
simple and irresoluble, the standard on which the rest 
of the series depends, and hence, so far as that group or series is 
concerned, absolute. The other members of the group are relative 
and dependent, and only to be understood as in various degrees 
subordinate to the primitive conception. The characteristic by 
which we recognize the fundamental element in a series is its 
intuitive or self-evident character; it is given by " the evident 
conception of a healthy and attentive mind so clear and distinct 
that no doubt is left." 3 Having discovered this prime or absolute 
member of the group, we proceed to consider the degrees in which 
the other members enter into relation with it. Here deduction 
comes into play to show the dependence of one term upon the 
others; and, in the case of a long chain of intervening links, the 

1 Geomitr ie, book iii. ' (Euvres, xi. 224. * lb. xi. 212. 



problem for intelligence is so to enunciate every element, and sc 
to repeat the connexion that we may finally grasp all the links 
of the chain in one. In this way we, as it were, bring the causal 
or primal term and its remotest dependent immediately together, 
and raise a derivative knowledge into one which is primary and 
intuitive. Such are the four points of Cartesian method: — 
(1) Truth requires a clear and distinct conception of its object, 
excluding all doubt; (2) the objects of knowledge naturally fall 
into series or groups; (3) in these groups investigation must 
begin with a simple and indecomposable element, and pass from 
it to the more complex and relative elements; (4) an exhaustive 
and immediate grasp of the relations and interconnexion of 
these elements is necessary for knowledge in the fullest sense of 
that word. 4 

" There is no question," he says in anticipation of Locke 
and Kant, " more important to solve than that of knowing 
what human knowledge is and how far it extends." " This is a 
question which ought to be asked at least once in their lives by 
all who seriously wish to gain wisdom. The inquirer will find 
that the first thing to know is intellect, because on it depends the 
knowledge of all other things. Examining next what immediately 
follows the knowledge of pure intellect, he will pass in review all 
the other means of knowledge, and will find that they are two 
(or three) , the imagination and the senses (and the memory) . He 
will therefore devote all his care to examine and distinguish 
these three means of knowledge; and seeing that truth and error 
can, properly speaking, be only in the intellect, and that the two 
other modes of knowledge are only occasions, he will carefully 
avoid whatever can lead him astray." 6 This separation of 
intellect from sense, imagination and memory is the cardinal 
precept of the Cartesian logic; it marks off clear and distinct 
(i.e. adequate and vivid) from obscure, fragmentary and 
incoherent conceptions. 

The Discourse of Method and the Meditations apply what the 
Rules for the Direction of the Mind had regarded in particular 
instances to our conceptions of the world as a whole. p ua( / a . 
They propose, that is, to find a simple and indecom- mental 
posable point, or absolute element, which gives to the principles 
world and thought their order and systematization. 0/ P* /to ' 
The grandeur of this attempt is perhaps unequalled in sophy ' 
the annals of philosophy. The three main steps in the argument 
are the veracity of our thought when that thought is true to 
itself, the inevitable uprising of thought from its fragmentary 
aspects in our habitual consciousness to the infinite and perfect 
existence which God is, and the ultimate reduction of the material 
universe to extension and local movement. There are the central 
dogmas of logic, metaphysics and physics, from which start 
the subsequent inquiries of Locke, Leibnitz and Newton. They 
are also the direct antitheses to the scepticism of Montaigne and 
Pascal, to the materiaiism of Gassendi and Hobbes, and to the 
superstitious anthropomorphism which defaced the reawakening 
sciences of nature. Descartes laid down the lines on which 
modern philosophy and science were to build. But himself no 
trained metaphysician, and unsusceptible to the lessons of history, 
he gives but fragments of a system which are held together, not 
by their intrinsic consistency, but by the Vigour of his personal 
conviction transcending the weaknesses and collisions of his 
several arguments. " All my opinions," he says, " are so 
conjoined, and depend so closely upon one another, that it would 
be impossible to appropriate one without knowing them all." 6 
Yet every disciple of Cartesianism seems to disprove the dictum 
by his example. 

The very moment when we begin to think, says Descartes, 
when we cease to be merely receptive, when we draw back and 
fix our attention on any point whatever of our belief, — that 
moment doubt begins. If we even stop for an instant to ask 
ourselves how a word ought to be spelled, the deeper we ponder 
that one word by itself the more hopeless grows the hesitation. 
The doubts thus awakened must not be stifled, but pressed 
systematically on to the point, if such a point there be, where 
■doubt confutes itself. The doubt as to the details is natural; it 

*Disc. de mithode, part. ii. 6 CEuv res, xi. 243. 'lb. vii. 381. 



DESCARTES 



85 



Cogtto 
ergo sum. 



is no less natural to have recourse to authority to silence the 
doubt. The remedy proposed by Descartes is (while not neglect- 
ing our duties to others, ourselves and God) to let doubt range 
unchecked through the whole fabric of our customary convictions. 
One by one they refuse to render any reasonable account of 
themselves; each seems a mere chance, and the whole tends to 
elude us like a mirage which some malignant power creates for 
our illusion. Attacked in detail, they vanish one after another 
into as many teasing spectra of uncertainty. We are seeking 
from them what they cannot give. But when we have done our 
worst in unsettling them, we come to an ultimate point in the fact 
that it is we who are doubting, we who are thinking. We may 
doubt that we have hands or feet, that we sleep or wake, and that 
there is a world of material things around us; but we cannot 

doubt that we are doubting. We are certain that we 

are thinking, and in so far as we are thinking we are. 

Je pense, done je suis. In other words, the criterion 
of truth is a clear and distinct conception, excluding all pos- 
sibility of doubt. 

The fundamental point thus established is the veracity of 
consciousness when it does not go beyond itself, or does not 
postulate something which is external to itself. At this point 
Gassendi arrested Descartes and addressed his objections to him 
as pure intelligence,— O mens! But even this mens, or mind, is 
but a point — we have found no guarantee as yet for its continuous 
existence. The analysis must be carried deeper, if we are to gain 
any further conclusions. 

Amongst the elements of our thought there are some which we 
can make and unmake at our pleasure; there are others which 
come and go without our wish; there is also a third class which is 
of the very essence of our thinking, and which dominates our 
conceptions. We find that all our ideas of limits, sorrows and 
weaknesses presuppose an infinite, perfect and ever-blessed 
something beyond them and including them, — that all our ideas, 
in all their series, converge to one central idea, in which they find 
their explanation. The formal fact of thinking is what constitutes 
our being; but this thought leads us back, when we consider its 
concrete contents, to the necessary pre-supposition on which our 
ideas depend, the permanent cause on which they and we as 
conscious beings depend. We have therefore the idea of an in- 
finite, perfect and all-powerful being — an idea which cannot be 
the creation of ourselves, and must be given by some being who 
really possesses all that we in idea attribute to him. Such a 
being he identifies with God. But the ordinary idea of God can 
scarcely be identified with such a conception. " The majority 
of men," he says himself, " do not think of God as an infinite and 
incomprehensible being, and as the sole author from whom all 
things depend; they go no further than the letters of his name." 1 

" The vulgar almost imagine him as a finite thing." 
ofaod. The God of Descartes is not merely the creator of 

the material universe; he is also the father of all 
truth in the intellectual world. " The metaphysical truths," he 
says, " styled eternal have been established by God, and, like 
the rest of his creatures, depend entirely upon him. To say that 
these truths are independent of him is to speak of God as a 
Jupiter or a Saturn, — to subject him to Styx and the Fates." 2 
The laws of thought, the truths of number, are the decrees of God. 
The expression is anthropomorphic, no less than the dogma of 
material creation; but it is an attempt to affirm the unity of the 
intellectual and the material world. Descartes establishes a 
philosophic monotheism, — by which the medieval polytheism of 
substantial forms, essences and eternal truths fades away before 
God, who is the ruler of the intellectual world no less than of the 
kingdom of nature and of grace. 

To attach a clear and definite meaning to the Cartesian 
doctrine of God, to show how much of it comes from the Christian 
theology and how much from the logic of idealism, how far the 
conception of a personal being as creator and preserver mingles 
with the pantheistic conception of an infinite and perfect some- 
thing which is all in all, would be to go beyond Descartes 
and to ask for a solution of difficulties of which he was 
1 (Euvres, vi. 132. ! lb. vi. 109. 



scarcely aware. It seems impossible to deny that the tendency 
of his principles and his arguments is mainly in the line of a 
metaphysical absolute, as the necessary completion and founda- 
tion of all being and knowledge. Through the truthfulness of 
that God as the author of all truth he derives a guarantee for our 
perceptions in so far as these are clear and distinct. And it is in 
guaranteeing the veracity of our clear and distinct conceptions 
that the value of his deduction of God seems in his own estimate 
to rest. All conceptions which do not possess these two attri- 
butes—of being vivid in themselves and discriminated from all 
others — cannot be true. But the larger part of our conceptions 
are in such a predicament. We think of things not in the abstract 
elements of the things themselves, but in connexion with, and 
in language which presupposes, other things. Our idea of body, 
e.g., involves colour and weight, and yet when we try to think 
carefully, and without assuming anything, we find that we cannot 
attach any distinct idea to these terms when applied to body. 
In truth therefore these attributes do not belong to body at all; 
and if we go on in the same way testing the received qualities of 
matter, we shall find that in the last resort we understand nothing 
by it but extension, with the secondary and derivative characters 
of divisibility and mobility. 

But it would again be useless to ask how extension as the 
characteristic attribute of matter is related to mind which thinks, 
and how God is to be regarded in reference to extension. The 
force of the universe is swept up and gathered in God, who com- 
municates motion to the parts of extension, and sustains that 
motion from moment to moment; and in the same way the force 
of mind has really been concentrated in God. Every moment one 
expects to find Descartes saying with Hobbes that man's thought 
has created God, or with Spinoza and Malebranche that it is God 
who really thinks in the apparent thought of man. After all, the 
metaphysical theology of Descartes, however essential in his own 
eyes, serves chiefly as the ground for constructing his theory of 
man and of the universe. His fundamental hypothesis relegates 
to God all forces in their ultimate origin. Hence the world is 
left open for the free play of mechanics and geometry. The dis- 
turbing conditions of will, life and organic forces are eliminated 
from the problem; he starts with the clear and distinct idea of 
extension, figured and moved, and thence by mathematical laws 
he gives a hypothetical explanation of all things. Such ex- 
planationof physical phenomena is themain problemof Descartes, 
and it goes on encroaching upon territories once supposed proper 
to the mind. Descartes began with the certainty that we are 
thinking beings; that region remains untouched; but up to its 
very borders the mechanical explanation of nature reigns 
unchecked. 

The physical theory, in its earlier form in The World, and later 
in the Principles of Philosophy (which the present account 
follows), rests upon the metaphysical conclusions of the 
Meditations. It proposes to set forth the genesis of the theory! 
existing universe from principles which can be plainly 
understood, and according to the acknowledged laws of the trans- 
mission of movement. The idea of force is one of those obscure 
conceptions which originate in an obscure region, in the sense 
of muscular power. The true physical conception is motion, the 
ultimate ground of which is to be sought in God's infinite power. 
Accordingly the quantity of movement in the universe, like its 
mover, can neither increase nor diminish. The only circum- 
stance which physics has to consider is the transference of move- 
ment from one particle to another, and the change of its direction. 
Man himself cannot increase the sum of motion; he can only alter 
its direction. The whole conception of force may disappear from 
a theory of the universe; and we can adopt a geometrical 
definition of motion as the shifting of one body from the neigh- 
bourhood of those bodies which immediately touch it, and which 
are assumed to be at rest, to the neighbourhood of other bodies. 
Motion, in short, is strictly locomotion, and nothing else: 

Descartes has laid down three laws of nature, and seven 
secondary laws regarding impact. The latter are to a large 
extent incorrect. The first law affirms that every body, so far 
as it is altogether unaffected by extraneous causes, always 



86 



DESCARTES 



perseveres in the same state of motion or of rest; and the second 
law that simple or elementary motion is always in a straight line. 1 
These doctrines of inertia, and of the composite character of 
curvilinear motion, were scarcely apprehended even by Kepler 
or Galileo; but they follow naturally from the geometrical 
analysis of Descartes. 

Extended body has no limits to its extent, though the power 
of God has divided it in lines discriminating its parts in endless 
ways. The infinite universe is infinitely full of matter. Empty 
space, as distinguished from material extension, is a fictitious 
abstraction. There is no such thing really as a vacuum, any 
more than there are atoms or ultimate indivisible particles. 
In both these doctrines of d, priori science Descartes has not 
been subverted, but, if anything, corroborated by the results of 
experimental physics; for the so-called atoms of chemical theory 
already presuppose, from the Cartesian point of view, certain 
aggregations of the primitive particles of matter. Descartes 
regards matter as uniform in character throughout the universe; 
he anticipates, as it were, from his own transcendental ground, 
the revelations of spectrum analysis as applied to the sun and 
stars. We have then to think of a full universe of matter 
(and matter = extension) divided and figured with endless variety, 
and set (and kept) in motion by God; and any sort of division, 
figure and motion will serve the purposes of our supposition as 
well as another. " Scarcely any supposition," 2 he says, " can be 
made from which the same result, though possibly with greater 
difficulty, might not be deduced by the same laws of nature; for 
since, in virtue of these laws, matter successively assumes all the 
forms of which it is capable, if we consider these forms in order, 
we shall at one point or other reach the existing form of the world, 
so that no error need here be feared from a false supposition." 
As the movement of one particle in a closely -packed universe is 
only possible if all other parts move simultaneously, so that 
the last in the series steps into the place of the first; and as 
the figure and division of the particles varies in each point in the 
universe, there will inevitably at the same instant result through- 
out the universe an innumerable host of more or less circular 
movements, and of vortices or whirlpools of material particles 
varying in size and velocity. Taking for convenience a limited 

portion of the universe, we observe that in consequence 
vortices °f t ' ie circular movement, the particles of matter have 

their corners pared off by rubbing against each other; 
and two species of matter thus arise, — one consisting of small 
globules which continue their circular motion with a (centrifugal) 
tendency to fly off from the centre as they swing round the axis 
of rotation, while the other, consisting of the fine dust—the 
filings and parings of the original particles — gradually becoming 
finer and finer, and losing its velocity, tends (centripetally) to 
accumulate in the centre of the vortex, which has been gradually 
left free by the receding particles of globular matter. This finer 
matter which collects in the centre of each vortex is the first 
matter of Descartes — it constitutes the sun or star. The spherical 
particles are the second matter of Descartes, and their tendency 
to propel one another from the centre in straight lines towards the 
circumference of each vortex is what gives rise to the phenomenon 
of light radiating from the central star. This second matter is 
atmosphere or firmament, which envelops and revolves around 
the central accumulation of first matter. 

A third form of matter is produced from the original particles. 
As the small filings produced by friction seek to pass through 
the interstices between the rapidly revolving spherical particles 
in the vortex, they are detained and become twisted and chan- 
nelled in their passage, and when they reach the edge of the inner 
ocean of solar dust they settle upon it as the froth and foam 
produced by the agitation of water gathers upon its surface. 
These form what we term spots in the sun. In some cases they 
come and go, or dissolve into an aether round the sun; but in 
other cases they gradually increase until they form a dense crust 
round the central nucleus. In course of time the star, with 
its expansive force diminished, suffers encroachments from the 
neighbouring vortices, and at length they catch it up. If the 
1 Princip. part ii. 37. 2 lb. part iii. 47. 



I velocity of the decaying star be greater than that of any part of 
the vortex which has swept it up, it will ere long pass out of the 
range of that vortex, and continue its movement from one to 
another. Such a star is a comet. But in other cases the en- 
crusted star settles in that portion of the revolving vortex which 
has a velocity equivalent to its own, and so continues to revolve 
in the vortex, wrapped in its own firmament. Such a reduced and 
impoverished star is a planet; and the several planets of our 
solar system are the several vortices which from time to time have 
been swept up by the central sun-vortex. The same considera- 
tions serve to explain the moon and other satellites. They too 
were once vortices, swallowed up by some other, which at a later 
day fell a victim to the sweep of our sun. 

Such in mere outline is the celebrated theory of vortices, which 
for about twenty years after its promulgation reigned supreme 
in science, and for much longer time opposed a tenacious resist- 
ance to rival doctrines. It is one of the grandest hypotheses 
which ever have been formed to account by mechanical processes 
for the movements of the universe. While chemistry rests in the 
acceptance of ultimate heterogeneous elements, the vortex-theory 
assumed uniform matter through the universe, and reduced 
cosmical physics to the same principles as regulate terrestrial 
phenomena. It ended the old Aristotelian distinction between 
the sphere beneath the moon and the starry spaces beyond. 
It banished the spirits and genii, to which even Kepler had 
assigned the guardianship of the planetary movements; and, 
if it supposes the globular particles of the envelope to be the 
active force in carrying the earth round the sun, we may 
remember that Newton himself assumed an aether for somewhat 
similar purposes. The great argument on which the Cartesians 
founded their opposition to the Newtonian doctrine was that 
attraction was an occult quality, not wholly intelligible by the 
aid of mere mechanics. The Newtonian theory is an analysis of 
the elementary movements which in their combination determine 
the planetary orbits, and gives the formula of the proportions 
according to which they act. But the Cartesian theory, like 
the later speculations of Kant and Laplace, proposes to give a 
hypothetical explanation of the circumstances and motions which 
in the normal course of things led to the state of things required 
by the law of attraction. In the judgment of D'Alembert the 
Cartesan theory was the best that the observations of the age 
admitted; and " its explanation of gravity was one of the most 
ingenious hypotheses which philosophy ever imagined." That 
the explanation fails in detail is undoubted: it does not account 
for the ellipticity of the planets; it would place the sun, not in 
one focus, but in the centre of the ellipse; and it would make 
gravity directed towards the centre only under the equator. 
But these defects need not blind us to the fact that this hypothesis 
made the mathematical progress of Hooke, Borelli and Newton 
much more easy and certain. Descartes professedly assumed a 
simplicity in the phenomena which they did not present. But 
such a hypothetical simplicity is the necessary step for solving 
the more complex problems of nature. The danger lies not in 
forming such hypotheses, but in regarding them as final, or as 
more than an attempt to throw light upon our observation of 
the phenomena. In doing what he did, Descartes actually 
exemplified that reduction of the processes of nature to mere 
transposition of the particles of matter, which in different ways 
was a leading idea in the minds of Bacon, Hobbes and Gassendi. 
The defects of Descartes lie rather in his apparently imperfect 
apprehension of the principle of movements uniformly acceler- 
ated which his contemporary Galileo had illustrated and insisted 
upon, and in the indistinctness which attaches to his views of the 
transmission of motion in cases of impact. It should be added 
that the modern theory of vortex-atoms (Lord Kelvin's) to 
explain the constitution of matter has but slight analogy with 
Cartesian doctrine, and finds a parellel, if anywhere, in a 
modification of that doctrine by Malebranche. 

Besides the last two parts of the Principles of Philosophy, the 
physical writings of Descartes include the Dioptrics and Meteors, 
as well as passages in the letters. His optical investigations are 
perhaps the subject in which he most contributed to the progress 



DESCARTES 



87 



of science; and the lucidity of exposition which marks his 
Dioptrics stands conspicuous even amid the generally luminous 
style of his works. Its object is a practical one, to 
theories, determine by scientific considerations the shape of lens 
best adapted to improve the capabilities of the tele- 
scope, which had been invented not long before. The conclusions 
at which he arrives have not been so useful as he imagined, in 
consequence of the mechanical difficulties. But the investiga- 
tion by which he reaches them has the merit of first prominently 
publishing and establishing the law of the refraction of light. 
Attempts have been made, principally founded on some remarks 
of Huygens, to show that Descartes had learned the principles 
of refraction from the manuscript of a treatise by Willebrord 
Snell, but the facts are uncertain; and, so far as Descartes founds 
his optics on any one, it is probably on the researches of Kepler. 
In any case the discovery is to some extent his own, for his proof 
of the law is founded upon the theory that light is the propagation 
of the aether in straight fines from the sun or luminous body to 
the eye (see Light). Thus he approximates to the wave theory 
of light, though he supposed that the transmission of light was 
instantaneous. The chief of his other contributions to optics was 
the explanation of the rainbow — an explanation far from com- 
plete, since the unequal refrangibility of the rays of light was yet 
undiscovered — but a decided advance upon his predecessors, 
notablv on the De radiis visus et lucis (1611) of Marc- Antonio 
de Dominis, archbishop of Spalato. 

If Descartes had contented himself with thus explaining the 
phenomena of gravity, heat, magnetism, fight and similar forces 
by means of the molecular movements of his vortices, even such a 
theory would have excited admiration. But he did not stop short 
in the region of what is usually termed physics. Chemistry and 
biology are alike swallowed up in the one science of physics, and 
reduced to a problem of mechanism. This theory, he believed, 
would afford an explanation of every phenomenon whatever, and 
in nearly every department of knowledge he has given specimens 
of its power. But the most remarkable and daring application 
of the theory was to account for the phenomena of organic life, 
especially in animals and man. " If we possessed a thorough 
knowledge," he says, 1 " of all the parts of the seed of any species 
of animal {e.g. man), we could from that alone, by reasons entirely 
mathematical and certain, deduce the whole figure and conforma- 
tion of each of its members, and, conversely, if we knew several 
peculiarities of this conformation, we could from these deduce 
the nature of its seed." The organism in this way is regarded as 
a machine, constructed from the particles of the seed, which in 
virtue of the laws of motion have arranged themselves (always 
under the governing power of God) in the particular animal shape 
in which we see them. The doctrine of the circulation of the 
blood, which Descartes adopted from Harvey, supplied additional 
arguments in favour of his mechanical theory, and he probably 
did much to popularize the discovery. A fire without light, 
compared to the heat which gathers in a haystack when the hay 
has been stored before it was properly dry— heat, in short, as an 
agitation of the particles — is the motive cause of the contraction 
and dilatations of the heart. Those finer particles of the blood 
which become extremely rarefied during this process pass off 
in two directions — one portion, and the least important in the 
theory, to the organs of generation, the other portion to the 
cavities of the brain. There not merely do they serve to nourish 
the organ, they also give rise to a fine ethereal flame or wind 
through the action of the brain upon them, and thus form the 
so-called " animal " spirits. From the brain these spirits are 
conveyed through the body by means of the nerves, regarded by 
Descartes as tubular vessels, resembling the pipes conveying the 
water of a spring to act upon the mechanical appliances in an 
artificial fountain. The nerves conduct the animal spirits to act 
upon the muscles, and in their turn convey the impressions of 
the organs to the brain. 

Man and the animals as thus described are compared to 
automata, and termed machines. The vegetative and sensitive 
souls which the Aristotelians had introduced to break the leap 
1 CEuvres, iv. 494. 



between inanimate matter and man are ruthlessly swept away; 
only one soul, the rational, remains, and that is restricted to man. 
One hypothesis supplants the various principles of 
life; the rule of absolute mechanism is as complete in maOsm. 
the animal as in the cosmos. Reason and thought, 
the essential quality of the soul, do not belong to the brutes; 
there is an impassable gulf fixed between man and the lower 
animals. The only sure sign of reason is the power of language — 
i.e. of giving expression to general ideas; and language in that 
sense is not found save in man. The cries of animals are but 
the working of the curiously-contrived machine, in which, when 
one portion is touched in a certain way, the wheels and springs 
concealed in the interior perform their work, and, it may be, a 
note supposed to express joy or pain is evolved; but there is 
no consciousness or feeling. " The animals act naturally and by 
springs, like a watch." 2 " The greatest of all the prejudices we 
have retained from our infancy is that of believing that the beasts 
think." 3 If the beasts can properly be said to see at all, " they 
see as we do when our mind is distracted and keenly applied else- 
where; the images of outward objects paint themselves on the 
retina, and possibly even the impressions made in the optic nerves 
determine our limbs to different movements, but we feel nothing 
of it all, and move as if we were automata." 4 The sentience of 
the animal to the lash of his tyrant is not other than the sensi- 
tivity of the plant to the influences of fight and heat. It is not 
much comfort to learn further from Descartes that " he denies 
life to no animal, but makes it consist in the mere heat of the 
heart. Nor does he deny them feeling in so far as it depends on 
the bodily organs." 5 

Descartes, with an unusual fondness for the letter of Scripture, 
quotes oftener than once in support of this monstrous doctrine 
the dictum, " the blood is the life "; and he remarks, with some 
sarcasm possibly, that it is a comfortable theory for the eaters of 
animal flesh. And the doctrine found acceptance among some 
whom it enabled to get rid of the difficulties raised by Montaigne 
and those who allowed more difference between animal and animal 
than between the higher animals and man. It also encouraged 
vivisection — a practice common with Descartes himself. 8 The 
recluses of Port Royal seized it eagerly, discussed automatism, 
dissected living animals in order to show to a morbid curiosity 
the circulation of the blood, were careless of the cries of tortured 
dogs, and finally embalmed the doctrine in a syllogism of their 
logic, — No matter thinks; every soul of beast is matter: there- 
fore no soul of beast thinks. 

But whilst all the organic processes in man go on mechani- 
cally, and though by reflex action he may repel attack uncon- 
sciously, still the first affirmation of the system was that man was 
essentially a thinking being; and, while we retain this original 
dictum, it must not be supposed that the mind is a mere spectator, 
or like the boatman in the boat. Of course a unity of nature 
is impossible between mind and body so described. 
And yet there is a unity of composition, a unity so o/„/nd 
close that the compound is " really one and in a sense and body. 
indivisible." You cannot in the actual man cut soul 
and body asunder; they interpenetrate in every member. But 
there is one point in the human frame — a point midway in the 
brain, single and free, which may in a special sense be called the 
seat of the mind. This is the so-called c narion, or pineal gland, 
where in a minimized point the mind on one hand and the vital 
spirits on the other meet and communicate. In that gland the 
mystery of creation is concentrated; thought meets extension 
and directs it; extension moves towards thought and is per- 
ceived. Two clear and distinct ideas, it seems, produce an 
absolute mystery. Mind, driven from the field of extension, 
erects its last fortress in the pineal gland. In such a state of 
despair and destitution there is no hope for spiritualism, save 
in God; and Clauberg, Geulincx and Malebranche all take 
refuge under the shadow of his wings to escape the tyranny of 
extended matter. 

In the psychology of Descartes there are two fundamental 

2 75. ix. 426. 3 lb. x. 204. 4 lb. vi. 339. 

6 lb. x. 208. 6 lb. iv. 452 and 454. 



88 



DESCARTES 



modes of thought, — perception and volition. " It seems to me," 
he says, " that in receiving such and such an idea the mind is 

passive, and that it is active only in volition; that its 
tow!"'' ideas are put in it partly by the objects which touch the 

senses, partly by the impressions in the brain, and 
partly also by the dispositions which have preceded in the mind 
itself and by the movements of its will." 1 The will, therefore, 
as being more originative, has more to do with true or false 
judgments than the understanding. Unfortunately, Descartes is 
too lordly a philosopher to explain distinctly what either under- 
standing or will may mean. But we gather that in two directions 
our reason is bound up with bodily conditions, which make or mar 
it, according as the will, or central energy of thought, is true to 
itself or not. In the range of perception, intellect is subjected to 
the material conditions of sense, memory and imagination; and 
in infancy, when the will has allowed itself to assent precipitately 
to the conjunctions presented to it by these material processes, 
thought has become filled with obscure ideas. In the moral 
sphere the passions or emotions (which Descartes reduces to the 
six primitive forms of admiration, love, hatred, desire, joy and 
sadness) are the perceptions or sentiments of the mind, caused and 
maintained by some movement of the vital spirits, but specially 
referring to the mind only. The presentation of some object of 
dread, for example, to the eye has or may have a double effect. 
On one hand the animal spirits "reflected" 2 from the image 
formed on the pineal gland proceed through the nervous tubes to 
make the muscles turn the back and lift the feet, so as to escape 
the cause of the terror. Such is the reflex and mechanical 
movement independent of the mind. But, on the other hand, 
the vital spirits cause a movement in the gland by which the mind 
perceives the affection of the organs, learns that something is to 
be loved or hated, admired or shunned. Such perceptions dispose 
the mind to pursue what nature dictates as useful. But the 
estimate of goods and evils which they give is indistinct and 
unsatisfactory. The office cf reason is to give a true and distinct 
appreciation of the values of goods and evils; or firm and 
determinate judgments touching the knowledge of good and 
evil are our proper arms against the influence of the passions. 3 
We are free, therefore, through knowledge: ex magna luce in 
intellectu sequitur magna propensio in voluntate, and omnis peccans 
est ignorans. " If we clearly see that what we are doing is wrong, 
it would be impossible for us to sin, so long as we saw it in that 
light." 4 Thus the highest liberty, as distinguished from mere 
indifference, proceeds from clear and distinct knowledge, and 
such knowledge can only be attained by firmness and resolution, 
i.e. by the continued exercise of the will. Thus in the perfection 
of man, as in the nature of God, will and intellect must be united. 
For thought, will is as necessary as understanding. And innate 
ideas therefore are mere capacities or tendencies, — possibilities 
which apart from the will to think may be regarded as nothing 
at all. 

The Cartesian School.— The philosophy of Descartes fought its 
first battles and gained its first triumphs in the country of his 
adoption. In his lifetime his views had been taught in Utrecht 
and Leiden. In the universities of the Netherlands and of lower 
Germany, as yet free from the conservatism of the old-established 
seats of learning, the new system gained an easy victory over 
Aristotelianism, and, as it was adapted for lectures and exam- 
inations, soon became almost as scholastic as the doctrines 
it had supplanted. At Leiden, Utrecht, Groningen, Franeker, 
Breda, Nimeguen, Harderwyk, Duisburg and Herborn, and at 
the Catholic university of Louvain, Cartesianism was warmly 
expounded and defended in seats of learning, of which many are 
now left desolate, and by adherents whose writings have for the 
most part long lost interest for any but the antiquary. 

The Cartesianism of Holland was a child of the universities, 
and its literature is mainly composed of commentaries upon 

the original texts, of theses discussed in the schools, 

and of systematic expositions of Cartesian philosophy 
for the benefit of the student. Three names stand out in this 

2 Passions de I'dme, 36. 



Holland. 



1 (Euvres, ix. 166. 
3 lb. 48. 



4 CEuvres, ix. 170. 



Cartesian professoriate, — Wittich, Claubergand Geulincx. Chris- 
toph Wittich (1625-1687), professor at Duisburg and Leiden, 
is a representative of the moderate followers who professed 
to reconcile the doctrines of their school with the faith of 
Christendom and to refute the theology of Spinoza. Johann 
Clauberg (q.v.) commented clause by clause upon the Meditations 
of Descartes; but he specially claims notice for his work De 
corporis et animae in homine conjunctione, where he maintains 
that the bodily movements are merely procatarctic causes {i.e. 
antecedents, but not strictly causes) of the mental action, and 
sacrifices the independence of man to the omnipotence of God. 
The same tendency is still more pronounced in Arnold Geulincx 
(q.v.). With him the reciprocal action of mind and body is 
altogether denied; they resemble two clocks, so made by the 
artificer as to strike the same hour together. The mind can act 
only upon itself; beyond that limit, the power of God must 
intervene to make any seeming interaction possible between body 
and soul. Such are the half-hearted attempts at consistency in 
Cartesian thought, which eventually culminate in the pantheism 
of Spinoza (see Cartesianism). 

Descartes occasionally had not scrupled to interpret the 
Scriptures according to his own tenets, while still maintaining, 
when their letter contradicted him, that the Bible was not meant 
to teach the sciences. Similar tendencies are found amongst his 
followers. Whilst Protestant opponents put him in the list of 
atheists like Vanini, and the Catholics held him as dangerous as 
Luther or Calvin, there were zealous adherents who ventured to 
prove the theory of vortices in harmony with the book of Genesis. 
It was this rationalistic treatment of the sacred writings which 
helped to confound the Cartesians with the allegorical school of 
John Cocceius, as their liberal doctrines in theology justified the 
vulgar identification of them with the heresies of Socinian and 
Arminian. The chief names in this advanced theology connected 
with Cartesian doctrines are Ludwig Meyer, the friend and editor 
of Spinoza, author of a work termed Philosophia scripturae 
interpres (1666); Balthasar Bekker, whose World Bewitched 
helped to discredit the superstitious fancies about the devil; and 
Spinoza, whose Tractatus theologico-politicus is in some respects 
the classical type of rational criticism up to the present day. 
Against this work and the Ethics of Spinoza the orthodox 
Cartesians (who were in the majority), no less than sceptical 
hangers-on like Bayle, raised an all but universal howl of repro- 
bation, scarcely broken for about a century. 

In France Cartesianism won society and literature before 
it penetrated into the universities. Clerselier (the friend of 
Descartes and his literary executor), his son-in-law p 
Rohault (who achieved that relationship through his 
Cartesianism), and others, opened their houses for readings to 
which the intellectual world of Paris — its learned professors 
not more than the courtiers and the fair sex, — flocked to hear the 
new doctrines explained, and possibly discuss their value. Grand 
seigneurs, like the prince of Conde, the due de Nevers and the 
marquis de Vardes, were glad to vary the monotony of their 
feudal castles by listening to the eloquent rehearsals of Male- 
branche or Regis. And the salons of Mme de Sevigne, of her 
daughter Mme de Grignan, and of the duchesse de Maine for 
a while gave the questions of philosophy a place among the topics 
of polite society, and furnished to Moliere the occasion of his 
Femmes savantes. The Chateau of the due de Luynes, the trans- 
lator of the Meditations, was the home of a Cartesian club, that 
discussed the questions of automatism and of the comDosition 
of the sun from filings and parings, and rivalled Port Royal in 
its vivisections. The cardinal de Retz in his leisurely age at 
Commercy found amusement in presiding at disputations between 
the more moderate Cartesians and Don Robert Desgabets, who 
interpreted Descartes in an original way of his own. Though 
rejected by the Jesuits, who found peripatetic formulae a faithful 
weapon against the enemies of the church, Cartesianism was 
warmly adopted by the Oratory, which saw in Descartes some- 
thing of St Augustine, by Port Royal, which discovered a 
connexion between the new system and Jansenism, and by some 
amongst the Benedictines and the order of Ste Genevieve- 



DESCARTES 



89 



The popularity which Cartesianism thus gained in the social 
and literary circles of the capital was largely increased by the 
labours of Pierre-Sylvain Regis (1632-1707). On his visit to 
Toulouse in 1665, with a mission from the Cartesian chiefs, his 
lectures excited boundless interest; ladies threw themselves 
with zeal and ability into the study of philosophy; and Regis 
himself was made the guest of the civic corporation. In 167 1 
scarcely, less enthusiasm was roused in Montpellier; and in 1680 
he opened a course of lectures at Paris, with such acceptance 
that hearers had to take their seats in advance. Regis, by 
removing the paradoxes and adjusting the metaphysics to the 
popular powers of apprehension, made Cartesianism popular, 
and reduced it to a regular system. 

But a check was at hand. Descartes, in his correspondence 
with the Jesuits, had shown an almost cringing eagerness to have 
their powerful organization on his side. Especially he had 
written to Pere Mesland, one of the order $ to show how the 
Catholic doctrine of the eucharist might be made compatible with 
his theories of matter. But his undue haste to arrange matters 
with the church only served to compromise him more deeply. 
Unwise admirers and malicious opponents exaggerated the 
theological bearings of his system in this detail; and the efforts 
of the Jesuits succeeded in getting the works of Descartes, in 
November 1663, placed upon the index of prohibited books, — 
donee corrigantur. Thereupon the power of church and state 
enforced by positive enactments the passive resistance of old 
institutions to the novel theories. In 1667, the oration at the 
interment was forbidden by royal order. In 1669, when the chair 
of philosophy at the College Royal fell vacant, one of the four 
selected candidates had to sustain a thesis against " the pretended 
new philosophy of Descartes." In 167 1 the archbishop of Paris, 
by the king's order, summoned the heads of the university to 
his presence, and enjoined them to take stricter measures against 
philosophical novelties dangerous to the faith. In 1673 a decree 
of the parlement against Cartesian and other unlicensed theories 
was on the point of being issued, and was only checked in[time by 
the appearance of a burlesque mandamus against the intruder 
Reason, composed by Boileau and some of his brother-poets. 
Yet in 1675 the university of Angers was empowered to repress 
all Cartesian teaching within its domain, and actually appointed 
a commission charged to look for such heresies in the theses and 
the students' note-books of the college of Anjou belonging to 
the Oratory. In 1677 the university of Caen adopted not less 
stringent measures against Cartesianism. And so great was the 
influence of the Jesuits, that the congregation of St Maur, the 
canons of Ste Genevieve, and the Oratory laid their official ban 
on the obnoxious doctrines. From the real or fancied rapproche- 
ments between Cartesianism and Jansenism, it became for a 
while impolitic, if not dangerous, to avow too loudly a preference 
for Cartesian theories. Regis was constrained to hold back for 
ten years his System of Philosophy; and when it did appear, in 
i6go, the name of Descartes was absent from the title-page. 
There were other obstacles besides the mild persecutions of the 
church. Pascal and other members of Port Royal openly 
expressed their doubts about the place allowed to God in the 
system; the adherents of Gassendi met it by resuscitating 
atoms; and the Aristotelians maintained their substantial forms 
as of old; the Jesuits argued against the arguments for the being 
of God, and against the theory of innate ideas; whilst Pierre 
Daniel Huet (1630-1721), bishop of Avranches, once aCartesian 
himself, made a vigorous onslaught on the contempt in which his 
former comrades held literature and history, and enlarged on the 
vanity of ail human aspirations after rational truth. 

The greatest and most original of the French Cartesians was 
Malebranche (q.v.). His Recherche de la vSriti, in 1674, was the 
baptism of the system into a theistic religion which borrowed 
its imagery from Augustine; it brought into prominence the 
metaphysical base which Louis Delaforge, Jacques Rohault and 
Regis had neither cared for nor understood. But this doctrine 
was a criticism and a divergence, no less than a consequence, 
from the principles in Descartes; and it brought upon 
Malebranche the opposition, not merely of the Cartesian 



physicists, but also of Arnauld, Fenelon and Bossuet, who found, 
or hoped to find, in the Meditations, as properly understood, 
an ally for theology. Popular enthusiasm, however, was with 
Malebranche, as twenty years before it had been with Descartes; 
he was the fashion of the day; and his disciples rapidly increased 
both in France and abroad. 

In 1705 Cartesianism was still subject to prohibitions from the 
authorities; but in a project of new statutes, drawn up for the 
faculty of arts at Paris in 1720, the Method and Meditations of 
Descartes were placed beside the Organon and the Metaphysics 
of Aristotle as text-books for philosophical study. And before 
1725, readings, both public and private, were given from 
Cartesian texts in some of the Parisian colleges. But when 
this happened, Cartesianism was no longer either interesting 
or dangerous; its theories, taught as ascertained and verified 
truths, were as worthless as the systematic verbiage which 
preceded them. Already antiquated, it could not resist the wit 
and raillery with which Voltaire, in his Lettres sur les Anglais 
(1728), brought against it the principles and results of Locke and 
Newton. The old Cartesians, Jean Jacques Dortous de Mairan 
(1678-1771) and especially Fontenelle, with his Thiorie des 
tourbillons (1752), struggled in vain to refute Newton by styling 
attraction an occult quality. Fortunately the Cartesian method 
had already done its service, even where the theories were 
rejected. The Port Royalists, Pierre Nicole (1625-1695) and 
Antoine Arnauld (161 2-1694), na d applied it to grammar and 
logic; Jean Domat or Daumat (1625-1696) and Henri Francois 
Daugesseau (1668-1751) to jurisprudence; Fontenelle, Charles 
Perrault (1628-1703) and Jean Terrasson (1670-1750) to literary 
criticism, and a worthier estimate of modern literature. Though 
it never ceased to influence individual thinkers, it had handed on 
to Condillac its popularity with the masses. A Latin abridgment 
of philosophy, dated 1784, tells us that the innate ideas of 
Descartes are founded on no arguments, and are now universally 
abandoned. The ghost of innate ideas seems to be all that it 
had left. ^ 

In Germany a few Cartesian lecturers taught at Leipzig and 
Halle, but the system took no root, any more than in Switzerland, 
where it had a brief reign at Geneva after 1669. In „ 
Italy the effects were more permanent. What is 
termed the iatro-mechanical school of medicine, with G. A. 
Borelli (1608-1679) as its most notable name, entered in a way 
on the mechanical study of anatomy suggested by Descartes, but 
was probably much more dependent upon the positive researches 
of Galileo. At Naples there grew up a Cartesian school, of which 
the best known members are Michel Angelo Fardella (1650-1708) 
and Cardinal Gerdil (1718-1802), both of whom, however, 
attached themselves to the characteristic views of Malebranche. 

In England Cartesianism took but slight hold. Henry More, 
who had given it a modified sympathy in the lifetime of the 
author, became its opponent in later years; and Eazland 
Cudworth differed from it in most essential points. 
Antony Legrand, from Douai, attempted to introduce it into 
Oxford, but failed. He is the author of several works, amongst 
others a system of Cartesian philosophy, where a chapter on 
" Angels " revives the methods of the schoolmen. His chief 
opponent was Samuel Parker (1640-1688) , bishop of Oxford, who, 
in his attack on the irreligious novelties of the Cartesian, treats 
Descartes as a fellow-criminal in infidelity with Hobbes and 
Gassendi. Rohault's version of the Cartesian physics was 
translated into English; and Malebranche found an ardent 
follower in John Norris (1667-1711). Of Cartesianism towards 
the close of the 17th century the only remnants were an over- 
grown theory of vortices, which received its death-blow from 
Newton, and a dubious phraseology anent innate ideas, which 
found a witty executioner in Locke. 

For an account of the metaphysical doctrines of Descartes, 
in their connexions with Malebranche and Spinoza, see 
Cartesianism. 

BibLioGRaphV.— I. Editions and Translations.— -The collected 
works of Descartes were published in Latin in 8 vols, at Amsterdam 
(1670-1683), in 7 vols, at Frankfort (1697) and in 9 vols, by Elzevir 



9° 



DESCHAMPS 



(1713); in French in 13 vols. (Paris, 1724-1729), republished by 
Victor Cousin (Paris, 1824-1826) in 11 vols., and again under the 
authority of the minister of public instruction by C. Adam and 
P. Tannery (1897 foil.). These-include his so-called posthumous works. 
The Rules for the Direction of the Mind, The Search for Truth by the 
Light of Nature, and other unimportant fragments, published (in 
Latin) in 1701. In 1859-1860 Foucher de Careil published in two 

Earts some unedited writings of Descartes from copies taken by 
eibnitz from the original .papers. Six editions of the Opera philo- 
sophica appeared at Amsterdam between 1650 and 1678; a two- 
volume edition at Leipzig in 1843; there are also French editions, 
CEuvres philosophiques, by A. Gamier, 3 vols. (1834-1835), and L. 
Aime-Martin (1838) and CEuvres morales et philosophiques by Aime- 
Martin with an introduction on life and works by Amedee Prevost 
(Paris, 1855); CEuvres choisies (1850) by Jules Simon. A complete 
French edition of the collected works was begun in the Romance 
Library (1907 foil.). German translations by J. H. von Kirchmann 
under the title Philosophische Werke (with biography, &c, Berlin, 
1868; 2nd ed , 1882-1891), by Kuno Fischer, Die Hauptschriften 
zur Grundlegung seiner Philosophie (1863), with introduction by 
Ludwig Fischer (1892). There are also numerous editions and trans- 
lations of separate works, especially the Method, in French, German, 
Italian, Spanish and Hungarian. There are English translations by 
J. Veitch, Method, Meditations and Selections from the Principles 
(1850-1853; nthed., 1897; New York, 1899); by H. A. P. Torrey 
(New York, 1892). 

II. Biographical. — A. Baillet, La Vie de M. Des Cartes (Paris, 1691 ; 
Eng. trans., 1692), exhaustive but uncritical; notices in the editions 
of Gamier and Aime-Martin; A. Hoffmann, Rene Descartes (1905); 
Elizabeth S. Haldane, Descartes, his Life and Times (1905), contain- 
ing full bibliography ; A. Barbier, Rene Descartes, sa famille, son lieu 
de naissance, &c. (1901); Richard Lowndes, Rene Descartes, his 
Life and Meditations (London, 1878) ; J. P. Mahaffy, Descartes (1902), 
with an appendix on Descartes 's mathematical work by Frederick 
Purser; Victor de Swarte, Descartes directeur spirituel (Paris, 1904), 
correspondence with the Princess Palatine; C. J. Jeannel, Descartes 
et la princesse palatine (Paris, 1869); Lettres de M. Descartes, ed 
Claude Clerselier (1657). A useful sketch of recent biographies is to 
be found in The Edinburgh Review (July 1906). 

III. Philosophy.— Beside the histories of philosophy, the article 
Cartesianism, and the above works, consult J. B. Bordas-Demoulini 
Le Cartesianisme (2nd ed., Paris, 1874); J. P. Damiron, Histoire de 
la philosophie du X VII' siecle (Paris, 1846) ; C. B. Renouvier, Manuel 
de philosophie moderne (Paris, 1842); V. Cousin, Fragments philo- 
sophiques, vol. ii. (3rd ed., Paris, 1838), Fragments de philosophie 
cartesienne (Paris, 1845), and in the Journal des savants (1860-1861) ; 
F. Bouiliier, Hist, de la philosophie cartesienne (Paris, 1854), 2 vols., 
and Hist, el critique de la revolution cartesienne (Paris, 1842) ; J. Millet, 
Descartes, sa vie, ses travaux, ses decouvertes avant 1637 (Paris, 
1867), and Hist, de Descartes depuis 1637 (Paris, 1870); L. Liard, 
Descartes (Paris, 1882); A. Fouillee, Descartes (Paris, 1893); Revue 
de metaphysique et de morale (July, 1896, Descartes number) ; Norman 
Smith, Studies in the Cartesian Philosophy (1902); R. Keussen, 
Bewusstsein und Erkenntnis bei Descartes (1906) ; A. Kayserling, 
Die Idee der Kausalitat in den Lehren der Occasionalisten (1896); 
J. Iverach, Descartes, Spinoza and the New Philosophy (1904); 
R. Joerges, Die Lehre von den Empfindungen bei Descartes (1901); 
Kuno Fischer, Hist, of Mod. Phil. Descartes a,nd his School (Eng. trans ., 
1887) ; B. Christiansen, Das Urteil bei Descartes (1902) ; E. Boutroux, 
'' Descartes and Cartesianism " in Cambridge Modern History, vol. 
iv. (1906), cbap. 27, with a very full bibliography, pp. 950-953; 
P. Natorp, Descartes' Erkenntnisstkeorie (Marburg, 1882) ; L. A. 
Prevost-Paradol, Les Moralistes francais (Paris, 1865); C. Schaar- 
schmidt, Descartes und Spinoza (Bonn, 1850); R. Adamson, The 
Development of Modern Philosophy (Edinburgh, 1903); J. Miiller, 
Der Begriff der siltlichen Unvollkomrnenheit bei Descartes und Spinoza 
(1890); J. H. von Kirchmann, R. Descartes' Prinzipien der Philos. 
(1863); G. Touchard, La Morale de Descartes (1898); Lucien Levy- 
Bruhl, Hist, of Mod. Philos. in France (Eng. trans., 1899), pp. 1-76. 

IV. Science and Mathematics. — F. Cajori, History of Mathematics 
(London, 1894); M. Cantor, Vorlesungen uber die Geschichte der 
Malhemalik (Leipzig, 1 894-1901); Sir Michael Foster, Hist, of 
Physiol, during the Sixteenth, Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries 
(1901); Duboux, La Physique de Descartes (Lausanne, 1881); G, 
H. Zeuthen, Geschichte der Mathematik im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert 
(1903); Chasles, j4^erf« historique sur Vorigine et le developpement 
des methodes en geometrie (3rd ed., 1889). (W. W. ; X.) 

DESCHAMPS, EMILE (1791-1871), French poet and man of 
letters, was born at Bourges on the 20th of February 1791. The 
son of a civil servant, he adopted his father's career, but as early 
as 1812 he distinguished himself by an ode, La Paix conquise, 
which won the praise of Napoleon. In 1818 he collaborated with 
Henri de Latouche in two verse comedies, Selmours de Florian 
and Le Tour defaveur. He and his brother were among the most 
enthusiastic disciples of the cenacle gathered round Victor Hugo, 
and in July 1823 Emile founded with' his master the Muse 
irancaise, which during the year of its existence was the special 



organ of the romantic party. His iLtudes francaises et Uranglres 
(1&28) were preceded by a preface which may be regarded as 
one of the manifestos of the romanticists. The versions ol 
Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet (1839) and of Macbeth (1844), 
important as they were in the history of the romantic movement, 
were never staged. He was the author of several libretti, among 
which may be mentioned the Romeo et Juliette of Berlioz. The 
list of his more important works is completed by his two volumes 
of stories, Contes physiologiques (1854) and Rialit&s fantastiques 
(1854). He died at Versailles in April 1871. His CEuvres 
completes were published in 1872-1874 (6 vols.). 

His brother, Antoine Francois Marie, known as Antony 
Deschamps, was born in Paris on the 12th of March 1800 and 
died at Passy on the 29th of October 1869. Like his brother, 
he was an ardent romanticist, but his production was limited by 
a nervous disorder, which has left its mark on his melancholy 
work. He translated the Divina Commedia in 1829, and his 
poems, Dernieres Paroles and Resignation, were republished with 
his brother's in 1 84 1. 

DESCHAMPS, EUSTACHE, called Morel (1346 ?-i 4 o6 ?), 
French poet, was born at Vertus in Champagne about 1346. He 
studied at Reims, where he is said to have received some lessons 
in the art of versification from Guillaume de Machaut, who is 
stated to have been his uncle. From Reims he proceeded about 
1360 to the university of Orleans to study law and the seven 
liberal arts. He entered the king's service as royal messenger 
about 1367, and was sent on missions to Bohemia, Hungary and 
Moravia. In 1372 he was made huissier d'armes to Charles V. 
He received many other important offices, was bailli of Valois, 
and afterwards of Senlis, squire to the Dauphin, and governor of 
Fismes. In 1380 his patron, Charles V., died, and in the same 
year the English burnt down his house at Vertus. In his child- 
hood he had been an eye-witness of the English invasion of 1358; 
he had been present at the siege of Reims and seen the march on 
Chartres; he had witnessed the signing of the treaty of Bretigny; 
he was now himself a victim of the English fury. His violent 
hatred of the English found vent in numerous appeals to carry 
the war into England, and in the famous prophecy 1 that England 
would be destroyed so thoroughly that no one should be able 
to point to her ruins. His own misfortunes and the miseries of 
France embittered his temper. He complained continually of 
poverty, railed against women and lamented the woes of his 
country. His last years were spent on his Miroir de mariage, a 
satire of 13,000 lines against women, which contains some real 
comedy. The mother-in-law of French farce has her prototype 
in the Miroir. 

The historical and patriotic poems of Deschamps are of much 
greater value. He does not, like Froissart, cast a glamour over 
the miserable wars of the time but gives a faithful picture of the 
anarchy of France, and inveighs ceaselessly against the heavy 
taxes, the vices of the clergy and especially against those who 
enrich themselves at the expense of the people. The terrible 
ballad with the refrain " Sa, de V argent; sa, de V argent " is 
typical of his work. Deschamps excelled in the use of the ballade 
and the chant royal. In each of these forms he was the greatest 
master of his time. In ballade form he expressed his regret for 
the death of Du Guesclin, who seems to have been the only man 
except his patron, Charles V., for whom he ever felt any admira- 
tion. One of his ballades (No. 285) was sent with a copy of his 
works to Geoffrey Chaucer, whom he addresses with the words: — 

" Tues d'amours mondains dieux en Albie 
Et de la Rose en la terre Angelique." 

Deschamps was the author of an Art poetique, with the title of 
V Art de dictier et de fere chancons, balades, virelais et rondeaulx. 
Besides giving rules for the composition of the kinds of verse 
mentioned in the title he enunciates some curious theories on 
poetry. He divides music into music proper and poetry. Music 
proper he calls artificial on the ground that everyone could by 
dint of study become a musician; poetry he calls natural because 

1 " De la prophetie Merlin sur la destruction d'Angleterre qui doit 
brief advenir " {CEuvres, No. 211). 



DESCHANEL— DESCRIPTIVE POETRY 



9 1 



he say? it is not an art that can be acquired but a gift. He lays 
immense stress on the harmony of verse, because, as was the 
fashion of his day, he practically took it for granted that all 
poetry was to be sung. 

The work of Deschamps marks an important stage in the history 
of French poetry. With him and his contemporaries the long, 
formless narrations of the trjuveres give place to complicated and 
exacting kinds of verse. He was perhaps by nature a moralist 
and satirist rather than a poet, and the force and truth of his 
historical pictures gives him a unique place in 14th-century 
poetry. M. Raynaud fixes the date of his death in 1406, or at 
latest, 1407. Two years earlier he had been relieved of his 
charge as bailli of Senlis, his plain-spoken satires having made 
him many enemies at court. 

His CEuvres completes were edited (10 vols., 1878-1901) for the 
Societe des anciens textes francais by Queux de Saint-Hilaire and 
Gaston Raynaud. A supplementary volume consists of an Introduc- 
tion by G. Raynaud. See also Dr E. Hoeppner, Eustache Deschamps 
(Strassburg, 1904). 

DESCHANEL, PAUL EUGENE LOUIS (1856- ), French 
statesman, son of Emile Deschanel (1819-1904), professor at the 
College de France and senator, was born at Brussels, where his 
father was living in exile (1851-1859), owing to his opposition to 
Napoleon III. Paul Deschanel studied law, and began his career 
as secretary to Deshayes de Marcere (1876), and to Jules Simon 
(1876-1877). In October 1885 he was elected deputy for Eure 
and Loire. From the first he took an important place in the 
chamber, as one of the most notable orators of the Progressist 
Republican group. In January 1896 he was elected vice-president 
of the chamber, and henceforth devoted himself to the struggle 
against the Left, not only in parliament, but also in public 
meetings throughout France. His addresses at Marseilles on the 
26th of October 1896, at Carmaux on the 27th of December 1896, 
and at Roubaix on the 10th of April 1897, were triumphs of clear 
and eloquent exposition of the political and social aims of the 
Progressist party. In June 1898 he was elected president of 
the chamber, and was re-elected in 1901, but rejected in 1902. 
Nevertheless he came forward brilliantly in 1904 and 1905 as a 
supporter of the law on the separation of church and state. He 
was elected a member of the French Academy in 1899, his most 
notable works being Orateurs et hommes d'Uat (1888), Figures 
de femm-es (1889), La Decentralization (1895), La Question sociale 
(1898). 

DES CLOIZEAUX, ALFRED LOUIS OLIVIER LEGRAND 
(1817-1897), French mineralogist, was born at Beauvais, in the 
department of Oise, on the 17th of October 1817. He became 
professor of mineralogy at the Ecole Normale Superieure and 
afterwards at the Musee d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris. He 
studied the geysers of Iceland, and wrote also on the classification 
of some of the eruptive rocks; but his main work consisted in the 
systematic examination of the crystals of numerous minerals, in 
researches on their optical properties and on the subject of polar- 
ization. He wrote specially on the means of determining the 
different felspars. He was awarded the Wollaston medal by the 
Geological Society of London in 1886. He died in May 1897. 
His best-known books are Lecons de cristallographie (1861); 
Manuel de miniralogie (2 vols., Paris, 1862, 1874 and 1893). 

DESCLOIZITE, a rare mineral species consisting of basic lead 
and zinc vanadate, (Pb, Zn) 2 (OH)VOi, crystallizing in the ortho- 
rhombic system and isomorphous with olivenite. It was dis- 
covered by A. Damour in 1854, and named by him in honour 
of the French mineralogist Des Cloizeaux. It occurs as small 
prismatic or pyramidal crystals, usually forming drusy crusts 
and stalactitic aggregates ; also as fibrous encrusting masses with 
a mammillary surface. The colour is deep cherry-red to brown 
or black, and the crystals are transparent or translucent with a 
greasy lustre; the streak is orange-yellow to brown; specific 
gravity 5-9 to 6-2; hardness 3J. A variety known as cupro- 
descloizite is dull green in colour; it contains a considerable 
amount of copper replacing zinc and some arsenic replacing 
Vanadium. Descloizite occurs in veins of lead ores in association 
with pyromorphite, vanadinite, wulfenite, &c. Localities are 



the Sierra de Cordoba in Argentina, Lake Valley in Sierra county, 
New Mexico, Arizona, Phoenixville in Pennsylvania, and Kappel 
(Eisen-Kappel) near Klagenfurt in Carinthia. 

Other names which have been applied to this species are 
vanadite, tritochorite and ramirite; the uncertain vanadates 
eusynchite, araeoxene and dechenite are possibly identical 
with it. 

DESCRIPTIVE POETRY, the name given to a class of literature, 
which may be defined as belonging mainly to the 16th, 17th and 
1 8th centuries in Europe. From the earliest times, all poetry 
which was not subjectively lyrical was apt to indulge in ornament 
which might be named descriptive. But the critics of the 
17th century formed a distinction between the representations 
of the ancients and those of the moderns. We find Boileau 
emphasizing the statement that, while Virgil paints, Tasso 
describes. This may be a useful indication for us in defining not 
what should, but what in practice has been called " descriptive 
poetry." It is poetry in which it is not imaginative passion 
which prevails, but a didactic purpose, or even something of the 
instinct of a sublimated auctioneer. In other words, the land- 
scape, or architecture, or still life, or whatever may be the object 
of the poet's attention, is not used as an accessory, but is itself 
the centre of interest. It is, in this sense, not correct to call 
poetry in which description is only the occasional ornament of a 
poem, and not its central subject, descriptive poetry. The land- 
scape or still life must fill the canvas, or, if human interest is 
introduced, that must be treated as an accessory. Thus, in the 
Hero and Leander of Marlowe and in the Alastor of Shelley, 
description of a very brilliant kind is largely introduced, yet 
these are not examples of what is technically called " descriptive 
poetry," because it is not the strait between Sestos and Abydos, 
and it is not the flora of a tropical glen, which concentrates the 
attention of the one poet or of the other, but it is an example of 
physical passion in the one case and of intellectual passion in the 
other, which is diagnosed and dilated on. On the other hand 
Thomson's Seasons, in which landscape takes the central place, 
and Drayton's Polyolbion, where everything is sacrificed to a 
topographical progress through Britain, are strictly descriptive. 

It will be obvious from this definition that the danger ahead 
of all purely descriptive poetry is that it will lack intensity, that 
it will be frigid, if not dead. Description for description's sake, 
especially in studied verse, is rarely a vitalized form of literature. 
It is threatened, from its very conception, with languor and 
coldness; it must exercise an extreme art or be condemned to 
immediate sterility. Boileau, with his customary intelligence, 
was the first to see this, and he thought that the danger might be 
avoided by care in technical execution. His advice to the poets 
of his time was: — 



and:- 



Soyez riches et pompeux dans vos descriptions ; 
C'est-la qu'i! faUt des vers etaler l'elegance," 



" De figure sans nombre egayez votre ouvrage ; 
Que toute y fasse aux yeux une riante image," 

and in verses of brilliant humour he mocked the writer who, 
too full of his subject, and describing for description's sake, will 
never quit his theme until he has exhausted it : — 
" Fuyez de ces auteurs l'abondarfce sterile 
Et ne vous chargez point d'un detail inutile." 

This is excellent advice, but Boileau's humorous sallies do not 
quite meet the question whether such purely descriptive poetry 
as he criticizes is legitimate at all. 

In England had appeared the famous translation (1592-1611), 
by Josuah Sylvester, of the Divine Weeks and Works of Du 
Bartas, containing such lines as those which the juvenile Dryden 
admired so much: — 

" But when winter's keener breath began 
To crystallize the Baltic ocean, 
To glaze the lakes, and bridle up the floods, 
And perriwig with wool the bald-pate woods." 

There was also the curious physiological epic of Phineas Fletcher, 
The Purple Island (1633). But on the whole it was not until 
French influences had made themselves felt on English poetry, 



9 2 



DESERT 



that description, as Boileau conceived it, was cultivated as a 
distinct art. The Cooper's Hill (1642) of Sir John Denham may 
be contrasted with the less ambitious Penshurst of Ben Jonson, 
and the one represents the new no less completely than the other 
dees the old generation. If, however, we exa mine Cooper's Hill 
carefully, we perceive that its aim is after all rather philosophical 
than topographical. The Thames is described indeed, but not 
very minutely, and the poet is mainly absorbed in moral reflec- 
tions. Marvell's long poem on the beauties of Nunappletoncomes 
nearer to the type. But it is hardly until we reach the 18th 
century that we arrive, in English literature, at what is properly 
known as descriptive poetry. This was the age in which poets, 
often of no mean capacity, began to take such definite themes 
as a small country estate (Pomfret's Choice, 1700), the cultivation 
of the grape (Gay's Wine, 1708), a landscape (Pope's Windsor 
Forest, 17 13), a military manoeuvre (Addison's Campaign, 1704), 
the industry of an apple-orchard (Philip's Cyder, 1708) or a piece 
of topography (Tickell's Kensington Gardens, 1722), as the sole 
subject of a lengthy poem, generally written in heroic or blank 
verse. These tours de force were supported by minute efforts in 
miniature-painting, by touch applied to touch, and were often 
monuments of industry, but they were apt to lack personal 
interest, and to suffer from a general and deplorable frigidity. 
They were infected with the faults which accompany an artificial 
style; they were monotonous, rhetorical and symmetrical, while 
the uniformity of treatment which was inevitable to their plan 
rendered them hopelessly tedious, if they were prolonged to any 
great extent. 

This species of writing had been cultivated to a considerable 
degree through the preceding century, in Italy and (as the 
remarks of Boileau testify) in France, but it was in England that 
it reached its highest importance. The classic of descriptive 
poetry, in fact, the specimen which the literature of the world 
presents which must be considered as the most important and 
the most successful, is The Seasons (1726-1730) of James Thomson 
(q.v.). In Thomson, for the first time, a poet of considerable 
eminence appeared, to whom external nature was all sufficient, 
and who succeeded in conducting a long poem to its close by a 
single appeal to landscape, and to the emotions which it directly 
evokes. Coleridge, somewhat severely, described The Seasons as 
the work of a good rather than of a great poet, and it is an in- 
disputable fact that, at its very best, descriptive poetry fails to 
awaken the highest powers of the imagination. A great part of 
Thomson's poem is nothing more nor less than a skilfully varied 
catalogue of natural phenomena. The famous description of twi- 
light in " the fading many-coloured woods " of autumn may be 
taken as an example of the highest art to which purely descriptive 
poetry has ever attained. It is obvious, even here, that the effect 
of these rich and sonorous lines, in spite of the splendid effort 
of the artist, is monotonous, and leads us up to no final crisis of 
passion or rapture. Yet Thomson succeeds, as few other poets 
of his class have succeeded, in producing nobly-massed effects 
and comprehensive beauties such as were utterly unknown to his 
predecessors. He was widely imitated in England, especially by 
Armstrong, by Akenside, by Shenstone (in The Schoolmistress, 
1742), by the anonymous author of Albania, 1737, and by 
Goldsmith (in The Deserted Village, 1770). No better example 
of the more pedestrian class of descriptive poetry could be found 
than the last-mentioned poem, with its minute and Dutch-like 
painting: — 

" How often have I paused on every charm : 
The sheltered cot, the cultivated farm ; 
The never-failing brook, the busy mill, 
The decent church that topped the neighbouring hill: 
The hawthorn-bush, with seats beneath the shade. 
For talking age and whispering lovers made." 

On the continent of Europe the example of Thomson was almost 
immediately fruitful. Four several translations of The Seasons 
into French contended for the suffrages of the public, and J. F. 
de Saint-Lambert (1716-1803) imitated Thomson in Les Saisons 
(1769), a poem which enjoyed popularity for half a century, and 
of which Voltaire said that it was the only one of its generation 



which would reach posterity. Nevertheless, as Madame du 
Deffand told Walpole, Saint-Lambert is " froid, fade et faux," 
and the same may be said of J. A. Roucher (1745-1704), who 
wrote Les Mois in 1779, a descriptive poem famous in its 
day. The Abbe Jacques Delille (1738-1813), perhaps the most 
ambitious descriptive poet who has ever lived, was treated 
as a Virgil by his contemporaries; he published Les GSorgiques 
in 1769, Les Jardins in 1782, and L'Homme des champs in 1803, 
but he went furthest in his brilliant, though artificial, Trois 
regnes de la nature (1809), which French critics have called the 
masterpiece of this whole school of descriptive poetry. Delille, 
however, like Thomson before him, was unable to avoid mono- 
tony and want of coherency. Picture follows picture, and no 
progress is made. The satire of Marie Joseph Ch6nier, in his 
famous and witty Discours sur les polmes descriptifs, brought 
the vogue of this species of poetry to an end. 

In England, again, Wordsworth, who treated the genius of 
Thomson with unmerited severity, revived descriptive poetry 
in a form which owed more than Wordsworth realized to the 
model of The Seasons. In The Excursion and The Prelude, as 
well as in many of his minor pieces, Wordsworth's philosophical 
and moral intentions cannot prevent us from perceiving the 
large part which pure description takes; and the same may be 
said of much of the early blank verse of S. T. Coleridge. Since 
their day, however, purely descriptive poetry has gone more and 
more completely out of fashion, and its place has been taken by 
the richer and directer effects of such prose as that of Ruskin 
in English, or of Fromentin and Pierre Loti in French. It is 
almost impossible in descriptive verse to obtain those vivid 
and impassioned appeals to the imagination which are of the 
very essence of genuine poetry, and it is unlikely that descrip- 
tive poetry, as such, will again take a prominent place in living 
literature. (E. G.) 

DESERT, a term somewhat loosely employed to describe those 
parts of the land surface of the earth which do not produce 
sufficient vegetation to support a human population. Few areas 
of large extent in any part of the world are absolutely devoid of 
vegetation, and the transition from typical desert conditions is 
often very gradual and ill-defined. (" Desert " comes from Lat. 
deserere, to abandon; distinguish " desert," merit, and " dessert," 
fruit eaten after dinner, from de and servier, to serve.) 

Deserts are conveniently divided into two classes according 
to the causes which give rise to the desert conditions. In " cold 
deserts " the want of vegetation is wholly due to the prevailing 
low temperature, while in " hot deserts " the surface is uroro- 
ductive because, on account of high temperature and deficient 
rainfall, evaporation is largely in excess of precipitation. Cold 
deserts accordingly occur in high latitudes (see Tundra and 
Polar Regions). Hot desert conditions are primarily found 
along the tropical belts of high atmospheric pressure in which the 
conditions of warmth and dryness are most fully realized, and on 
their, equatorial sides, but the zonal arrangement is considerably 
modified in some regions by the monsooual influence of elevated 
land. Thus we have in the northern hemisphere the Sahara 
desert, the deserts of Arabia, Iran, Turan, Takla Makan and 
Gobi, and the desert regions of the Great Basin in North 
America; and in the southern hemisphere the Kalahari desert 
in Africa, the desert of Australia, and the desert of Atacama in 
South America. Where the line of elevated land runs east and 
west, as in Asia, the desert belt tends to be displaced into higher 
latitudes, and where the line runs north and south, as in Africa, 
America and Australia, the desert zone is cut through on the 
windward side of the elevation and the arid conditions intensified 
on the lee side. Desert conditions also arise from local causes, 
as in the case of the Indian desert situated in a region inaccessible 
to either of the two main branches of the south-west monsoon. 

Although rivers rising in more favoured regions may traverse 
deserts on their way to the sea, as in the case of the Nile and the 
Colorado, the fundamental physical condition of an arid area is 
that it contributes nothing to the waters of the ocean. The rain- 
fall chiefly occurs in violent cloudbursts, and the soluble matter 
in the soil is carried down by intermittent streams to salt lakes 



DESERTION— DESFORGES 



93 



around which deposits are formed as evaporation takes place. 
The land form* of a desert are exceedingly characteristic. Surface 
erosion is chiefly due to rapid changes of temperature through a 
wide range, and to the action of wind transferring sand and dust, 
often in the form of " dunes " resembling the waves of the sea. 
Dry valleys, narrow and of great depth, with precipitous sides, 
and ending in " cirques," are probably formed by the intense 
action of the occasional cloud-bursts. 

When water can be obtained and distributed over an arid 
region by irrigation, the surface as a rule becomes extremely 
productive. Natural springs give rise to oases at intervals and 
make the crossing of large deserts possible. Where a river crosses 
a desert at a level near that of the general surface, irrigation can 
be carried on with extremely profitable results, as has been done 
in the valley of the Nile and in parts of the Great Basin of North 
America; in cases, however, where the river has cut deeply and 
flows far below the general surface, irrigation is too expensive. 
Much has been done in parts of Australia by means of artesian 
wells. 

For a general account of deserts see Professor Johannes Walther, 
Das Gesetz der Wiistenbildung (Berlin, 1900), in which many references 
to other original authorities will be found. (H. N. D.) 

DESERTION, the act of forsaking or abandoning; more 
particularly, the wilful abandonment of an employment or of 
duty, in violation of a legal or moral obligation. 

The offence of naval or military desertion is constituted when 
a man absents himself with the intention either of not returning 
or of escaping some important service, such as embarkation for 
foreign service, or service in aid of the civil power. In the 
United Kingdom desertion has always been recognized by the 
civil law, and until 1827 (7 & 8 Geo. IV. c. 28) was a felony 
punishable by death. It was subsequently dealt with by the 
various Mutiny Acts, which were replaced by the Army Act 
1881, renewed annually by the Army (Annual) Act. By § 12 
of the act every person subject to military law who deserts or 
attempts to desert, or who persuades or procures any person to 
desert, shall, on conviction by court martial, if he committed the 
offence when on active service or under orders for active service, 
be liable to suffer death, or such less punishment as is mentioned 
in the act. When the offence is committed under any other 
circumstances, the punishment for the first offence is imprison- 
ment, and for the second or'any subsequent offence penal servi- 
tude or such less punishment as is mentioned in the act. § 44 
contains a scale of punishments, and §§ 175-184 an enumeration 
of persons subject to military law. By § 153 any person who 
persuades a soldier to desert or aids or assists him or conceals him 
is liable, on conviction, to be imprisoned, with or without hard 
labour, for not more than six months. § 154 makes provision 
for the apprehension of deserters. § 161 lays down that where a 
soldier has served continuously in an exemplary manner for not 
less than three years in any corps of regular forces he is not to be 
tried or punished for desertion which has occurred before the 
commencement of the three years. Desertion from the regular 
forces can only be tried by a military court, but in the case of the 
militia and reserve forces desertion can be tried by a civil court. 
The Army Act of 1881 made a welcome distinction between 
actual desertion, as defined at the commencement of this article, 
and the quitting one regiment in order to enlist in another. This 
offence is now separately dealt with as fraudulent enlistment; 
formerly, it was termed "desertion and fraudulent enlistment," 
and the statistics of desertion proper were consequently and 
erroneously magnified. The gross total of desertions in the 
British Army in an average year (1903-1904) was nearly 4000, 
or 1*4% of the average strength of the army, but owing to men 
rejoining from desertion, fraudulent enlistment, &c, the net loss 
was no more than 1286, i.e. less than -5%. The army of the 
United States suffers very severely from desertion, and very few 
deserters rejoin or are recaptured (see Journal of the Roy. United 
Service Inst., December 1905, p. 1469). In the year 1900-1901, 
3 1 10 men deserted (4-3% of average strength); in 1901-1902, 
4667 (or 5-9%); in 1904-1905, 6553 (or 6-8%); and in 190 5-1906, 
6258 out of Jess than 60,000 men, or 7-4%. 



In all armies desertion while on active service is punishable 
by death; on the continent of Europe, owing to the system of 
compulsory service, desertion is infrequent, and takes place 
usually when the deserter wishes to leave his country altogether. 
It was formerly the practice in the English army to punish a man 
convicted of desertion by tattooing on him the letter " D " to 
prevent his re-enlistment, but this has been long abandoned in 
deference to public opinion, which erroneously adopted the idea 
that the " marking " was effected by red-hot irons or in some 
other manner involving torture. The Navy Discipline Act 1866, 
and the Naval Deserters Act 1847, contain similar provisions to 
the Army Act of 1881 for dealing with desertions from the navy. 
In the United States navy the term " straggling " is applied to 
absence without leave, where the probability is that the person 
does not intend to desert. The United States government offers 
a monetary reward of between $20 and $30 for the arrest and 
delivery of deserters from the army and navy. 

In the British merchant service the offence of desertion is 
defined as the abandonment of duty by quitting the ship before 
the termination of the engagement, without justification, and 
with the intention of not returning. 

Desertion is also the term applied to the act by which a man 
abandons his wife and children, or either of them. Desertion of 
a wife is a matrimonial offence; under the Matrimonial Causes 
Act 1857, a decree of judicial separation may be obtained in 
England by either husband or wife on the ground of desertion, 
without cause, for two years and upwards (see also Divorce). 

For the desertion of children see Children, Law relating to; 
Infant. (T. A. I.) 

DES ESSARTS, EMMANUEL ADOLPHE (1839- ), French 
poet and man of letters, was born at Paris on the 5th of Febru- 
ary 1839. His father, Alfred Stanislas Langlois des Essarts 
(d. 1893), was a poet and novelist of considerable reputation. 
The son was educated at the ficole Normale Superieure, and 
became a teacher of rhetoric and finally professor of literature 
at Dijon and at Clermont. His works are: PoSsies parisiennes 
(1862), a volume of light verse on trifling subjects ; Les Elevations 
(1864), philosophical poems; Origines de la poSsie lyrique en 
France au XV I' siecle (187 3); Du genie de Chateaubriand (187 6); 
Pobmes de la Revolution (1879); Pallas AtMne" (1887); Portraits 
de maitres (1888), &c. 

DESFONTAINES, REN6 LOUICHE (1750-1833), French 
botanist, was born at Tremblay (lle-et-Vilaine) on the 14th of 
February 1750. After graduating in medicine at Paris, he was 
elected a member of the Academy of Sciences in 1783. In the 
same year he set out for North Africa, on a scientific exploring 
expedition, and on his return two years afterwards brought with 
him a large collection of plants, animals, &c, comprising, it is 
said, 1600 species of plants, of which about 300 were described 
for the first time. In 1786 he was nominated to the post of 
professor at the Jardin des Plantes, vacated in his favour by his 
friend, L. G. Lemonnier. His great work, Flora Atlanlica sive 
historia plantarum quae in Atlante, agro Tunetano el Algeriensi 
crescunt,wns published in 2 vols. 4to in 1798, and he produced in 
1804 a Tableau de V&cole botanique du museum d'histoire naturelle 
de Paris, of which a third edition appeared in 1831, under the 
new title Catalogus plantarum horti regii Parisiensis. He was 
also the author of many memoirs on vegetable anatomy and 
physiology, descriptions of new genera and species, &c, one 
of the most important being a " Memoir on the Organization of 
the Monocotyledons." He died at Paris on the 16th of November 
1833. His Barbary collection was bequeathed to the Museum 
d'Histoire Naturelle, and his general collection passed into the 
hands of the English botanist, Philip Barker Webb. 

DESFORGES, PIERRE JEAN BAPTISTE CHOUDARD (1746- 
(1806), French dramatist and man of letters, natural son of Dr 
Antoine Petit, was born in Paris on the 15th of September 1746. 
He was educated at the College Mazarin and the College de 
Beauvais, and at his father's desire began the study of medicine. 
Dr Petit's death left him dependent on his own resources, and 
after appearing on the stage of the Comedie Italienne in Paris 
he joined a troupe of wandering actors, whom he served in the 



94 



DESGARCINS— DESIDERIO DA SETTIGNANO 



capacity of playwright. He married an actress, and the two 
spent three years in St Petersburg, where they were well received. 
In 1782 he produced at the Comedie Italienne an adaptation of 
Fielding's novel with the title Tom Jones d Londres. His first 
great success was achieved with L'Epreuve villageoise (1785) 
to the music of Gretry. La Femme jalouse, a five-act comedy in 
verse (1785), Joconde (1790) for the music of Louis Jaden, Les 
Epoux divorcSs (1799), a comedy, and other pieces followed. 
Desforges was one of the first to avail himself of the new facilities 
afforded under the Revolution for divorce and re-marriage. 
The curious record of his Own early indiscretions in Le Poete, ou 
mimoires d'un homme de lettres icrits par lui-meme (4 vols., 1798) 
is said to have been undertaken at the request of Madame 
Desforges. He died in Paris on the 13 th of August 1806. 

DESGARCINS, MAGDELEINE MARIE [Louise] (1760-1797), 
French actress, was born at Mont Dauphin (Hautes Alpes). In 
her short career she became one of the greatest of French tragedi- 
ennes, the associate of Talma, with whom she nearly always 
played. Her debut at the Comedie Frangaise occurred on the 
24th of May 1788, in Bajazet, with such success that she was at 
once made societaire. She was one of the actresses who left the 
Comedie Frangaise in 1791 for the house in the rue Richelieu, 
soon to become the Theatre de la Republique, and there her 
triumphs were no less — in King Lear, Othello, La Harpe's 
Milanie et Virginie, &c. Her health, however, failed, and she 
died insane, in Paris, on the 27th of October 1797. 

DESHAYES, GERARD PAUL (1795-1875), French geologist 
and conchologist, was born at Nancy on the 13th of May 1797, 
his father at that time being professor of experimental physics 
in the ficole Centrale of the department of la Meurthe. He 
studied medicine at Strassburg, and afterwards took the degree 
of bachelier es lettres in Paris in 182 1; but he abandoned the 
medical profession in order to devote himself to natural history. 
For some time he gave private lessons on geology, and subse- 
quently became professor of natural history in the Museum 
d'Histoire Naturelle. He was distinguished for his researches on 
the fossil mollusca of the Paris Basin and of other Tertiary areas. 
His studies on the relations of the fossil to the recent species led 
him as early as 1829 to conclusions somewhat similar to those 
arrived at by Lyell, to whom Deshayes rendered much assistance 
in connexion with the classification of the Tertiary system into 
Eocene, Miocene and Pliocene. He was one of the founders of 
the Society G6ologique de France. In 1839 he began the publica- 
tion of his Traite elementaire de conchyliologie, the last part 
of which was not issued until 1858. In the same year (1839) he 
went to Algeria for the French Government, and spent three 
years in explorations in that country. His principal work, which 
resulted from the collections he made, Mollusques de I Algirie, 
was issued (incomplete) in 1848. In 1870 the Wollaston medal 
of the Geological Society of London was awarded to him. He 
died at Boran on the 9th of June 1875. His publications included 
Description des coquilles fossiles des environs de Paris (2 vols, 
and atlas, 1824-1837); Description des animaux sans vertebres 
dScouverts dans le bassin de Paris (3 vols, and atlas, 1856-1866); 
Catalogue des mollusques de I'Uede la Riunion (1863). 

DESHOULIERES, ANTOINETTE DU LIGIER DE LA GARDE 
(1638-1694), French poet, was born in Paris on the 1st of January 
1638. She was the daughter of Melchior du Ligier, sieur de la 
Garde, mattre d'hoiel to the queens Marie de' Medici and Anne 
of Austria. She received a careful and very complete education, 
acquiring a knowledge of Latin, Spanish and Italian, and study- 
ing prosody under the direction of the poet Jean Hesnault. 
At the age of thirteen she married Guillaume de Boisguerin, 
seigneur Deshoulieres, who followed the prince of Conde as 
lieutenant-colonel of one of his regiments to Flanders about a 
year after the marriage. Madame Deshoulieres returned for a time 
to the house of her parents, where she gave herself to writing 
poetry and studying the philosophy of Gassendi. She rejoined 
her husband at Rocroi, near Brussels, where, being distinguished 
for her personal beauty, she became the object of embarrassing 
attentions on the part of the prince of Conde. Having made 
herself obnoxious to the government by her urgent demand for 



the arrears of her husband's pay, she was imprisoned in the 
chateau of Wilworden. After a few months she was freed by her 
husband, who attacked the chateau at the head of a small band 
of soldiers. An amnesty having been proclaimed, they returned 
to France, where Madame Deshoulieres soon became a conspicu- 
ous personage at the court of Louis XIV. and in literary society. 
She won the friendship and admiration of the most eminent 
literary men of the age — some of her more zealous flatterers 
even going so far as to style her the tenth muse and the 
French Calliope. Her poems were very numerous, and included 
specimens of nearly all the minor forms, odes, eclogues, idylls, 
elegies, chansons, ballads, madrigals, &c. Of these the idylls 
alone, and only some of them, have stood the test of time, the 
others being entirely forgotten. She wrote several dramatic 
works, the best of which do not rise to mediocrity. Her friend- 
ship for Corneille made her take sides for the Ph'edre of Pradon 
against that of Racine. Voltaire pronounced her the best of 
women French poets; and her reputation with her contempor- 
aries is indicated by her election as a member of the Academy of 
the Ricovrati of Padua and of the Academy of Aries. In 1688 
a pension of 2000 livres was bestowed upon her by the king, and 
she was thus relieved from the poverty in which she had long 
lived. She died in Paris on the 17th February 1694. Complete 
editions of her works were published at Paris in 1695, J 747> & c - 
These include a few poems by her daughter, Antoine Therese 
Deshoulieres (1656-1718), who inherited her talent. 

DESICCATION (from the Lat. desiccare, to dry up), the 
operation of drying or removing water from a substance. It is 
of particular importance in practical chemistry. If a substance 
admits of being heated to say 100°, the drying may be effected 
by means of an air-bath, which is simply an oven heated by gas 
or by steam. Otherwise a desiccator must be employed; this 
is essentially a closed vessel in which a hygroscopic substance is 
placed together with the substance to be dried. The process may 
be accelerated by exhausting the desiccator; this so-called 
vacuum desiccation is especially suitable for the concentration 
of aqueous solutions of readily decomposable substances. Of the 
hygroscopic substances in common use, phosphoric anhydride, 
concentrated sulphuric acid, and dry potassium hydrate are 
almost equal in power; sodium hydrate and calcium chloride are 
not much behind. 

Two common types of desiccatoP are in use. In one the 
absorbent is placed at the bottom, and the substance to be dried 
above. Hempel pointed out that the efficiency would be 
increased by inverting this arrangement, since water vapour is 
lighter than air and consequently rises. Liquids are dried either 
by means of the desiccator, or, as is more usual, by shaking with 
a substance which removes the water. Fused calcium chloride 
is the commonest absorbent; but it must not be used with 
alcohols and several other compounds, since it forms compounds 
with these substances. Quicklime, barium oxide, and dehy- 
drated copper sulphate are especially applicable to alcohol and 
ether; the last traces of water may be removed by adding 
metallic sodium and distilling. Gases are dried by leading them 
through towers or tubes containing an appropriate drying 
material. The experiments of H. B. Baker on the influence of 
moisture on chemical combination have shown the difficulty of 
removing the last traces of water. 

In chemical technology, apparatus on the principle of the 
laboratory air-bath are mainly used. Crystals and precipitates, 
deprived of as much water as possible by centrifugal machines 
or filter-presses, are transported by means of a belt, screw, or 
other form of conveyer, on to trays staged in brick chambers 
heated directly by flue gases or steam pipes; the latter are easily 
controlled, and if the steam be superheated a temperature of 
300 and over may be maintained. In some cases the material 
traverses the chamber from the coolest to the hottest part on a 
conveyer or in wagons. Rotating cylinders are also used; the 
material to be dried being placed inside, and the cylinder heated 
by a steam jacket or otherwise. 

DESIDERIO DA SETTIGNANO (1428-1464), Italian sculptor, 
was born at Settignano, a village on the southern slope of the hill 



DESIDERIUS^DESK 



95 



of Fiesole, still surrounded by the quarries of sandstone of which 
the hill is formed, and inhabited by a race of " stone-cutters." 
Desiderio was for a short time a pupil of Donatello, whom, 
according to Vasari, he assisted in the work on the pedestal 
of David, and he seems to have worked also with Mino da 
Fiesole, with the delicate and refined style of whose works 
those of Desiderio seem to have a closer affinity than with the 
perhaps more masculine tone of Donatello. Vasari particularly 
extols the sculptor's treatment of the figures of . women and 
children. It does not appear that Desiderio ever worked else- 
where than at Florence; and it is there that those who are 
interested in the Italian sculpture of the Renaissance must seek 
his few surviving decorative and monumental works, though a 
number of his delicately carved marble busts of women and 
children are to be found in the museums and private collections of 
Germany and France. The most prominent of his works are the 
tomb of the secretary of state, Marsuppini, in Santa Croce, and 
the great marble tabernacle of the Annunciation in San Lorenzo, 
both of which belong to the latter period of Desiderio's activity; 
and the cherubs' heads which form the exterior frieze of the 
Pazzi Chapel. Vasari mentions a marble bust by Desiderio 
of Marietta degli Strozzi, which for many years was held to 
be identical with a very beautiful bust bought in 1878 from the 
Strozzi family for the Berlin Museum. This bust is now, however, 
generally acknowledged to be the work of Francesco Laurana; 
whilst Desiderio's bust of Marietta has been recognized in another 
marble portrait acquired by the Berlin Museum in 1842. The 
Berlin Museum also owns a coloured plaster bust of an Urbino 
lady by Desiderio, the model for which is in the possession of 
the earl of Wemyss. Other important busts by the master are 
in the Bargello, Florence, the Louvre in Paris, the collections of 
M. Figdor and M. Benda in Vienna, and of M. Dreyfus in Paris. 
Like most of Donatello's pupils, Desiderio worked chiefly in marble, 
and not a single work in bronze has been traced to his hand. 

See Wilhelm Bode, Die iialienische Plastik (Berlin, 1893). 

DESIDERIUS, the last king of the Lombards, is chiefly known 
through his connexion with Charlemagne. He was duke of 
Tuscany and became king of the Lombards after the death of 
Aistulf in 756. Seeking, like his predecessors, to extend the 
Lombard power in Italy, he came into collision with the papacy, 
and about 772 the new pope, Adrian I., implored the aid of 
Charlemagne against him. Other causes of quarrel already 
existed between the Frankish and the Lombard kings. In 770 
Charlemagne had married a daughter of Desiderius; but he soon 
put this lady away, and sent her back to her father. Moreover, 
Gerberga, the widow of Charlemagne's brother Carloman, had 
sought the protection of the Lombard king after her husband's 
death in 771 ; and in return for the slight cast upon his daughter, 
Desiderius had recognized Gerberga's sons as the lawful Frankish 
kings, and had attacked Adrian for refusing to crown them. Such 
was the position when Charlemagne led his troops across the Alps 
in 773, took the Lombard capital, Ticinum, the modern Pa via, 
in June 774, and added the kingdom of Lombardy to his own 
dominions. Desiderius was carried to France, where he died, 
and his son, Adalgis, spent his life in futile attempts to recover 
his father's kingdom. The name of Desiderius appears in the 
romances of the Carolingian period. 

See S. Abel, Untergang des Langobardenreichs (Gottingen, 1859) ; 
and Jahrbucher des frdnkischen Retches unter Karl dent Grossen 
(Leipzig, 1865); L. M. Hartmann, Geschichte Italiens im Mittelalter 
(Gotha, 1903) ; and Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum, edited 
by L. Bethmana and G. Waitz (Hanover, 1878). 

DESIGN (Fr. dessin, drawing; Lat. designate, to mark out), 
in the arts, a drawing, more especially when made as a guide 
for the execution of work; that side of drawing which deals 
with arrangement rather than representation; and generally, 
by analogy, a deliberate planning, scheming or purpose. Modern 
use has tended to associate design with the word " original " in 
the sense of new or abnormal. The end of design, however, is 
properly utility, fitness and delight. If a discovery, it should be 
a discovery of what seems inevitable, an inspiration arising out 
of the conditions, and parallel to invention in the sciences. The 
laculty of design has best flourished when an almost spontaneous 



development was taking place in the arts, and while certain 
classes of arts, more or less noble, were generally demanded and 
the demand copiously satisfied, as in the production of Greek 
vases, Byzantine mosaics, Gothic cathedrals, and Renaissance 
paintings. Thus where a " school of design " arises there is much 
general likeness in the products but also a general progress. 
The common experience — " tradition " — is a part of each 
artist's stock in trade; and all are carried along in a stream of 
continuous exploration. Some of the arts, writing, for instance, 
have been little touched by conscious originality in design, all 
has been progress, or, at least, change, in response to conditions. 
Under such a system, in a time of progress, the proper limitations 
react as intensity; when limitations are removed the designer 
has less and less upon which to react, and unconditioned liberty 
gives him nothing at all to lean on. Design is response to needs, 
conditions and aspirations. The Greeks so well understood this 
that they appear to have consciously restrained themselves to 
the development of selected types, not only in architecture and 
literature, but in domestic arts, like pottery. Design with them 
was less the new than the true. 

For the production of a school of design it is necessary that 
there should be a considerable body of artists working together, 
and a large demand from a sympathetic public. A process of 
continuous development is thus brought into being which sustains 
the individual effort. It is necessary for the designer to know 
familiarly the processes, the materials and the skilful use of the 
tools involved in the productions of a given art, and properly 
only one who practises a craft can design for it. It is necessary 
to enter into the traditions of the art, that is, to know past 
achievements. It is necessary, further, to be in relation with 
nature, the great reservoir of ideas, for it is from it that fresh 
thought will flow into all forms of art. These conditions being 
granted, the best and most useful meaning we can give to 
the word design i« exploration, experiment, consideration of 
possibilities. Putting too high a value on originality other than 
this is to restrict natural growth from vital roots, in which true 
originality consists. To take design in architecture as an example, 
we have rested too much on definite precedent (a different thing 
from living tradition) and, on the other hand, hoped too much from 
newness. Exploration of the possibilities in arches, vaults, domes 
and the like, as a chemist or a mathematician explores, is little 
accepted as a method in architecture at this time, although in 
antiquity it was by such means that the great master-works were 
produced: the Pantheon, Santa Sophia, Durham and Amiens 
cathedrals. The same is true of all forms of design. Of course 
the genius and inspiration of the individual artist is not here 
ignored, but assumed. What we are concerned with is a mode 
of thought which shall make it most fruitful. (W. R. L.) 

DESIRE, in popular usage, a term for a wishing or longing 
for something which one has not got. For its technical use see 
Psychology. The word is derived through the French from 
Lat. desiderare, to long or wish for, to miss. The substantive 
desiderium has the special meaning of desire for something one 
has once possessed but lost, hence regret or grief. The usual 
explanation of the word is to connect it with sidus, star, as in 
considerare, to examine the stars with attention, hence, to look 
closely at. If this is so, the history of the transition in meaning 
is unknown. J. B. Greenough (Harvard Studies in Classical 
Philology, i. 96) has suggested that the word is a military slang 
term. According to this theory desiderare meant originally to 
miss a soldier from the ranks at roll-call, the root being that 
seen in sedere, to sit, sedes, seat, place, &c. 

DESK (from Lat. discus, quoit, in med. sense of " table," 
cf. " dish " and Ger. Tisch, table, from same source), any 
kind of flat or sloping table for writing or reading. Its 
earliest shape was probably that with which we are familiar 
in pictures of the monastic scriptorium— rather high and 
narrow with a sloping slab. The primitive desk had little 
accommodation for writing materials, and no storage room for 
papers; drawers, cupboards and pigeon-holes were the evolution 
of periods when writing grew common, and when letters and 
other documents requiring preservation became numerous. It 



9 6 



DESLONGCHAMPS 



was long the custom to secure papers in chests or cabinets, whereas 
the modern desk serves the double purpose of a writing-table and 
a storehouse for documents. The first development from the 
early stall-like desk consisted of the addition of a drawer; then 
the table came to be supported upon legs or columns, which, as 
in the many beautiful examples constructed by Boulle and his 
school, were often of elaborate grace. Eventually the legs were 
replaced by a series of superimposed drawers forming pedestals 
— hence the familiar pedestal writing-table. 

For a long period there were two distinct contemporary forms 
of desk — the table and the bureau or escritoire. The latter shape 
attained a popularity so great that, especially in England and 
America, it was found even in houses in which there was little 
occasion for writing. The English-speaking people of the 18th 
century were amazingly fond of pieces of furniture which 
served a double or triple purpose. The bureau — the word is 
the French generic appellation for a desk — derives its name 
from the material with which it was originally covered (Fr. bure, 
woollen cloth). It consists of an upright carcass sloping inward 
at the top, and provided with long drawers below. The upper 
part is fitted with small drawers and pigeon-holes, and often with 
secret places, and the writing space is formed by a hinged slab 
supported on runners; when not in use this slab closes up the 
sloping top. During the 18th century innumerable thousands of 
these bureaux were made on both sides of the Atlantic — indeed, 
if we except tables and chairs, no piece of old furniture is more 
common. In the first part of that period they were usually of 
oak, but when mahogany was introduced into Europe it speedily 
ousted the heavier-looking wood. Its deep rich colour and the 
high polish of which it was capable added appreciably to its 
ornamental appearance. While the pigeon-holes and small 
drawers were used for papers, the long drawers were often 
employed for purposes other than literary. In time the bureau- 
secretaire became a bureau-bookcase, the glazed shelves, which 
were often a separate erection, resting upon the top of the bureau. 
The cabinetmakers of the second half of the 18th century, the 
period of the greatest floraison of this combination, competed 
with each other in devising elegant frets for the glass fronts. 
Solid and satisfying to the eye, if somewhat severe in form, the 
mahogany bureau was usually an exceedingly presentable piece 
of furniture. Occasionally it had a bombi front which mitigated 
its severity; this was especially the case in the Dutch varieties, 
which were in a measure free adaptations of the French Louis 
Quinze commode. These Dutch bureaux, and the English ones 
made in imitation of them, were usually elaborately inlaid with 
floral designs in coloured woods; but whereas the Batavian 
marquetry was often rough and crude, the English work was 
usually of considerable excellence. Side by side with this form of 
writing apparatus was one variety or another of the writing-table 
proper. In so far as it is possible to generalize upon such a detail 
it would appear that the bureau was the desk of the yeoman and 
what we now call the lower middle class, and that the slighter and 
more table-like forms were preferred by those higher in the social 
scale. This probably means no more than that while the one 
class preserved the old English affection for the solid and heavy 
furniture which would last for generations, those who were more 
free to follow the fashions and fancies of their time were, as the 
pecuniarily easy classes always have been, ready to abandon the 
old for the new. 

Just about the time when the flat table with its drawers in a 
single row, or in nests serving as pedestals, was finally assuming 
its familiar modern shape, an invention was introduced which 
was destined eventually, so far as numbers and convenience go, 
to supersede all other forms of desk. This was the cylinder-top 
writing-table. Nothing is known of the originator of this device, 
but it is certain that if not French himself he worked in France. 
The historians of French furniture agree in fixing its introduction 
about the year 1750, and we know that a desk worked on this 
principle was in the possession of the French crown in the year 
1760. Even in its early days the cylinder took more than one 
form. It sometimes consisted of a solid piece of curved wood, 
and sometimes of a tambour frame — that is to say, of a series of 



narrow jointed strips of wood mounted on canvas; the revolving 
shutters of a shop-front are an adaptation of the idea. For a long 
period, however, the cylinder was most often solid, and remained 
so until the latter part of the 10th century, when the " American 
roll-top desk " began to be made in large numbers. This is 
indeed the old French form with a tambour cylinder, and it is 
now the desk that is most frequently met with all over the world 
for commercial purposes. Its popularity is due to its large 
accommodation, and to the facility with which the closing of the 
cylinder conceals all papers, and automatically locks every drawer. 
To France we owe not only the invention of this ubiquitous form, 
but the construction of many of the finest and most historic desks 
that have survived — the characteristic marquetry writing-tables 
of the Boulle period, and the gilded splendours of that of Louis 
Quinze have never been surpassed in the history of furniture. 
Indeed, the " Bureau du roi " which was made for Louis XV. is the 
most famous and magnificent piece of furniture that, so far as we 
know, was ever constructed. This desk, which is now one of the 
treasures of the Louvre, was the work of several artist-artificers, 
chief among whom were Oeben and Riesener — Oeben, it may be 
added here as a matter of artistic interest, became the grand- 
father of Eugene Delacroix. The bureau is signed " Riesener fa. 
1769 a l'Arsenal de Paris," but it has been established that, 
however great may have been the share of its construction which 
fell to him, the conception was that of Oeben. The work was 
ordered in 1760; it would thus appear that nine years were 
consumed in perfecting it, which is not surprising when we learn 
from the detailed account of its construction that the work began 
with making a perfect miniature model followed by one of full 
size. The " bureau du roi " is a large cylinder desk elaborately 
inlaid in marquetry of woods, and decorated with a wonderful 
and ornate scries of mounts consisting of mouldings, plaques, 
vases and statuettes of gilt bronze cast and chased. These 
bronzes are the work of Duplessis, Winant and Hervieux. The 
desk, which shows plainly the transition between the Louis 
Quinze and Louis Seize styles, is as remarkable fqr the boldness 
of its conception as for the magnificent finish of its details. Its 
lines are large, flowing and harmonious, and although it is no 
longer exactly as it left the hands of its makers (Oeben died 
before it was finished) the alterations that have been made have 
hardly interfered with the general effect. For the head of the 
king for whom it was made that of Minerva in a helmet was 
substituted under his successor. The ciphers of Louis XV. have 
been removed and replaced by Sevres plaques, and even the 
key which bore the king's initial crowned with laurels and 
palm leaves, with his portrait on the one side, and the fleur de lys 
on the other, has been interfered with by an austere republicanism. 
Yet no tampering with details can spoil the monumental nobility 
of this great conception. (J. P.-B.) 

DESLONGCHAMPS, JACQUES AMAND EUDES- (1794-1867), 
French naturalist and palaeontologist, was born at Caen in 
Normandy on the 17th of January 1794. His parents, though 
poor, contrived to give him a good education, and he studied 
medicine in his native town to such good effect that in 1812 he 
was appointed assistant-surgeon in the navy, and in 1815 surgeon 
assistant major to the military hospital of Caen. Soon after- 
wards he proceeded to Paris to qualify for the degree of doctor of 
surgery, and there the researches and teachings of Cuvier attracted 
his attention to subjects of natural history and palaeontology. 
In 1822 he was elected surgeon to the board of relief at Caen, and 
while he never ceased to devote his energies to the duties of this 
post, he sought relaxation in geological studies. Soon he dis- 
covered remains of Teleosaurus in one of the Caen quarries, and 
he became an ardent palaeontologist. He was one of the founders 
of the museum of natural history at Caen, and acted as honorary 
curator; he was likewise one of the founders of the Societi 
HnnSenne de Normandie (1823), to the transactions of which 
society he communicated papers on Teleosaurus, Poekilopleuron 
(Megalosaurus), on Jurassic mollusca and brachiopoda. In 1825 
he became professor of zoology to the faculty of sciences, and in 
1847, dean. He died on the 17th of January 1867. 

His son Eugene Eudes-Deslongchamps (1830-1889), French 



DESMAISEAUX— DESMARETS, N. 



97 



palaeontologist, was born in 1830. He succeeded his father about 
the year 1856 as professor of zoology at the faculty of sciences at 
Caen, and in 1861 he became also professor of geology and dean. 
After the death of his father in 1867, he devoted himself to the 
completion of a memoir on the Teleosaurs: the joint labours 
being embodied in his Prodrome des Tileosauriens du Calvados. 
To the Societe Linn6enne de Normandie he contributed memoirs 
on Jurassic brachiopods, on the geology of the department of La 
Manche (1856), of Calvados (1856-1863), on the Terrain callovien 
(1859), on Nouvelle-Caltdonie (1864), and Htudes sur les Mages 
jurassiques infirieurs de la Normandie (1864). His work Le 
Jura normand was issued in 1877-1878 (incomplete). He died 
at Chateau Matthieu, Calvados, on the 21st of December 1889. 

DESMAISEAUX, PIERRE (1673-1745); French writer, was 
born at Saillat, probably in 1673. His father, a minister of the 
reformed church, had to leave France on the revocation of the 
edict of Nantes, and took refuge in Geneva, where Pierre was 
educated. Bayle gave him an introduction to the 3rd Lord 
Shaftesbury, with whom, in 1699, he came to England, where he 
engaged in literary work. He remained in close touch with 
the religious refugees in England and Holland, and constantly in 
correspondence with the leading continental savants and writers, 
who were in the habit of employing him to conduct such business 
as they might have in England. In 1720 he was elected a fellow 
of the Royal Society. Among his works are Vie de St Evremond 
(1711), Vie de Boileau-Despriaux (1712), Vie de Bayle (1730). 
He also took an active part in preparing the Bibliothbque raisonnee 
des ouvrages de I'Europe (1728-1753), and the Bibliotheque 
britannique (1733-1747), and edited a selection of St Evremond's 
writings (1706). Part of Desmaiseaux's correspondence is pre- 
served in the British Museum, and other letters are in the royal 
library at Copenhagen. He died on the nth of July 1745. 

DESMAREST, NICOLAS (1725-1815), French geologist, was 
born at Soulaines, in the department of Aube, on the 16th of 
September 1725. Of humble parentage, he was educated at 
the college of the Oratorians of Troyes and Paris. Taking full 
advantage of the instruction he received, he was able to support 
himself by teaching, and to continue his studies independently. 
Buffon's Theory of the Earth interested him, and in 1753 he 
successfully competed for a prize by writing an essay on the 
ancient connexion between England and France. This attracted 
much attention, and ultimately led to his being employed in 
studying and reporting on manufactures in different countries, 
and in 1788 to his appointment as inspector-general of the 
manufactures of France. He utilized his journeys, travelling on 
foot, so as to add to his knowledge of the earth's structure. In 
1763 he made observations in Auvergne, recognizing that the 
prismatic basalts were old lava streams, comparing them with 
the columns of the Giant's Causeway in Ireland, and referring 
them to the operations of extinct volcanoes. It was not, however, 
until 1774 that he published an essay on the subject, accompanied 
by a geological map, having meanwhile on several occasions 
revisited the district. He then pointed out the succession of 
volcanic outbursts and the changes the rocks had undergone 
through weathering and erosion. As remarked by Sir A. Geikie, 
the doctrine of the origin of valleys by the erosive action of the 
streams which flow through them was first clearly taught by 
Desmarest. An enlarged and improved edition of his map of the 
volcanic region of Auvergne was published after his death, in 
1823, by his son Anselme Gaetan Desmarest (1 784-1838), who 
was distinguished as a zoologist, and author of memoirs on recent 
and fossil Crustacea. He died in Paris on the 20th of September 

1815. 
See The Founders of Geology, by Sir A. Geikie (1897), pp. 48-78. 

(H. B. Wo.) 

DESMARETS (or Desmaretz), JEAN, Sieur de Saint- 
Sorlin (1595-1676), French dramatist and miscellaneous writer, 
was born in Paris in 1595. When he was about thirty he was 
introduced to Richelieu, and became one of the band of writers 
who carried out the cardinal's literary ideas. Desmarets's own 
inclination was to novel-writing, and the success of his romance 
Ariane in 163 1 led to his formal admission to the circle that met 
<-in. — 4 



at the house of Valentine Conrart and later developed into the 
Academie Francaise. Desmarets was its first chancellor. It was 
at Richelieu's request that he began to write for the theatre. In 
this kind he produced a comedy long regarded as a masterpiece, 
Les Visionnaires (1637); a prose- tragedy, £rigone (1638); and 
Scipion (1639), a tragedy in verse. His success led to official 
preferment, and he was made conseiller du roi, contrdleur-gSnhal 
de V extraordinaire des guerres, and secretary-general of the fleet 
of the Levant. His long epic Clovis (1657) is noteworthy because 
Desmarets rejected the traditional pagan background, and 
maintained that Christian imagery should supplant it. With 
this standpoint he contributed several works in defence of 
the moderns in the famous quarrel between the Ancients and 
Moderns. In his later years Desmarets devoted himself chiefly 
to producing a quantity of religious poems, of which the best- 
known is perhaps his verse translation of the Office de la Vierge 
(1645). He was a violent opponent of the Jansenists, against 
whom he wrote a Reponse d I'insolente apologie de Port-Royal . . . 
(1666). He died in Paris on the 28th of October 1676. 

See also H. Rigault, Histoire de la querelle des anciens et des 
modernes (1856), pp. 80-103. 

DESMARETS, NICOLAS, Sieur de Maillebois (1648-1721), 
French statesman, was born in Paris on the 10th of September 
1648. His mother was the sister of J. B. Colbert, who took him 
into his offices as a clerk. He became counsellor to the parlement 
in 1672, master of requests in 1674 and intendant of finances in 
1678. In these last functions he had to treat with the financiers 
for the coinage of new silver pieces of four sous. After Colbert's 
death he was involved in the legal proceedings taken against those 
financiers who had manufactured coins of bad alloy. The 
prosecution, conducted by the members of the family of Le Tellier, 
rivals of the Colberts, presented no proof against Desmarets. 
Nevertheless he was stripped of his offices and exiled to his 
estates by the king, on the 23rd of December 1683. In March 
1686 he was authorized to return to Paris, and again entered 
into relations with the controllers-general of finance, to whom 
he furnished for more than ten years remarkable memoirs on the 
economic situation in France. As early as 1687 he showed the 
necessity for radical reforms in the system of taxation, insisting 
on the ruin of the people and the excessive expenses of the king. 
By these memoirs he established his claim to a place among 
the great economists of the time, Vauban, Boisguilbert and the 
comte de Boulainvilliers. When in September 1699 Chamillart 
was named controller-general of finances, he took Desmarets for 
counsellor; and when he created the two offices of directors 
of finances, he gave one to Desmarets (October 22, 1703). 
Henceforth Desmarets was veritable minister of finance. Louis 
XIV. had long conversations with him. Madame de Maintenon 
protected him. The economists Vauban and Boisguilbert ex- 
changed long conversations with him. When Chamillart found 
his double functions too heavy, and retaining the ministry of 
war resigned that of finance in 1708, Desmarets succeeded him. 
The situation was exceedingly grave. The ordinary revenues of 
the year 1708 amounted to 81,977,007 livres, of which 57,833,233 
livres had already been spent by anticipation, and the expenses 
to meet were 200,251,447 livres. In 1709 a famine reduced still 
more the returns from taxes. Yet Desmarets's reputation re- 
newed the credit of the state, and financiers consented to advance 
money they had refused to the king. The emission of paper 
money, and a reform in the collection of taxes, enabled him to 
tide over the years 1 709 and 1 7 10. Then Desmarets decided upon 
an " extreme and violent remedy," to use his own expression, — 
an income tax. His " tenth " was based on Vauban's plan; but 
the privileged classes managed to avoid it, and it proved no better 
than other expedients. Nevertheless Louis XIV. managed to 
meet the most urgent expenses, and the deficit of 1715, about 
350,000,000 livres, was much less than it would have been had 
it not been for Desmarets's reforms. The honourable peace which 
Louis was enabled to conclude at Utrecht with his enemies was cer- 
tainly due to the resources which Desmarets procured for him. 

After the death of Louis XIV. Desmarets was dismissed by 
the regent along with all the other ministers. He withdrew to 

11 



98 



DES MOINES— DESMOND, EARL OF 



his estates. To justify his ministry he addressed to the regent 
a Compie rendu, which showed clearly the difficulties he had 
to meet. His enemies even, like Saint Simon, had to recognize 
his honesty and his talent. He was certainly, after Colbert, the 
greatest finance minister of Louis XIV. 

See Forbonnais, Recherches et considerations sur les finances de la 
France (2 vols., Basel, 1758); Montyon, Particula rites et observations 
sur les ministres des finances de la France (Paris, 1812) ; De Boislisle, 
Correspondanr.e des controleurs-gineraux des finances (3 vols., Paris, 
1873-1897) ; and the same author's " Desmarets et l'affaire des pieces 
de quatre sols " in the appendix to the seventh volume of his edition 
of the Memoires de Saint-Simon. (E. Es.) 

DES MOINES, the capital and the largest city of Iowa, U.S.A., 
and the county-seat of Polk county, in the south central part of 
the state, at the confluence of the Raccoon with the Des Moines 
river. Pop. (1890) 50,093; (1900) 62,139, °f whom 7946 were 
foreign-born, including 1907 from Sweden and 1432 from 
Germany; (1910 census) 86,368. Des Moines is served by the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago & North-Western, 
the Chicago Great Western, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, 
the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the Wabash, the Minneapolis 
& St Louis, and the Des Moines, Iowa Falls & Northern railways; 
also by several interurban electric lines. The chief building 
in Des Moines is the State Capitol, erected at a cost of about 
$3,000,000; other important buildings are the public library 
(containing, in 1908, 40,415 volumes), the court house, the post 
office, the Iowa State Historical building, a large auditorium 
and two hospitals. As a manufacturing centre the city has 
considerable importance. Among the leading products are 
those of the furnaces, foundries and machine shops, flour and 
grist mills, planing mills, creameries, bridge and iron works, 
publishing houses and a packing house; and brick, tile, pottery, 
patent medicines, furniture, caskets, tombstones, carriages, 
f a rm machinery, Portland cement, glue, gloves and' hosiery. The 
value of the factory product in 1905 was $15^084,958, an increase 
of 79" 7 % in nve years. The city is in one of the most productive 
coal regions of the state, has a large jobbing trade, and is an 
important centre for the insurance business. The Iowa state fair 
is held here annually. In 1908 this city had a park system of 
750 acres. Des Moines is the seat of Des Moines College, a 
Baptist institution, co-educational, founded in 1865 (enrolment, 
1907-1908, 214); of Drake University (co-educational; founded 
in 188 1 by the Disciples of Christ; now non-sectarian), with 
colleges of liberal arts, law, medicine, dental surgery and of the 
Bible, a conservatory of music, and a normal school, in which 
are departments of oratory and commercial training, and having 
in 1007-1908 1764 students, of whom 520 were in the summer 
school only; of the Highland Park College, founded in 1890; 
of Grand View College (Danish Lutheran), founded in 1895; and 
of the Capital City commercial college (founded 1884). A new 
city charter, embodying what has become known as the " Des 
Moines Plan " of municipal government, was adopted in 1907. 
It centralizes power in a council of five (mayor and four council- 
men), nominated at a non-partisan primary and voted for on 
a non-partisan ticket by the electors of the entire city, ward 
divisions having been abolished. Elections are biennial. Other 
city officers are chosen by the council, and city employees are 
selected by a civil service commission of three members, ap- 
pointed by the council. The mayor is superintendent of the 
department of public affairs, and each of the other adminis- 
trative departments (accounts and finances, public safety, 
streets and public improvements, and parks and public 
property) is under the charge of one of the councilmen. • After 
petition sighed by a number of voters not less than 25% of the 
number voting at the preceding municipal election, any member 
of the council may be removed by popular vote, to which all 
public franchises must be submitted, and by which the council 
may be compelled to pass any law or ordinance. 

A fort called Fort Des Moines was established on the site of the 
city in 1843 to protect the rights of the Sacs and Foxes. In 1843 
the site was opened to settlement by the whites; in 1851 Des 
Moines was incorporated as a town; in 1857 it was first chartered 
as a city, and, for the purpose of a more central location, the seat 



of government .was removed hither from Iowa City. A fort was 
re-established here by act of Congress in 1900 and named Fort 
Des Moines. It is occupied by a full regiment of cavalry. The 
name of the city was taken from that of the river, which in turn 
is supposed to represent a corruption by the French of the 
original Indian name, Moingona,— the French at first using 
the abbreviation " moin," and calling the river " la riviere des 
moins " and then, the name haying become associated with the 
Tfappist monks, changing it into " la riviere des moines." 

DESMOND, GERALD FITZGERALD, 15TH Earl of (d. 1583), 
Irish leader, was son of James, 14th earl, by his second wife More 
O' Carroll. His father had agreed in January 1 541, as one of the 
terms of his submission to Henry VIII. , to send young Gerald 
to be educated in England. At the accession of Edward VI. 
proposals to this effect were renewed; Gerald was to be the 
companion of the young king. Unfortunately for the subsequent 
peace of Munster these projects were not carried out. The 
Desmond estates were held by a doubtful title, and claims on 
them were made by the Butlers, the hereditary enemies of the 
Geraldines, the 9th earl pf Ormonde having married Lady Joan 
Fitzgerald, daughter and heiress-general of the nth earl of 
Desmond. On Ormonde's death she proposed to marry Gerald 
Fitzgerald, and eventually did so, after the death of her second 
husband, Sir Francis Bryan. The effect of this marriage was a 
temporary cessation of open hostility between the Desmonds and 
her son, Thomas Butler, 10th earl of Ormonde. 

Gerald succeeded to the earldom in 1558; he was knighted by 
the lord deputy Sussex, and did homage at Waterford. He soon 
established close relations with his namesake Gerald Fitzgerald, 
nth earl of Kildare (1525-1585), and with Shane O'Neill. In 
spite of an award made by Sussex in August 1560 regulating 
the matters in dispute between Ormonde and the Fitzgeralds, 
the Geraldine outlaws were still plundering their neighbours. 
Desmond neglected a summons to appear at Elizabeth's court 
for some time on the plea that he was at war with his uncle 
Maurice. When. he did appear in London in May 1562 his 
insolent conduct before the privy council resulted in a short 
imprisonment in the Tower. He was detained in England until 
1 564, and soon after his return his wife's death set him free from 
sUch restraint as was provided by her Butler connexion. He now 
raided Thomond, and in Waterford he sought to enforce his feudal 
rights on Sir Maurice Fitzgerald of Decies, who invoked the help 
of Ormonde. The two nobles thereupon resorted to open war, 
fighting a battle at Affane on the Blackwater, where Desmond 
was defeated and taken prisoner. Ormonde and Desmond were 
bound over in London to keep the peace, being allowed to return 
early in 1566 to Ireland, where a royal commission was appointed 
to settle the matters in dispute between them. Desmond and 
his brother Sir John of Desmond were sent over to England, 
where they surrendered their lands to the queen after a short 
experienca of the Tower. In the meanwhile Desmond's cousin, 
James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald, caused himself to be acclaimed 
captain of Desmond in defiance of Sidney, and in the evident 
expectation of usurping the earldom. He sought to give the 
movement an ultra-Catholic character, with the idea of gaining 
foreign assistance, and allied himself with John Burke, son of 
the earl of Clanricarde, with Connor O'Brien, earl of Thomond, 
aad even secured Ormonde's brother, Sir Edmund Butler, whom 
Sidney had offended. Piers and Edward Butler also joined the 
rebellion, but the appearance of Sidney and Qrnionde in the 
south-west was rapidly followed by the submission of the Butlers. 
Most of the Geraldines were subjugated by Humphrey Gilbert, 
but Fitzmaurice remained in arms, and in 1571 Sir John Perrot 
undertook to reduce him. Perrot hunted him down, and at last 
on the 23rd of February 1573 he made formal submission at 
Kilmallock, lying prostrate on the floor of the church by way of 
proving his sincerity. 

Against the advice of the queen's Irish counsellors Desmond 
was allowed to return to Ireland in 1573, the earl promising not 
to exercise palatinate jurisdiction in Kerry until his rights to 
it were proved. He was detained for six months in Dublin, but 
in November slipped through the hands of the government, and 



DESMOND— DESMOULINS 



99 



within a very short time had reduced to a state of anarchy the 
province which Perrot thought to have pacified by his severities. 
Edward Fitzgerald, brother of the earl of Kildare, and lieutenant 
of the queen's pensioners in London, was sent to remonstrate with 
Desmond, but accomplished nothing. Desmond asserted that 
none but Brehon law should be observed between Geraldines; 
and Fitzmaurice seized Captain George Bourchier, one of 
Elizabeth's officers in the west. Essex met the earl near Water- 
ford in July, and Bourchier was surrendered, but Desmond 
refused the other demands made in the queen's name. A 
document offering £500 for his head, and £1000 to any one 
who would take him alive, was drawn up but was vetoed by two 
members of the council. On the 18th of July 1 574 the Geraldine 
chiefs signed the " Combination " promising to support the. earl 
unconditionally; shortly afterwards Ormonde and the lord 
deputy, Sir William Fitzwilliam, marched on Munster, and put 
Desmond's garrison at Derrinlaur Castle to the sword. Desmond 
submitted at Cork on the 2nd of September, handing over his 
estates to trustees. Sir Henry Sidney visited Munster in 1575, 
and affairs seemed to promise an early restoration of order. But 
Fitzmaurice had fled to Brittany in company with other leading 
Geraldines, John' Fitzgerald, seneschal of Imokilly, who had held 
Ballymartyr against Sidney in 1567, and Edmund Fitzgibbon, 
the son of the White Knight who had been attainted in 1571. 
He intrigued at the French and Spanish courts for a foreign 
invasion of Ireland, and at Rome met the adventurer Stucley, 
with whom he projected an expedition which was to make 
a nephew of Gregory XIII. king of Ireland. In 1579 he landed 
in Smerwick Bay, where he was joined later by some Spanish 
soldiers at the Fort del Ore. His ships were captured on the 
29th of July and he himself was slain in a skirmish while on his 
way to Tipperary. Nicholas Sanders, the papal legate who had 
accompanied Fitzmaurice, worked on Desmond's weakness, and 
sought to draw him into open rebellion: Desmond had perhaps 
been restrained before by jealousy of Fitzmaurice; his inde- 
cisions ceased when on the 1st of November Sir William; Pelham 
proclaimed him a traitor. The sack of Youghal and Kinsale by 
the Geraldines was speedily followed by the successes of Ormonde 
and Pelham acting in concert with Admiral Winter. In June 
1581 Desmond had to take to the woods, but he maintained a 
considerable following for some time, which, however, in June 
1583, when Ormonde set a price on his head; was reduced to four 
persons. Five months later, on the nth of November, he was 
seized and murdered by a small party of soldiers. His brother 
Sir John of Desmond had been caught and killed in December 
1 58 1, and the seneschal of Imokilly had surrendered on the 14th 
of June 1583. After his submission the seneschal acted loyally, 
but his lands excited envy; he was arrested in 1587, and died 
in Dublin Castle two days later. 

By his second marriage with Eleanor Butler, the 15th earl left 
two sons, the elder of whom, James, 16th earl (1570-1601), spent 
most of his life in prison. After an unsuccessful attempt in 
1600-1601 to recover his inheritance he returned to England, 
where he died, the title becoming extinct. 

See G. E. C(okayne,) Complete Peerage; R. Bagwell, Ireland under 
the Tudors (1885-1890); Annals of Ireland by the Four Masters 
(ed. J. O'Donovan, 1851) ; and the article Fitzgerald. 

DESMOND (Des-Mumha) , an ancient territorial division of 
Ireland, covering the eastern part of the modern Co. Kerry and 
the western part of Co. Cork. Its creation as a kingdom is placed 
in the year 248,. when Oliol Olum, king of Munster, divided his 
territory between his two sons, giving Desmond to Eoghan, and 
Thomond or North Munster to Cormac. In 1329 Maurice 
Fitzthomas or Fitzgerald (d. 1356), lord of Decies and Desmond, 
was created 1st earl of Desmond by Edward III.; like other 
earls created about that time he ruled his territory as a palatinate, 
and his family acquired enormous powers and a large measure 
of independence. Meanwhile native kings continued to reign in 
a restricted territory until 1596. In 1583 came the attainder of 
Gerald Fitzgerald, 1 5th earl of Desmond (q.v.) , and in 1 $86 an act 
of parliament declared the forfeiture of the Desmond estates to 
the crown. In 1571 a commission provided for the formation of 



Desmond into a county, and it was regarded as such for a few 
years, but by the beginning of the 17th century it was joined to 
Co. Kerry. 

In 1619 the title of earl of Desmond was conferred on Richard 
Preston, Lord Dingwall, at whose death in 1628 it again became 
extinct. It was then bestowed on George Feilding, second son 
of William, earl of Denbigh, who had held the reversion of the 
earldom from 1622. His son William Feilding succeeded as earl 
of Denbigh in 1675, and thenceforward the title of Desmond was 
held in conjunction with that honour. 

DESMOSCOLECIDA, a group of minute marine worm-like 
creatures. The body tapers towards each end and is marked by 
a number of well-defined ridges. These 
ridges resemble on a small scale those 
which surround the body of a Poro- 
cephalus (Linguatulida) , and like them 
have no segmental significance. Their 
number varies in the different species. 
The head bears four setae, and some of 
the ridges bear a pair either dorsally 
or ventrally. The setae are movable. 
Two pigment spots between the fourth 
and fifth ridges are regarded as eyes. 
The Desmoscolecida move by looping 
their bodies like geometrid caterpillars 
or leeches, as well as by creeping on their 
setae. The mouth is terminal, and 
leads into a muscular oesophagus which 
opens into a straight intestine terminat- 
ing in an anus, which is said to be 
dorsal in position. The sexes are dis- 
tinct. The testis is single, and its duct 
opens into the intestine and is provided 
with two chitinous spicules. The ovary 
is also single, opening independently 
and anterior to the anus. The nervous 
system is as yet unknown. 

There are several species. D. minutus 
Clap, has been met with in the English 
Channel. Others are D. nematoides 
Greef , D. adelphus Greef, D. chaetogaster 
Greef, D. elongatus Panceri, D. lanugi- 
nosa Panceri. Trichoderma oxycaudatum 
Greef is 0-3 mm. long, and is also a 
" ringed creature with long hair-like 
bristles." The male has two spicules, 
and there is some doubt as to whether 
it should be placed with the Desmos- 
colecida or with the Nematoda. With regard to the systematic 
position of the group, it certainly comes nearest — especially in 
the structure of its reproductive organs — to the Nematoda. We 
still, however, are very ignorant of the internal anatomy of these 
forms, and until we know more it is impossible to arrive at a 
very definite conclusion as to their position in the animal 
kingdom. 

See Panceri, Atti Ace, Napoli. vii. (1878); Greef, Arch. Naturg. 
35 (i.) (1869), p. 112. (A. E. S.) 

DESMOULINS, LUCIE SIMPLICE CAMILLE BENOIST (1760- 
1794), French journalist and politician, who played an important 
part in the French Revolution, was born at Guise, in Picardy, on 
the 2nd of March 1760. His father was lieutenant-general of the 
bailliage of Guise, and through the efforts of a friend obtained 
a bourse for his son, who at the age of fourteen left home for Paris, 
and entered the college of Louis le Grand. In this school, in 
which Robespierre was also a bursar and a distinguished student, 
Camille Desmoulins laid the solid foundation of his learning. 
Destined by his father for the law, at the completion of his legal 
studies he was admitted an advocate of the parlement of Paris 
in 1785. His professional success was not great; his manner was 
violent, his appearance unattractive, and his speech impaired by 
a painful stammer. He indulged, however, his love for litera- 
ture, was closely observant of public affairs, and thus gradually 




Natural 

Worms," 

Mac- 

millan & Co. 

Female Desmoscolex 
elongatus Panceri, vent- 
ral view. a, Ovary. 
(From Panceri.) 



IOO 



DESMOULINS 



prepared himself for the main duties of his life — those of a 
political litterateur. 

In March 1789 Desmoulins began his political career. Having 
been nominated deputy from the bailliage of Guise, he appeared 
at Laon as one of the commissioners for the election of deputies 
to the States-General summoned by royal edict of January 24th. 
Camille heralded its meeting by his Ode to the States-General. It 
is, moreover, highly probable that he was the author of a radical 
pamphlet entitled La Philosophie au peuple fratiQais, published 
in 1788, the text of which is not known. His hopes of pro- 
fessional success were now scattered, and he was living in Paris 
in extreme poverty. He, however, shared to the full the excite- 
ment which attended the meeting of the States-General. As 
appears from his letters to his father, he watched with exultation 
the procession of deputies at Versailles, and with violent indigna- 
tion the events of the latter part of June which followed the 
closing of the Salle des Menus to the deputies who had named 
themselves the National Assembly. It is further evident that 
Desmoulins was already sympathizing, not only with the enthusi- 
asm, but also with the fury and cruelty, of the Parisian crowds. 

The sudden dismissal of Necker by Louis XVI. was the event 
which brought Desmoulins to fame. On the 12th of July 1789 
Camille, leaping upon a table outside one of the cafes in 
the garden of the Palais Royal, announced to the crowd 
the dismissal of their favourite. Losing, in his violent excite- 
ment, his stammer, he inflamed the passions of the mob by his 
burning words and his call " To arms! " " This dismissal," 
he said, " is the tocsin of the St Bartholomew of the patriots." 
Drawing, at last, two pistols from under his coat, he declared that 
he would not fall alive into the hands of the police who were 
watching his movements. He descended amid the embraces of 
the crowd, and his cry " To arms! " resounded on all sides. 
This scene was the beginning of the actual events of the 
Revolution. Following Desmoulins the crowd surged through 
Paris, procuring arms by force; and on the 13th it was partly 
organized as the Parisian militia which was afterwards to be the 
National Guard. On the 14th the Bastille was taken. 

Desmoulins may be said to have begun on the following day 
that public literary career which lasted till his death. In May 
and June 1789 he had written La France libre, which, to his 
chagrin, his publisher refused to print. The taking of the Bastille, 
however, and the events by which it was preceded, were a sign 
that the times had changed; and on the 18th of July Desmoulins's 
work was issued. Considerably in advance of public opinion, 
it already pronounced in favour of a republic. By its erudite, 
brilliant and courageous examination of the rights of king, of 
nobles, of clergy and of people, it attained a wide and sudden 
popularity; it secured for the author the friendship and pro- 
tection of Mirabeau, and the studied abuse of numerous royalist 
pamphleteers. Shortly afterwards, with his vanity and love of 
popularity inflamed, he pandered to the passions of the lower 
orders by the publication of his Discours de la lanterne aux 
Parisiens which, with an almost fiendish reference to the excesses 
of the mob, he headed by a quotation from St John, Qui male 
agit odit lucem. Camille was dubbed " Procureur-general de 
la lanterne." 

In November 1789 Desmoulins began his career as a journalist 
by the issue of the first number of a weekly publication, Les 
Revolutions de France et de Brabant. The title of the publication 
changed after the 73rd number. It ceased to appear at the end 
of July 1791. 1 

Success attended the Revolutions from its first to its last 
number, Camille was everywhere famous, and his poverty was 
relieved. These numbers are valuable as an exhibition not so 
much of events as of the feelings of the Parisian people; they 
are adorned, moreover, by the erudition, the wit and the genius 
of the author, but they are disfigured, not only by the most biting 
personalities and the defence and even advocacy of the excesses 
of the mob, but by the entire absence of the forgiveness and pity 
for which the writer was afterwards so eloquently to plead. 

1 In April 1792 Desmoulins founded with Stanislas Freron a new 
journal, La Tribune des patriotes, but only four numbers appeared. 



Desmoulins was powerfully swayed by the influence of more 
vigorous minds; and for some time before the death of Mirabeau, 
in April 1791, he had begun to be led by Danton, with whom 
he remained associated during the rest of his fife. In July 1791 
Camille appeared before the municipality of Paris as head of 
a deputation of petitioners for the deposition of the king. In 
that month, however, such a request was dangerous; there was 
excitement in the city over the presentation of the petition, and 
the private attacks to which Desmoulins had often been subject 
were now followed by a warrant for the arrest of himself and 
Danton. Danton left Paris for a little; Desmoulins, however, 
remained there, appearing occasionally at the Jacobin club. 
Upon the failure of this attempt of his opponents, Desmoulins 
published a pamphlet, Jean Pierre Brissot dimasque, which 
abounded in the most violent personalities. This pamphlet, 
which had its origin in a petty squabble, was followed in 1793 
by a Fragment de I'histoire secrete de la Revolution, in which the 
party of the Gironde, and specially Brissot, were most mercilessly 
attacked. Desmoulins took an active part on the 10th of August 
and became secretary to Danton, when the latter became 
minister of justice. On the 8th of September he was elected one of 
the deputies for Paris to the National Convention, where, however, 
' he was not successful as an orator. He was of the party of the 
" Mountain," and voted for the abolition of royalty and the death 
of the king. With Robespierre he was now more than ever 
associated, and the Histoire des Brissotins, the fragment above 
alluded to, was inspired by the arch-revolutionist. The success 
of the brochure, so terrible as to send the leaders of the Gironde 
to the guillotine, alarmed Danton and the author. Yet the r6le 
of Desmoulins during the Convention was of but secondary 
importance. 

In December 1793 was issued the first number of the Vieux 
Cordelier, which was at first directed against the Hebertists and 
approved of by Robespierre, but which soon formulated Danton's 
idea of a committee of clemency. Then Robespierre turned 
against Desmoulins and took advantage of the popular indigna- 
tion roused against the Hebertists to send them to death. The 
time had come, however, when Saint Just and he were to turn 
their attention not only to les enrages, but to les indulgents — 
the powerful faction of the Dantonists. On the 7th of January 
1 794 Robespierre, who on a former occasion had defended Camille 
when in danger at the hands of the National Convention, in 
addressing the Jacobin club counselled not the expulsion of 
Desmoulins, but the burning of certain numbers of the Vieux 
Cordelier. Camille sharply replied that he would answer with 
Rousseau, — " burning is not answering," and a bitter quarrel 
thereupon ensued. By the end of March not only were Hebert 
and the leaders of the extreme party guillotined, but their 
opponents, Danton, Desmoulins and the best of the moderates, 
were arrested. On the 31st the warrant of arrest was signed and 
executed, and on the 3rd, 4th and 5th of April the trial took place 
befqre the Revolutionary Tribunal. It was a scene of terror not 
only to the accused but to judges and to jury. The retorts of the 
prisoners were notable. Camille on being asked his age, replied, 
" I am thirty-three, the age of the sans-culotte Jesus, a critical age 
for every patriot." This was false; he was thirty-four. 2 The 
accused were prevented from defending themselves; a decree of 
the Convention denied them the right of speech. Armed with 
this and the false report of a spy, who charged the wife of 
Desmoulins with conspiring for the escape of her husband and the 
ruin of the republic, Fouquier-Tinville by threats and entreaties 
obtained from the jury a sentence of death. It was passed in 
absence of the accused, and their execution was appointed for 
the same day. 

Since his arrest the courage of Camille had miserably failed. 
He had exhibited in the numbers of the Vieux Cordelier almost 
a disregard of the death which he must have known hovered over 
him. He had with consummate ability exposed the terrors of 

2 This is borne out by the register of his birth and baptism, and by 
words in his last letter to his wife, — " I die at thirty-four." The 
dates (1762-1794) given in so many biographies of Desmoulins ara 
certainly inaccurate. 



DESNOYERS— DESPENSER 



IOI 



the Revolution, and had adorned his pages with illustrations from 
Tacitus, the force of which the commonest reader could feel. In 
his last number, the seventh, which his publisher refused to print, 
he had dared to attack even Robespierre, but at his trial it was 
found that he was devoid of physical courage. He had to be torn 
from his seat ere he was removed to prison, and as he sat next to 
Danton in the tumbrel which conveyed them to the guillotine, 
the calmness of the great leader failed to impress him.. In his 
violence, bound as he was, he tore his clothes into shreds, and 
his bare shoulders and breast were exposed to the gaze of the 
surging crowd. Of the fifteen guillotined together, including 
among them Marie Jean Herault de Sechelles, Francois Joseph 
Westeirmann and Pierre Philippeaux, Desmoulins died third; 
Danton, the greatest, died last. 

On the 29th of December 1790 Camille had married Lucile 
Duplessis, and among the witnesses of the ceremony are observed 
the names of Brissot, Petion and Robespierre. The only child 
of the marriage, Horace Camille, was born on the 6th of July 
1792. Two days afterwards Desmoulins brought it into notice 
by appearing with it before the municipality of Paris to demand 
" the formal statement of the civil estate of his son." The boy 
was afterwards pensioned by the French government, and died 
in Haiti in 1825. Lucile, Desmoulins's accomplished and affec- 
tionate wife, was, a. few days after her husband; and on a false 
charge, condemned to the guillotine. She astonished allonlookers 
by the calmness with which she braved death (April 13, 1794). 

See J. Claretie, (Euvres de Camille Desmoulins avec une etude 
biographique . . . &c. (Paris, 1874), and Camille Desmoulins, Lucile 
Desmoulins, etude sur les Dantonistes (Paris, 1875; Eng. trans., 
London, 1876); F. A. Aulard, Les Orateurs de la Legislative et dela 
Convention (Paris, 1905, 2nd ed.) : G. Lenfitre, " La Maisonde Camille 
Desmoulins " (Le Temps, March 25, 1899). 

DESNOYERS, JULES PIERRE FRANCOIS STANISLAS (1800- 
1887), French geologist and archaeologist, was born at Nogent-le- 
Rotrou, in the department of Eure-et-Loir, on the 8th of October 
1800. Becoming interested in geology at an early age, he was one 
of the founders of the Societe Geologique de France in 1830. 
In 1834 he was appointed librarian of the Museum of Natural 
History in Paris. His contributions to geological science com- 
prise memoirs on the Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary Strata 
of the Paris Basin and of Northern France, and other papers 
relating to the antiquity of man, and to the question of his 
co-existence with extinct mammalia. His separate books were 
Sur la Crate et sur les terrains tertiaires du Cptenttn (1825), 
Recherches giologiques et historiques sur les cavernes (1845). He 
died in 1887. 

DESOR, PIERRE JEAN EDOUARD (1811-1882), Swiss 
geologist, was born at Friedrichsdorf, near Frankfort-on-Main, 
on .the 13th of February 1811. Associated in early years with 
Agassiz he studied palaeontology and glacial phenomena, and 
in company with J. D. Forbes ascended the Jungfrau in 1841. 
Desor afterwards became professor of geology in the academy 
at Neuchatel, continued his studies on the structure of glaciers, 
but gave special attention to the study of Jurassic Echinoderms. 
He also investigated the old lake-habitations of Switzerland, 
and made important observations on the physical features of 
the Sahara. Having inherited considerable property he retired 
to Combe Varin in Val Travers. He died at Nizza on the 23rd 
of February 1882. His chief publications were: Synopsis des 
Achinides fossiles (1858), Aus Sahara (1865), Der Gebirgsbau 
der Alpen (1865), Die Pfahlbauten des Neuenburger Sees (1866), 
Echinologie hehetique (2 vols., 1868-1873, with P. de Loriol). 

DE SOTO, a city of Jefferson county, Missouri, U.S.A., on 
Joachim Creek, 42 m. S.S.W. of St Louis. Pop. (1890) 3960; 
(1900) 5611 (33 2 being foreign-born and 364 negroes); (1910)4721. 
It is served by the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern railway, 
which has extensive repair shops here. About 25 m, from De Soto 
is the Bochert mineral spring. In De Soto are Mount St Clement's 
College (Roman Catholic, 1900), a theological seminary of the 
Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer under the charge of the 
Redemptorist Fathers, and a Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion building. De Soto is in a good agricultural and fruit-growing 



region, which produces Indian corn, apples, plums, pears and 
small fruit. Lead and zinc are mined in the vicinity and shipped 
from the city in considerable quantities; and among the city's 
manufactures are shoes, flour and agricultural implements. The 
municipality owns the water- works, the water supply of- which is 
furnished by artesian wells. De Soto was laid out in 1855 and 
was incorporated in 1869. 

DESPARD, EDWARD MARCUS (1751-1803), Irish conspirator, 
was born in Queen's Co., Ireland, in 1751. In 1766 he entered 
the British navy, was promoted lieutenant in 1772, and stationed 
at Jamaica, where he soon proved himself to have considerable 
engineering talent. He served in the West Indies with credit, 
being promoted captain after the San Juan expedition (1779), 
then made governor of the Mosquito Shore and the Bay of 
Honduras, and in 1782 commander of a successful expedition 
against the Spanish possessions on the Black river. In 1784 
he took over the administration of Yucatan. Upon frivolous 
charges he was suspended by Lord Grenville, and recalled to 
England. From 1790 to 1792 these charges were held over him, 
and when dismissed no compensation was forthcoming. His 
complaints caused him to be arrested in 1798; and with a short 
interval he remained in gaol until 1800. By that time Despard 
was desperate, and engaged in a plot to seize the Tower of 
London and Bank of England and assassinate George III. The 
whole idea was patently preposterous, but Despard was arrested, 
tried before a special commission, found guilty of high treason, 
and, with six of his fellow-conspirators, sentenced in 1803 to be 
hanged, drawn and quartered. These were the last men to be 
so sentenced in England. Despard was executed on the 21st of 
February 1803. 

His eldest brother, John Despard (1745-1829), had a long and 
distinguished career in the British army; gazetted an ensign in 
1760, he was promoted through the various intermediate grades 
and became general in 1814. His most active service was in the 
American War of Independence, during which he was twice 
made prisoner. 

DESPENSER, HUGH LE (d. 1265), chief justiciar of England, 
first plays an important part in 1258, when he was prominent on 
the baronial side in the Mad Parliament of Oxford. In 1260 the 
barons chose him to succeed Hugh Bigod as justiciar, and in 1 263 
the king was further compelled to put the Tower of London in 
his hands. On the outbreak of civil war he joined the party of 
Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, and led the Londoners when 
they sacked the manor-house of Isleworth, belonging to Richard, 
earl of Cornwall, king of the Romans. Having fought at Lewes 
(1264) he was made governor of six castles after the battle, and 
was then appointed one of the four arbitrators to mediate 
between Simon de Montfort and Gilbert de Clare, earl of 
Gloucester. He was summoned to Simon de Montfort's parlia- 
ment in 1264, and acted as justiciar throughout the earl's 
dictatorship. Despenser was killed at Evesham in August 1265. 

See C. Bemont, Simon de Montfort (Paris, 1884); T. F. Tout in 
Owens College Historical Essays, pp. 76 ff. (Manchester, 1902). 

DESPENSER, HUGH LE (1262-1326), English courtier, was 
a son of the English justiciar who died at Evesham. He fought 
for Edward I. in Wales, France and Scotland, and in 1295 was 
summoned to parliament as a baron. Ten years later he was 
sent by the king to Pope Clement V. to secure Edward's release 
from the oaths he had taken to observe the charters in 1297. 
Almost alone Hugh spoke out for Edward II. 's favourite, Piers 
Gaveston, in 1308; but after Gaveston's death in 13 12 he himself 
became the king's chief adviser, holding power and influence 
until Edward's defeat at Bannockburn in 13 14. Then, hated 
by the barons, and especially by Earl Thomas of Lancaster, as 
a deserter from their party, he was driven from the council, but 
was quickly restored to favour and loaded with lands and honours, 
being made earl of Winchester in 1322. Before this time Hugh's 
son, the younger Hugh le Despenser, had become associated with 
his father, and having been appointed the king's chamberlain 
was enjoying a still larger share of the royal favour. About 1306 
this baron had married Eleanor (d. 1337), one of the sisters and 
heiresses of Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester, who was slain at 



102 



DES PERIERS-^BESPORTES 



Bannockburn; and after a division of the immense Clare lands 
had been made in 13 17 violent quarrels broke out between the 
Despensers and the husbands of the other heiresses, Roger of 
Amory and Hugh of Audley. Interwoven with this dispute was 
another between the younger Despenser and the Mowbrays, who 
were supported by Humphrey Bohun, earl of Hereford, about 
some lands in Glamorganshire. Fighting having begun in Wales 
and on the Welsh borders, the English barons showed themselves 
decidedly hostile to the Despensers, and in 1321 Edward II. was 
obliged to consent to their banishment. While the elder Hugh 
left England the younger one remained; soon the king persuaded 
the clergy to annul the sentence against them, and father and 
son were again at court. They fought against the rebellious 
barons at Boroughbridge, and after Lancaster's death in 1322 
they were practically responsible for the government of the 
country, which they attempted to rule in a moderate and con- 
stitutional fashion. But their next enemy, Queen Isabella, was 
more formidable, or more fortunate, than Lancaster. Returning 
to England after a sojourn in France in 1326 the queen directed 
her arms against her husband's favourites. The elder Despenser 
was seized at Bristol, where he was hanged on the 27th of 
October 1326, and the younger was taken with the king at 
Llantrisant and hanged at Hereford on the 24th of November 
following. The attainder against the Despensers was reversed 
in 1398. The intense hatred with which the barons regarded the 
Despensers was due to the enormous wealth which had passed 
into their hands, and to the arrogance and rapacity of the 
younger Hugh. 

The younger Despenser left two sons, Hugh (1308-1349), and 
Edward, who was killed at Vannes in 1342. 

The latter's son Edward le Despenser (d. 1375) fought at 
the battle of Poitiers, and then in Italy for Pope Urban V.; he 
was a patron of Froissart, who calls him le grand sire Despensier. 
His son, Thomas le Despenser (1373-1400), the husband of 
Constance (d. 1416), daughter of Edmund of Langley, duke of 
York, supported Richard II. against Thomas of Woodstock, duke 
of Gloucester, and the other lords appellant in 1397, when he 
himself was created earl of Gloucester, but he deserted the king 
in 1399. Then, degraded from his earldom for participating in 
Gloucester's death, Despenser joined the conspiracy against 
Henry IV., but he was seized and was executed by a mob at 
Bristol in January 1400. 

The elder Edward le Despenser left another son, Henry 
(c. 1341-1406), who became bishop of Norwich in 1370. In 
early life Henry had been a soldier, and when the peasants 
revolted in 1381 he took readily to the field, defeated the insur- 
gents at North Walsham, and suppressed the rising in Norfolk 
with some severity. More famous, however, was the militant 
bishop's enterprise on behalf of Pope Urban VI., who in 1382 
employed him to lead a crusade in Flanders against the supporters 
of the anti-pope Clement VII. He was very successful in captur- 
ing towns until he came before Ypres, where he was checked, 
his humiliation being completed when his army was defeated by 
the French and decimated by a pestilence. Having returned 
to England the bishop was impeached in parliament and was 
deprived of his lands; Richard II., however, stood by him, and 
he soon regained an influential place in the royal council, and 
was employed to defend his country on the seas. Almost alone 
among his peers Henry remained true to Richard in 1399; he was 
then imprisoned, but was quickly released and reconciled with 
the new king, Henry IV. He died on the 23rd of August 1406. 
Despenser was an active enemy of the Lollards, whose leader, 
John Wycliffe, had fiercely denounced his crusade in Flanders. 

The barony of Despenser, called out of abeyance in 1604, was 
held by the Fanes, earls of Westmorland, from 1626 to 1762; 
by the notorious Sir Francis Dashwood from 1763 to 1781; 
and by the Stapletons from 1788 to 1891. In 1891 it was 
inherited, through his mother, by the 7th Viscount Falmouth. 

DES PERIERS, BONAVENTURE (c. 1500-1544), French 
author, was born of a noble family at Arnay-le-duc in Burgundy 
at the end of the 15th century. The circumstances of his educa- 
tion are uncertain, but he became a good classical scholar, and 



was' attached to various noble houses in the capacity of tutor. 
In 1533 or 1534 Des Periers visited Lyons, then the most en- 
lightened town of France, and a refuge for many liberal scholars 
who might elsewhere have had to suffer for their opinions. He 
gave some assistance to Robert Olivetan and Lef&vre d'Etaples 
in the preparation of the vernacular version of the Old Testament, 
and to Etienne Dolet in the Commentarii linguae latinae. In 
1536 he put himself under the protection of Marguerite 
d'Angoul6me, queen of Navarre, who made him her valet-de- 
chambre. He acted as the queen's secretary, and transcribed the 
Heptam&ron for her. It is probable that his duties extended 
beyond those of a mere copyist, and some writers have gone so 
far as to say that the Heptameron was his work. The free 
discussions permitted at Marguerite's court encouraged a licence 
of thought as displeasing to the Calvinists as to the Catholics. 
This free inquiry became scepticism in Bonaventure's Cymbalum 
Mundi . . . (1537), and the queen of Navarre thought it prudent 
to disavow the author, though she continued to help him privately 
until 1541. The book consisted of four dialogues in imitation of 
Lucian. Its allegorical form did not conceal its real meaning, 
and, when it was printed by Morin, probably early in 1538, the 
Sorbonne secured the suppression of the edition before it was 
offered for sale. The dedication provides a key to the author's 
intention: Thomas duClevier {or Clenier) a son ami Pierre Tryocan 
was recognized by 19th-century editors to be an anagram for 
Thomas I'Incridule a son ami Pierre Croyant. The book was 
reprinted in Paris in the same year. It made many bitter enemies 
for the author. Henri Estienne called it detestable, and Etienne 
Pasquier said it deserved to be thrown into the fire with its author 
if he were still living. Des Periers prudently left Paris, and after 
some wanderings settled at Lyons, where he lived in poverty, 
until in 1544 he put an end to his existence by falling on his 
sword. In 1544 his collected works were printed at Lyons. 
The volume, Recueil des ceuvres de feu Bonaventure des Periers, 
included his poems, which are of small merit, the Traill des 
quatre vertus cardinales apres SSneque, and a translation of the 
Lysis of Plato. In 1558 appeared at Lyons the collection of 
stories and fables entitled the Nouvelles rScrialions etjoyeux devis. 
It is on this work that the claim put forward for Des Periers as 
one of the early masters of French prose rests. Some of the tales 
are attributed to the editors, Nicholas Denisot and Jacques 
Pelletier, but their share is certainly limited to the later ones. 
The book leaves something to be desired on the score of morality, 
but the stories never lack point and are models of simple, direct 
narration in the vigorous and picturesque French of the 16th 
century. 

His CEuvres francaises were published by Louis Lacour (Paris, 
2 vols., 1856). See also the preface to the Cymbalum Mundi . . . 
,(ed. F. Franck, 1874); A. Cheneviere, Bonaventure Desperiers, savie, 
ses poesies (1885) ; and P. Toldo, Contributo alio studio della novella 
francese del XV. e XVI. secolo (Rome, 1895). 

DESPORTES, PHILIPPE (1546-1606), French poet, was born 
at Chartres in 1546. As secretary to the bishop of Le Puy 
he visited Italy, where he gained a knowledge of Italian poetry 
afterwards turned to good account. On his return to France he 
attached himself to the duke of Anjou, and followed him to 
Warsaw on his election as king of Poland. Nine months in 
Poland satisfied the civilized Desportes, but in 1574 his patron 
became king of France as Henry III. He showered favours on 
the poet, who received, in reward for the skill with which he 
wrote occasional poems at the royal request, the abbey of Tiron 
and four other valuable benefices. A good example of the light 
and dainty verse in which Desportes excelled is furnished by 
the -well-known villanelle with the refrain " Qui premier s'en 
repentira," which was on the lips of Henry, duke of Guise, just 
before his tragic death. Desportes was above all an imitator. 
He imitated Petrarch, Ariosto, Sannazaro, and still more closely 
the minor Italian poets, and in T604 a number of his plagiarisms 
were exposed in the Rencontres des Muses de France et d'ltalie. 
As a sonneteer he showed much grace and sweetness, and English 
poets borrowed freely from him. In his old age Desportes 
acknowledged his ecclesiastical preferment by a translation of 



DESPOT— DESSAU 



103 



the Psalms remembered chiefly for the brutal mot of Malherbe: 
" Votre potage vaut mreux que vos psaumes. " Desportes died on 
the 5th of October 1606. He had published in 1573 an edition 
of his works including Diane, Les Amours d'Hippolyte, Elegies, 
Bergeries, (Euvres chretiennes, &c. 

An edition of his (Euvres, by Alfred Michiels, appeared in 1858. 

DESPOT (Gr. htairorrfs, lord or master; the origin of the first 
part of the Gr. word is unknown, the second part is cognate with 
irixris, husband, Lat. potens, powerful), in Greek usage the master 
of a household, hence the ruler of slaves. It was also used by 
the Greeks of their gods, as was the feminine form deo-iroiva. It 
was, however, principally applied by the Greeks to the absolute 
monarchs of the eastern empires with which they came in contact; 
and it is in this sense that the word, like its equivalent " tyrant," 
is in current usage for an absolute sovereign whose rule is not 
restricted by any constitution. In the Roman empire of the 
East " despot " was early used as a title of honour or address of 
the emperor, and was given by Alexius I. (1081-1118) to the sons, 
brothers and sons-in-law of the emperor (Gibbon, Decline and 
Fall, ed. Bury, vol. vi. 80). It does not seem that the title was 
confined to the heir-apparent by Alexius II. (see Selden, Titles of 
Honour, part ii. chap. i. s. vi.). Later still it was adopted by 
the vassal princes of the empire. This gave rise to the name 
" despotats " as applied to these tributary states, which survived 
the break-up of the empire in the independent " despotats " of 
Epirus, Cyprus, Trebizond, &c. Under Ottoman rule the title 
was preserved by the despots of Servia and of the Morea, &c. 
The early use of the term as a title of address for ecclesiastical 
dignitaries survives in its use in the Greek Church as the formal 
mode of addressing a bishop. 

DES PRES, JOSQUIN (c. 1445-1521), also called Depres or 
Desprez, and by a latinized form of his name, Jodocus 
Pratensis or A Prato, French musical composer, was born, 
probably in Conde in the Hennegau, about 1445. He was a 
pupil of Ockenheim, and himself one of the most learned 
musicians of his time. In spite of his great fame, the accounts of 
his life are vague and the dates contradictory. Fetis contributed 
greatly towards elucidating the doubtful points in his Biographie 
universelle. In his early youth Josquin seems to have been a 
member of the choir of the collegiate church at St Quentin; when 
his voice changed he went (about 1455) to Ockenheim to take 
lessons in counterpoint; afterwards he again lived at his birth- 
place for some years, till Pope Sixtus IV. invited him to Rome 
to teach his art to the musicians of Italy, where musical know- 
ledge at that time was at a low ebb. In Rome Des Pres lived 
till the death of his protector (1484), and it was there that many 
of his works were written. His reputation grew rapidly, and he 
was considered by his contemporaries to be the greatest master 
of his age. Luther, who was a good judge, is credited with the 
saying that " other musicians do with notes what they can, 
Josquin what he likes. " The composer's journey to Rome marks 
in a manner the transference of the art from its Gallo-Belgian 
birthplace to Italy, which for the next two centuries remained 
the centre of the musical world. To Des Pres and his pupils 
Arcadelt, Mouton and others, much that is characteristic in 
modern music owes its rise, particularly in their influence upon 
Italian developments under Palestrina. After leaving Rome 
Des Pres went for a time to Ferrara, where the duke Hercules I. 
offered him a home; but before long he accepted an invitation 
of King Louis XII. of France to become the chief singer of the 
royal chapel. According to another account, he was for a time 
at least in the service of the emperor Maximilian I. The date 
of his death has by some writers been placed as early as 1501. 
But this is sufficiently disproved by the fact of one of his finest 
compositions, A Dirge (Deploralion) for Five Voices, being 
written to commemorate the death of his master Ockenheim, 
which took place after 1512. The real date of Josquin's decease 
has since been settled as the 27th of August 1521. He was at 
that time a canon of the cathedral of Conde (see Victor Delzant's 
Sepultures de Flandre, No. 118). 

The most complete list of his compositions — consisting of masses, 
motets, psalms and other pieces of sacred music — will be found in 



Fetis. The largest collection of his MS. works, containing no less 
than twenty masses, is in the possession of the papal chapel in Rome. 
In his lifetime Des Pres was honoured as an eminent composer, and 
the musicians of the 16th century are loud in his praise. During the 
17th and 18th centuries his value was ignored, nor does his work 
appear in the collections of Martini and Paolucci. Burney was the 
first to recover him from oblivion, and Forkel continued the task of 
rehabilitation. Ambros furnishes the most exhaustive account of 
his achievements. An admirable account of Josquin's art, from the 
rare point of view of a modern critic who knows how to allow for 
modern difficulties, will be found in the article " Josquin," in Grove's 
Dictionary of Music and Musicians, new ed. vol. ii. The Repertoire 
des chanteurs de St Gervais contains an excellent modern edition of 
Josquin's Miserere. 

DESPRES, SUZANNE (1875- ), French actress, was born 
at Verdun, and trained at the Paris Conservatoire, where in 1897 
she obtained the first prize for comedy, and the second for 
tragedy. She then became associated with, and subsequently 
married, Aurelien Lugne-Poe (b. 1870), the actor-manager, who 
had founded a new school of modern drama, L'CEuvre, and she 
had a brilliant success in several plays produced by him. ' In 
succeeding years she played at the Gymnase and at the Porte 
Saint-Martin, and in 1902 made her debut at the Comedie 
Frangaise, appearing in Fhedre and other important parts. 

DESRUES, ANTOINE FRANQOIS (1744 -1777), French 
poisoner, was born at Chartres in 1744, of humble parents. He 
went to Paris to seek his fortune, and started in business as a 
grocer. He was known as a man of great piety and devotion, 
and his business was reputed to be a flourishing one, but when, 
in 1773, h<* gave up his shop, his finances, owing to personal 
extravagance, were in a deplorable condition. Nevertheless he 
entered into negotiations with a Madame de la Mothe for the 
purchase from her of a country estate, and, when the time came 
for the payment of the purchase money, invited her to stay with 
him in Paris pending the transfer. While she was still his guest, 
he poisoned first her and then her son, a youth of sixteen. Then, 
having forged a receipt for the purchase money, he endeavoured 
to obtain possession of the property. But by this time the dis- 
appearance of Madame de la Mothe and her son had aroused 
suspicion. Desrues was arrested, the bodies of his victims were 
discovered, and the crime was brought home to him. He was 
tried, found guilty and condemned to be torn asunder alive and 
burned. The sentence was carried out (1777), Desrues repeating 
hypocritical protestations of his innocence to the last. The 
whole affair created a great sensation at the time, and as late as 
1828 a dramatic version of it was performed in Paris. 

DESSAIX, JOSEPH MARIE, Count (1764-1834), French 
general, was born at Thonon in Savoy on the 24th of September 
1764. He studied medicine, took his degree at Turin, and then 
went to Paris, where in 1789 he joined the National Guard. In 
1 791 he tried without success to raise an tmeute in Savoy, in 1792 
he organized the " Legion of the Allobroges," and in the follow- 
ing years he served at the siege of Toulon, in the Army of the 
Eastern Pyrenees, and in the Army of Italy. He was captured 
at Rivoli, but was soon exchanged. In the spring of 1 798 Dessaix 
was elected a member of the Council of Five Hundred. He was 
one of the few in that body who opposed the coup d'etat of the 
18th Brumaire (November 9, 1799). In 1803 he was promoted 
general of brigade, and soon afterwards commander of the 
Legion of Honour. He distinguished himself greatly at the 
battle of Wagram (1809), and was about this time promoted 
general of division and named grand officer of the Legion of 
Honour, and in 1810 was made a count. He took part in the 
expedition to Russia, and was twice wounded. For several 
months he was commandant of Berlin, and afterwards delivered 
the department of Mont Blanc from the Austrians. After the 
first restoration Dessaix held a command under the Bourbons. 
He nevertheless joined Napoleon in the Hundred Days, and in 
1816 he was imprisoned for five months. The rest of his life 
was spent in retirement. He died on the 26th of October 1834. 

See Le Gineral Dessaix, sa vie politique et militaire, by his nephew 
Joseph Dessaix (Paris, 1879). 

DESSAU, a town of Germany, capital of the duchy of Anhalf, 
on the left bank of the Mulde, 2 m. from its confluence with the 



104 



DESSEWFFY— DESTRUCTORS 



Elbe, 67 m. S.W. from Berlin and at the junction of lines to 
Cothen and Zerbst. Pop. (1905) 55,134. Apart from the old 
quarter lying on the Mulde, the town is well built, is surrounded 
by pleasant gardens and contains many handsome streets and 
spacious squares. Among the latter is the Grosse Markt with 
a statue of Prince Leopold I. of Anhalt-Dessau, " the old 
Dessauer." Of the six churches, the Schlosskirche, adorned with 
paintings by Lucas Cranach, in one of which (" The Last Supper ") 
are portraits of several reformers, is the most interesting. The 
ducal palace, standing in extensive grounds, contains a collection 
of historical curiosities and a gallery of pictures, which includes 
works by Cimabue, Lippi,Rubens,Titian and Van Dyck. Among 
other buildings are the town hall (built 1 899-1 900), the palace 
of the hereditary prince, the theatre, the administration offices, 
the law courts, the Amalienstift, with a picture gallery, several 
high-grade schools, a library of 30,000 volumes and an excellently 
appointed hospital. There are monuments to the philosopher 
Moses Mendelssohn (born here in 1729), to the poet Wilhelm 
Miiller, father of Professor Max Mtiller, also a native of the place, 
to the emperor William I., and an obelisk commemorating the 
war of 1870-71. The industries of Dessau include the pro- 
duction of sugar, which is the chief manufacture, woollen, linen 
and cotton goods, carpets, hats, leather, tobacco and musical 
instruments. There is also a considerable trade in corn and 
garden produce. In the environs are the ducal villas of Georgium 
and Luisium, the gardens of which, as well as those of the 
neighbouring town of WQrlitz, are much admired. 

Dessau was probably founded by Albert the Bear; it had 
attained civic rights as early as 1213. It first began to grow into 
importance at the close of the 17th century, in consequence of 
the religious emancipation of the Jews in 1686, and of the 
Lutherans in 1697. 

See Wurdig, Chronik der Stadt Dessau (Dessau, 1876). 

DESSEWFFY, AUREL, Count (1808 -1842), Hungarian 
journalist and politician, eldest son of Count Jozsef Dessewffy 
and Eleonora Sztaray, was born at Nagy-Mihaly, county Zemplen, 
Hungary. Carefully educated at his father's house, he was 
accustomed to the best society of his day. While still a child he 
could declaim most of the Iliad in Greek without a book, and 
read and quoted Tacitus with enthusiasm. Under the noble 
influence of Ferencz Kazinczy he became acquainted with the 
chief masterpieces of European literature in their original tongues. 
He was particularly fond of the English, and one of his early 
idols was Jeremy Bentham. He regularly accompanied his father 
to the diets of which he was a member, followed the course of 
the debates, of which he kept a journal, and made the acquaint- 
ance of the great Szechenyi, who encouraged his aspirations. On 
leaving college, he entered the royal aulic chancellery, and in 
1832 was appointed secretary of the royal stadtholder at Buda. 
The same year he turned his attention to politics and was 
regarded as one of the most promising young orators of the day, 
especially during the sessions of the diet of 1832-1836, when he 
had the courage to oppose Kossuth. At the Pressburg diet in 
1840 Dessewffy was already the leading orator of the more 
enlightened and progressive Conservatives, but incurred great 
unpopularity for not going far enough, with the result that he 
was twice defeated at the polls. But his reputation in court 
circles was increasing; he was appointed a member of the com- 
mittee for the reform of the criminal law in 1840; and, the same 
year with a letter of recommendation from Metternich in his 
pocket, visited England and France, Holland and Belgium, made 
the acquaintance of Thiers and Heine in Paris, and returned home 
with an immense and precious store of practical information. 
He at once proceeded to put fresh life into the despondent and 
irresolute Conservative party, and the Magyar aristocracy, by 
gallantly combating in the Vildg the opinions of Kossuth's paper, 
the Pesti Hirlap. But the multiplicity of his labours was too 
much for his feeble physique, and he died on the 9th of February 
1842, at the very time when his talents seemed most indispensable. 

See Aus den Papieren des Graf en Aurel Dessewffy (Pest, 1843); 
Memorial Wreath to Count Aurel Dessewffy (Hung.), (Budapest, 
1857); Collected Works of Count Dessewffy , with a Biography (Hung.) , 
(Budapest, 1887). (R. N. B.) 



DESSOIR, LUDWIG (1810-1874), German actor, whose name 
was originally Leopold Dessauer, was born on the 15th of 
December 1810 at Posen, the son of a Jewish tradesman. He 
made his first appearance on the stage there in 1824 in a small 
part. After some experience at the theatre in Posen and on 
tour, he was engaged at Leipzig from 1834 to 1836. Then he 
was attached to the municipal theatre of Breslau, and in 1837 
appeared at Prague, Briinn, Vienna and Budapest, where he 
accepted an engagement which lasted until 1839. He succeeded 
Karl Devrient at Karlsruhe, and went in 1847 to Berlin, where he 
acted Othello and Hamlet with such extraordinary success that 
he received a permanent engagement at the Hof-theater. From 
1849 to 1872, when he retired on a pension, he played no parts, 
frequently on tour, and in 1853 acting in London. He died on 
the 30th of December 1874 in Berlin. Dessoir was twice married; 
his first wife, Theresa, a popular actress (1810-1866), was 
separated from him a year after marriage; his second wife went 
mad on the death of her child. By his first wife Dessoir had one 
son, the actor Ferdinand Dessoir (1836-1892). In spite of certain 
physical disabilities Ludwig Dessoir's genius raised him to the 
first rank of actors, especially as interpreter of Shakespeare's 
characters. G. H. Lewes placed Dessoir's Othello above that of 
Kean, and the Athenaeum preferred him in this part to Brooks 
or Macready. 

DESTOUCHES, PHILIPPE (1680-1754), French dramatist, 
whose real name was Nericault, was born at Tours in April 1680. 
When he was nineteen years of age he became secretary to 
M. de Puysieux, the French ambassador in Switzerland. In 1716 
he was attached to the French embassy in London, where he 
remained for six years under the abbe Dubois. He contracted 
with a Lancashire lady, Dorothea Johnston, a marriage which 
was not avowed for some years. He drew a picture later of his 
own domestic circumstances in Le Philosophe maris (1726). On his 
return to France (1723) he was elected to the Academy, and in 
1727 he acquired considerable estates, the possession of which 
conferred the privileges of nobility. He spent his later years at 
his chateau of Fortoiseau near Melun, dying on the 4th of July 
1754. His early comedies were: Le Curieux Impertinent (1710), 
L'Ingrat (1712), L'Irresolu (1713) and Le MSdisant (1715). The 
best 1 of these is L'IrrSsolu, in which Dorante, after hesitating 
throughout the play between Julie and Celimene, marries Julie, 
but concludes the play with the reflection: — 

" J'aurais mieux fait, je crois, d'epouser Celimene." 

After eleven years of diplomatic service Destouches returned 
to the stage with the Philosophe maris (1727), followed in 1732 
by his masterpiece Le Glorieux, a picture of the struggle then 
beginning between the old nobility and the wealthy parvenus who 
found their opportunity in the poverty of France. Destouches 
wished to revive the comedy of character as understood by 
Moliere, but he thought it desirable that the moral should be 
directly expressed. This moralizing tendency spoilt his later 
comedies. Among them may be mentioned: Le Tambour 
nocturne (1736), La Force du nalurel (1750) and Le Dissipateur 

(i736). 

His works were issued in collected form in 1755, 1757, 1811 and, 
in a limited edition (6 vols.), 1822. 

DESTRUCTORS. The name destructors is applied by English 
municipal engineers to furnaces, or combinations of furnaces, 
commonly called " garbage furnaces " in the United States, con- 
structed for the purpose of disposing by burning of town refuse, 
which is a heterogeneous mass of material, including, besides 
general household and ash-bin refuse, small quantities of garden 
refuse, trade refuse, market refuse and often street sweepings. 
The mere disposal of this material is not, however, by any means 
the only consideration in dealing with it upon the destructor 
system. For many years past scientific experts, municipal 
engineers and public authorities have been directing careful 
attention to the utilization of refuse as fuel for steam production, 
and such progress in this direction has been made that in many 
towns its calorific value is now being utilized daily for motive- 
power purposes. On the other hand, that proper degree of 
caution which is obtained only by actual experience must be 



DESTRUCTORS 



105 



exercised in the application of refuse fuel to steam-raising. 
When its value as a low-class fuel was first recognized, the idea 
was disseminated that the refuse of a given population was of 
itself sufficient to develop the necessary steam-power for supply- 
ing that population with the electric light. The economical 
importance of a combined destructor and electric undertaking 
of this character naturally presented a somewhat fascinating 
stimulus to public authorities, and possibly had much to do 
with the development both of the adoption of the principle of 
dealing with refuse by fire, and of lighting towns by electricity. 
However true this phase of the question may be as the statement 
of a theoretical scientific fact, experience so far does not show 
it to be a basis upon which engineers may venture to calculate, 
although, as will be seen later, under certain circumstances of 
equalized load, which must be considered upon their merits 
in each case, a well-designed destructor plant can be made 
to perform valuable commercial service to an electric or other 
power-using undertaking. Further, when a system, thermal or 
otherwise, for the storage of energy can be introduced and applied 
in a trustworthy and economical manner, the degree of advantage 
to be derived from the utilization of the waste heat from 
destructors will be materially enhanced. 

The composition of house refuse, which must obviously affect 
its calorific value, varies considerably in different localities, 
Compost' according to the condition, habits and pursuits of the 
tioaaad people. Towns situated in coal-producing districts 
quantity invariably yield a refuse richer in unconsumed carbon 
of refuse, ftan those remote therefrom. It is also often found 
that the refuse from different parts of the same town varies 
considerably — that from the poorest quarters frequently proving 
of greater calorific value than that from those parts occupied by 
the rich and middle classes. This has been attributed to the more 
extravagant habits of the working classes in neglecting to sift 
the ashes from their fires before disposing of them in the ash-bin. 
In Bermondsey, for example, the refuse has been found to possess 
an unusually high calorific value, and this experience is confirmed 
in other parts of the metropolis. Average refuse consists of 
breeze (cinder and ashes), coal and coke, fine dust, vegetable and 
animal matters, straw, shavings, cardboard, bottles, tins, iron, 
bones, broken crockery and other matters in very variable pro- 
portions according to the character of the district from which it 
is collected. In London the quantity of house refuse amounts 
approximately to ij million tons per annum, which is equivalent 
to from 4 cwt. to 5 cwt. per head per annum, or to from 200 to 250 
tons per 1000 of the population per annum. Statistics, however, 
vary widely in different districts. In the vicinity of the metropolis 
the amount varies from 2-5 cwt. per head per annum at Ley ton to 
3-5 cwt. at Hornsey, and to as much as 7 cwt. at Ealing. In the 
north of England the total house refuse collected, exclusive of 
street sweepings, amounts on the average to 8 cwt. per head per 
annum. Speaking generally, throughout the country an amount 
of from s cwt. to 10 cwt. per head per annum should be allowed 
for. A cubic yard of ordinary house refuse weighs from 12 J to 
15 cwt. Shop refuse is lighter, frequently containing a large pro- 
portion of paper, straw and other light wastes. It sometimes 
weighs as little as 71 cwt. per cubic yard. A load, by which 
refuse is often estimated, varies in weight from 15 cwt. to if tons. 

The question how a town's refuse shall be disposed of must be 
considered both from a commercial and a sanitary point of view. 
Various methods have been practised. Sometimes the 
household ashes, &c, are mixed with pail excreta, or 
with sludge from a sewage farm, or with lime, and 
disposed of for agricultural purposes, and sometimes they are 
conveyed in carts or by canal to outlying and country districts, 
where they are shot on waste ground or used to fill up hollows and 
raise the level of marshland. Such plans are economical when 
suitable outlets are available. To take the refuse out to sea in 
hopper barges and sink it in deep water is usually expensive and 
frequently unsatisfactory. At Bermondsey, for instance, the 
cost of barging is about 2s. od. a ton, while the material may 
be destroyed by fire at a cost of from iod. to is. a ton, exclusive 
of interest and sinking fund on the cost of the works. In other 



Refuse 
disposal. 



cases, as at Chelsea and various dust contractors' yards, the 
refuse is sorted and its ingredients are sold; the fine dust may be 
utilized in connexion with manure manufactories, the pots and 
pans employed in forming the foundations of roads, and the 
cinders and vegetable refuse burnt to generate steam. In the 
Arnold system, carried out in Philadelphia and other American 
towns, the refuse is sterilized by steam under pressure, the grease 
and fertilizing substances being extracted at the same time; 
while in other systems, such as those of Weil and Porno, and 
of Defosse, distillation in closed vessels is practised. But the 
destructor system, in which the refuse is burned to an innocuous 
clinker in specially constructed furnaces, is that which must 
finally be resorted to, especially in districts which have become 
well built up and thickly populated. 

Various types of furnaces and apparatus have from time 
to time been designed, and the subject has been one of much 
experiment and many failures. The principal towns in 
England which took the lead in the adoption of the destruv- 
refuse destructor system were Manchester, Birming- tors. 
ham, Leeds, Heckmondwike, Warrington, Blackburn, 
Bradford, Bury, Bolton, Hull, Nottingham, Salford, Ealing and 
London. Ordinary furnaces, built mostly by dust contractors, 
began to come into use in London and in the north of England 
in the second half of the 19th century, but they were not scientific- 
ally adapted to the purpose, and necessitated the admixture of 
coal or other fuel with the refuse to ensure its cremation. The 
Manchester corporation erected a furnace of this description 
about the year 1873, and Messrs Mead & Co. made an unsatis- 
factory attempt in 1870 to burn house refuse in closed furnaces 
at Paddington. In 1876 Alfred Fryer erected his destructor at 
Manchester, and several other towns adopted this furnace 
shortly afterwards. Other furnaces were from time to time 
brought before the public, among which may be mentioned those 
of Pearce and Lupton, Pickard, Healey, Thwaite, Young, 
Wilkinson, Burton, Hardie, Jacobs and Odgen. In addition to 
these the " Beehive " and the " Nelson " destructors became 
well known. The former was introduced by Stafford and Pearson 




Fig. 1. — Fryer's Destruccor. 

of Burnley, and one was erected in 1884 in the parish yard at 
Richmond, Surrey, but the results being unsatisfactory, it was 
closed during the following year. The " Nelson " furnace, 
patented in 1885 by Messrs Richmond and Birtwistle, was 
erected at Nelson-in-Marsden, Lancashire, but being very costly 
in working was abandoned. The principal types of destructors 
now in use are those of Fryer, Whiley, Horsfall, Warner, 
Meldrum, Beaman and Deas, Heenan and Froude, and the 
" Sterling " destructor erected by Messrs Hughes and Stirling. 
The general arrangement of the destructor patented l by Alfred 
Fryer in 1876 is illustrated in fig. I. An installation upon this 
principle consists of a number of furnaces or cells, usu- Fryer's. 
ally arranged in pairs back to back, and enclosed in a 
rectangular block of brickwork having a flat top, upon which the 
house refuse is tipped from the carts. 

1 Patent No. 3125 (1876). 



io6 



DESTRUCTORS 



A large main flue, which also forms the dust chamber, is placed 
underneath the furnace hearths. The Fryer furnace ordinarily burns 
from 4 to 6 tons of refuse per cell per 24 hours. It will be observed 
that the outlets for the products of combustion are placed at the back 
near the refuse feed opening, an arrangement \yhich is imperfect in 
design, inasmuch as while a charge of refuse is burning upon the 
furnace bars the charge which is to follow lies on the dead hearth near 
the outlet flue. Here it undergoes drying and partial decomposition, 
giving off offensive empyreumatic vapours which pass into theflue 
without being exposed to sufficient heat to render them entirely 



f"/mo Hole 



feetJinp floor 




te^gj P 



Fig. 2. — Horsfall's improved Destructor. 



inoffensive. The serious nuisances thus produced in some instances 
led to the introduction of a second furnace, or " cremator," patented 
by C. Jones of Ealing in 1885, which was placed in the main flue 
leading to the chimney-shaft, for the purpose of resolving the organic 
matters present in the vapour, but the greatly increased cost of 
burning due to this device led to its abandonment in many cases. 
This type of cell was largely used during the early period of the 
history of destructors, but has to a considerable extent given place to 
furnaces of more modern design. 

A furnace 1 patented in 1891 by Mr Henry Whiley, superintendent 
of the scavenging department of the Manchester corporation, is 
t automatic in its action and was designed primarily with a 
Whiley s. v j ew t saving labour — the cells being fed, stoked and 
clinkered automatically. There is no drying hearth, and the refuse 
carts tip direct into a shoot or hopper at the back which conducts the 
material directly on to movable eccentric grate bars. These auto- 
matically traverse the material forward into the furnace, and finally 
push it against a flap-door which opens and allows it to fall out. 
This apparatus is adapted for dealing with screened rather than 
unscreened refuse, since it suffers from the objection that the motion 
of the bars tends to allow fine particles to drop through unburnt. 
Some difficulty has been experienced from the refuse sticking in the 



ripping platform 

: 



Retaining 
Mall 



Steam 
Boiler 



Ground line 




Refuse is shovelled from this 
opening into furnace -> - 

Fig. 3. — Meldrum's Destructor at Darwen 
hopper, and exception may also be taken to the continual flapping of 
the door when the clinker passes out, as cold air is thereby admitted 
into the furnace. As in the Fryer cell, the outlet for the products of 
combustion into the main flue is close to the point where the crude 
refuse is fed into the furnace, and the escape of unburnt vapours is 
thus facilitated. Forced draught is applied by means of a Roots 
blower. The Manchester corporation has 28 cells of this type in use, 
and the approximate amount of refuse burnt per cell per 24 hours is 
from 6 to 8 tons at a cost per ton for labour of 3-47 pence. 

Horsfall's destructor* (fig. 2) is a high-temperature furnace of 
modern type which has been adopted largely in Great Britain and on 
the continent of Europe. In it some of the general features 
Horsfall's. Q f ^.j, e Fryer cell are retained, but the details differ con- 
siderably from those of the furnaces already described. Important 



1 Patent No. 8271 (1891). 
2 Patents No. 8999 (1887) ; No. 14,709 (1888) ; No. 22,531 (1891). 



points in the design are the arrangement of the flues and flue outlets 
for the products of combustion, and the introduction of a blast duct 
through which air is forced into a closed ash-pit. The feeding-hole is 
situated at the back of and above the furnace, while the flue opening 
for the emission of the gaseous products is placed at the front of the 
furnace over the dead plate; thus the gases distilled from the raw 
refuse are caused to pass on their way to the main flue over the 
hottest part of the furnace and through the flue opening in the red- 
hot reverberatory arch. The steam jet, which plays an important 
part in the Horsfall furnace, forces air into the closed ash-pit at a 
pressure of about f to 1 in. of water, and in this way a temperature 
varying from 1500 to 2000" F., as tested by a thermo-electric 
pyrometer, is maintained in the main flue. In a battery of cells the 
gases from each are delivered into one main flue, so that a uniform 
temperature is maintained therein sufficiently high to prevent 
noxious vapours from reaching the chimney. The cells being charged 
and clinkered in rotation, when the fire in one is green, in the others 
it is at its hottest, and the products of combustion do not reach the 
boiler surfaces until after they have been mixed in the main flue. 
The cast iron boxes which are provided at the sides of the furnaces, 
and through which the blast air is conveyed on its way to the grate, 
prevent the adhesion of clinker to the side walls of the cells, and very 
materially preserve the brickwork, which otherwise becomes damaged 
by the tools used to remove the clinker. The wide clinkering doors 
are suspended by counterbalance weights and open vertically. The 
rate of working of these cells varies from 8 tons per cell per 24 hours 
at Oldham to 10 tons per cell at Bradford, where the furnaces are of 
a later type. The cost of labour in stoking and clinkering is about 6d. 
per ton of the refuse treated at Bradford, and gd. per ton at Oldham, 
where the rate of wages is higher. Weil-constructed and properly- 
worked plants of this type should give rise to no nuisance, and may 
be located in populous neighbourhoods without danger to the public 
health or comfort. Installations were put down at Fulham (1901), 
Hammerton Street, Bradford (1900), West Hartlepool (1904), and 
other places, and the surplus power generated is employed in the pro- 
duction of electric energy. 

Warner's destructor, 3 known as the " Perfectus," is, in general 
arrangement, similar to Fryer's, but differs in being provided with 
special charging hoppers, dampers in flues, dust-catching 
arrangements, rocking grate bars and other improvements, "^tier's. 
The refuse is tipped into feeding-hoppers, consisting of rectangular 
cast iron boxes over which plates are placed to prevent the escape of 
smoke and fumes. At the lower portion of the feeding-hopper is a 
flap-door working on an axis and controlled by an iron lever from the 
tipping platform. When refuse is to be fed into the furnace the lever 
is thrown over, the contents of the hopper drop on to the sloping 
firebrick hearth beneath, and the door is at once closed again. The 
door should be kept open as short a time as possible in order to prevent 
the admission of cold air into the furnace at the back end, since this 

leads to the lowering of the 
temperature of the cells and 
main flue, and also to paper 
and other light refuse being 
carried into the flues and chim- 
ney. The flues of each furnace 
are provided with dampers, 
which are closed during the 
process of clinkering in order to 
keep up the heat. The cells are 
each 5 ft. wide and 1 1 ft. deep, 
the rearmost portion consisting 
of a firebrick drying hearth, 
and the front of rocking grate 
bars upon which the combus- 
tion takes place. The crown of 
each cell is formed of a rever- 
beratory firebrick arch having 
openings for the emission of the 
products of combustion. The 
flap dampers which are fitted 
to these openings are operated 
by horizontal spindles passing 
through the brickwork to the 



front of the cell, where they are provided with levers or handles; 
thus each cell can be worked independently of the others. With the 
view of increasing the steam-raising capabilities of the furnace, forced 
draught is sometimes applied and a tubular boiler is placed close to 
the cells. The amount of refuse consumed varies from 5 tons to 8 tons 
per cell per 24 hours. At Hornsey, where 12 cells of this type are 
in use, the cost of labour for burning the refuse is 9Jd. per ton. 

The Meldurm " Simplex " destructor (fig. 3), a type of furnace 
which yields good steam-raising results, is in successful operation 
at Rochdale, Hereford, Darwen, Nelson, Plumstead and lHmm's 
Woolwich, at each of which towns the production of steam 
is an important consideration. Cells have also been laid down at 
Burton, Hunstanton, Blackburn and Shipley, and more recently at 
Burnley, Cleckheaton, Lancaster, Nelson, Shcerness and Weymouth. 
In general arrangement the destructor differs considerably from 



8 Patent No. 18.719 (1 



DESTRUCTORS 



107 



those previously described. The grates are placed side by side 
without separation except by dead plates, but, in order to localize 
the forced draught, the ash-pit is divided into parts corresponding 
with the different grate areas. Each ash-pit is closed air-tight by a 
cast iron plate, and is provided with an air-tight door for removing 
the fine ash. Two patent Meldrum steam-jet blowers are provided 
for each furnace, supplying any required pressure of blast up to 
6 in. water column, though that usually employed does not exceed 
I j in. The furnaces are designed for hand-feeding from the front, 
but hopper-feeding can be applied if desirable. The products of 
combustion either pass away from the back of each fire-grate into 
a common flue leading to boilers and the chimney-shaft, or are con- 
veyed sideways over the various grates and a common fire-bridge 
to the boilers or chimney. The heat in the gases, after passing the 
boilers, is still further utilized to heat the air supplied to the furnaces, 
the gases being passed through an air heater or continuous 
regenerator consisting of a number of cast iron pipes from which the 
air is delivered through the Meldrum " blowers " at a temperature of 
about 300° F. That a high percentage (15 to 18 %) of C0 2 isobtained 
in the furnaces proves a small excess of free oxygen, and no doubt 
explains the high fuel efficiency obtained by this type of destructor. 
High-pressure Boilers of ample capacity are provided for the accumu- 
lation during periods of light load of a reserve of steam, the storage 
being obtained by utilizing the difference between the highest and 
lowest water-levels and the difference between the maximum and 
working steam-pressure. Patent locking fire-bars, to prevent lifting 
when clinkering, are used in the furnace and have a good life. At 
Rochdale the Meldrum furnaces consume from 53R) to 66 lb of refuse 
per square foot of grate area per hour, as compared with 22-4 lb per 
square foot in a low-temperature destructor burning 6 tons per cell 
per 24 hours with a grate area of 25 sq. ft. The evaporative efficiency 
of the Rochdale furnaces varies from 1-39 lb to 1-87 lb of water 
(actual) per I lb of refuse burned, and an average steam-pressure of 
about 1 14 lb per square inch is maintained. The cost of labour and 




Fig. 4. — Beaman and Deas Destructor at Leyton. 

supervision amounts to iod. per ton of refuse dealt with. A 
Lancashire boiler (22 ft. by 6 ft. 6 in.) at the Sewage Outfall Works, 
Hereford, evaporates with refuse fuel 2980 lb of water per hour, 
equal to 149 indicated horse-power. About 54 lb of refuse are burnt 
per square foot of grate area per hour with an evaporation of 1-82 lb 
of water per pound of refuse. 

The Beaman and Deas destructor 1 (fig. 4) has attracted much 
attention from public authorities, and successful installations 
are in operation at Warrington, Dewsbury, Leyton, 
Bea J t n" Canterbury, Llandudno, Colne, Streatham, Rotherhithe, 
and Deas. w; m b[ et ] oni Bolton and elsewhere. Its essential features 
include a level-fire grate with ordinary type bars, a high-temperature 
combustion chamber at the back of the cells, a closed ash-pit with 
forced draught, provision for the admission of a secondary air-supply 
at the fire-bridge, and a firebrick hearth sloping at an angle of about 
52 °. From the refuse storage platform the material is fed into a 
hopper mouth about 18 in. square, and slides down the firebrick 
hearth, supported by T-irons, to the grate bars, over which it is 
raked and spread with the assistance of long rods manipulated through 
clinkering doors placed at the sides of the cel